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Katharine S. Adams & John H. Hummel Dept. of Psychology and Counseling Valdosta State University APA STYLE FOR STUDENTS.

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Presentation on theme: "Katharine S. Adams & John H. Hummel Dept. of Psychology and Counseling Valdosta State University APA STYLE FOR STUDENTS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Katharine S. Adams & John H. Hummel Dept. of Psychology and Counseling Valdosta State University APA STYLE FOR STUDENTS

2 Instructions View the materials presented on each slide and answer the checkpoint questions. Navigate through the tutorial by using the mouse to click on the center of the icons: Arrow buttons allow you to move forward and back through the slides. Home button takes you to the main menu. From there, you may use the hyperlinks to go directly to one of the three topical areas. Yes and No buttons are used to select the checkpoint answer choices. Review button takes you to the materials in need of further review after a question is answered incorrectly. Press ESC on your keyboard to exit the tutorial at any time. YES NO REVIEW

3 Introduction In this tutorial, you will learn how to make term papers conform to the writing conventions of the 6th edition of the American Psychological Association’s style manual.

4 Main Menu There are three main areas addressed in the tutorial: – Typing & organization Typing & organization – In-text citations In-text citations – Constructing references Constructing references You may click on one of the hyperlinks to go directly to the topic of your choice.

5 TYPING REQUIREMENTS & ORGANIZATION The first TWO pages of APA style manuscripts are dedicated. Page one is ALWAYS the title page Page two is the manuscript’s abstract

6 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are pages one and two of the manuscript the title page and then the abstract respectively? YES NO

7 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

8 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

9 THE TITLE PAGE Pagination starts on the title page – Running head is left justified on the last line of type in the header. Abbreviated title, ALL CAPS, 50 characters of less (includes spaces) – The page number (e.g., 1) is right justified on the same line in the header as the running head, about.5” down from the top of the page.

10 Sample Title Page Running head: APA STYLE, 6 th EDITION 1 Using the 6th Edition of the APA manual: A Guide for Students John H. Hummel, Mark A. Whatley, David M. Monetti, Deborah S. Briihl, and Katharine S. Adams Valdosta State University

11 The Title Page Continued Center the title of the manuscript top-to- bottom & left-right in the top half of the page Capitalize the first letter of each word except articles, conjunctions, and prepositions The title should not be more than 12 words – Title = 12 word SUMMARY of the paper

12 Sample Title Page Running head: APA STYLE, 6 th EDITION 1 Using the 6th Edition of the APA manual: A Guide for Students John H. Hummel, Mark A. Whatley, David M. Monetti, Deborah S. Briihl, and Katharine S. Adams Valdosta State University

13 The Title Page Continued Follow the title (new line) with the name (first, middle initial, last) of each author and their affiliation (or City & State if no professional affiliation). – Do not use titles (Ms., Dr., etc.). The order of the listing of each author’s name denotes that person’s relative contribution to the manuscript (i.e., the first or primary author did more of the work than the others). – If authors have different affiliations, list their names and affiliations on separate lines

14 Sample Title Page Running head: APA STYLE, 6 th EDITION 1 Using the 6th Edition of the APA manual: A Guide for Students John H. Hummel, Mark A. Whatley, David M. Monetti, Deborah S. Briihl, and Katharine S. Adams Valdosta State University

15 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Does the type and organization of the title page include left justification of the running head, the page number right justified, and the title centered in all caps? YES NO

16 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

17 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

18 Abstract Center the word Abstract on the 1st line of the second page of the manuscript A single, blocked (i.e., no indentation) paragraph that summarizes the content. – Number of words varies by journal, but is usually between words. – AVOID QUOTES & CITATIONS

19 Sample Abstract APA STYLE, 6 th EDITION 2 Abstract As consumers of research information and authors of technical reports, students should acquire familiarity with APA report writing style. Among the ways to foster technical writing skills, handouts which summarize and illustrate style and format parameters can be provided. This article presents a handout designed for students whose written assignments must adhere to the sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). Listed are guidelines and examples for organization and writing style, typing, citing within text, and referencing resources.

20 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Is the length of the abstract typically one paragraph that summarizes the content of the paper? YES NO

21 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

22 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

23 MANUSCRIPT HEADINGS Content sections of the paper use hierarchical headings. They should be brief & descriptive – Headings are like an outline of the paper’s major sections. – They should be short a description of the section’s content, in (levels 1-4) bold type.

24 MANUSCRIPT HEADINGS Most APA style papers written by students will use only levels 1-3. Level One Level Two Level three. In this section we NOTE: The Title (pages 1 and 3), Abstract (page 2), and References of the paper are not bolded because they are not considered content sections.

25 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Should the font of hierarchical headings 1-3 be bold? YES NO

26 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

27 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

28 Parts of a Technical Manuscript Your paper’s content starts on page 3 On the first line, center your manuscript’s title with each word except articles and conjunctions capitalized. – Don’t use the term Introduction as a heading – Your title is the first line of the paper’s content.

29 Parts of a Technical Manuscript The paper’s topic is introduced by presenting a review of related research, the study’s rationale, necessary hypotheses, and often how the paper is organized.

30 Parts of a Technical Paper The remaining sections of manuscripts reporting data are, in order: – Method With level 2 and 3 subheadings for Participants *, Materials, & Procedures – Results – Discussion – References *Humans are usually referred to as participants but may also be called subjects; animals are always subjects.

31 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Should the sections of manuscripts reporting data be labeled in the following order? - Introduction - Method - Results - Discussion - References YES NO

32 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

33 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

34 Parts of a Technical Paper Other types of reports use different heading labels to identify each section’s content.

35 Sample Headings for a Data-based Research Report The Manuscript’s Complete Title (Level 1) [the title is on pg. 1 and pg. 3] Method (L 1) Participants (L 2) Materials (L 2) Behavioral indicators. (L 3) xxxxx Standardized instruments. (L 3) xxxx Procedures (L 2) Results (L 1) Discussion (L 1) References (L 1)

36 Sample Headings for a Paper Not Reporting Data Diagraming Operant Processes: An Alternative System (L 1) Entry Level Requirements (L 2) Nomenclature and Diagrams (L 2) Possible variations. (L 3) xxxxx Discussion (L 1) References (L 1)

37 TYPING POINTS Proper English is assumed – Single space after commas, colons, semi- colons – Double space after end punctuation (i.e., period, question mark, and exclamation point)

38 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Is it correct APA style to single space after commas, colons, semi-colons, and after end punctuation? YES NO

39 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

40 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

41 TYPING POINTS 1” margins on all side of the page Use Times New Roman typeface, 12 pt. font Text is left justified on the page

42 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are APA style papers formatted so that there are 1” margins on all sides and the font is left justified 12 pt Times New Roman? YES NO

43 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

44 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

45 TYPING POINTS All pages should be numbered and have the same Running head (in the manuscript’s header, left justified without the label Running head)

46 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Should pages be numbered and include a Running head? YES NO

47 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

48 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

49 TYPING POINTS ALL lines of text are DOUBLE SPACED Use only DOUBLE SPACING – No single or 1 ½ spacing between lines See pg. 229 of the Manual for exceptions (triple or double-double spacing)

50 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Should all lines of the text should be single spaced? YES NO

51 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

52 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

53 TYPING POINTS Indent all paragraphs consistently ½” – use the default tab on the WP program for indenting paragraphs, etc.

54 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Should paragraphs be indented ½” by using the tab key on the WP program? YES NO

55 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

56 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

57 TYPING POINTS Do not mechanically emphasize words: – Do not use all CAPITALIZATIONS – Do not use bold except for level 1-4 headings – Do not underline

58 Checkpoint Select YES or NO : When writing in APA style, should you use all capitalizations, bold, and underline? YES NO

59 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

60 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

61 TYPING POINTS Do not mechanically emphasize words: – Avoid using double (“) or single (‘) quote marks – The 1st time you introduce a new term/phrase (or when using a term differently than it’s used normally) you can italicize it when originally introduced in the manuscript. For other occasions where italics are acceptable, see section 4.21 of the Manual.

62 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Is it appropriate to italicize the first time you introduce a new term/phrase and when using a term differently than it is used normally? YES NO

63 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

64 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

65 TYPING POINTS APA style uses the Oxford comma (a comma precedes the conjunction) for in-text listing. – for example, Jill, Jane, and Ginny. If you label items in a list, use parentheses with lowercase letters. – for example, three areas will be covered in this program: (a) typing, (b) citations, and (c) references.

66 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are these examples written in correct APA style? - Jill, Jane and Ginny participated in the program. - The three areas covered in this program: 1) typing, 2) citations, and 3) references. YES NO

67 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

68 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

69 TYPING POINTS Single space (using the space bar) after commas, colons, and semicolons. Double space after end punctuation (i.e., exclamation point, question mark, and periods). No orphans (i.e., a single line of text) at the bottom or top of pages.

70 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Does APA style specify that a single space be used after commas, colons, semicolons, but double spaces should be used after all punctuation (i.e., exclamation point, question mark, and periods)? YES NO

71 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

72 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

73 IN-TEXT CITATIONS Citations are done in text (no footnotes) Citations are required when you: – paraphrase information from a source, or directly quote from another source Using ideas or actual words from a source without a citation is PLAGIARISM.

74 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: It is plagiarism if you use exact words from a source without in text citations, but is it considered plagiarism if one paraphrases or uses ideas from a source without in-text citations? YES NO

75 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

76 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

77 CITATIONS Cite sources as soon as you can in each paragraph (don’t wait until the end) – If you cite a source in a paragraph parenthetically (i.e., name, date), later citations to that source in the same paragraph require the date of the source. – If you cite the author(s) in text with the date given parenthetically, later citations to that source (in the same paragraph) do not require that you provide the date parenthetically.

78 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Should you wait until the end of the paragraph to cite a source? YES NO

79 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

80 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

81 CITATIONS You must re-cite sources in each new paragraph. Once you cite a source, the reader assumes everything that follows the citation (in that paragraph) is attributable to that source or YOU. Your writing should indicate to the reader when you are reacting to the info from the source. Example: This is important to the present study because…

82 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: After you cite the source within a paragraph, is it important to distinguish the source’s information from your own ideas or reactions to the source’s information? YES NO

83 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

84 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

85 CITATIONS Citations should give the last name of the author(s) [no first names or initials] and a year (copyright, date presented at a conference, etc.) Never change the ordering of the names in one of your sources Dates are normally cited in parentheses instead of in plain text. – Ex.: (1993) vs. 1993

86 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are these correct examples of citations? In Text Citation: Research by Adams and Proctor (2010) suggested a significant difference between students with and without disabilities. Parenthetical Citation: (Adams & Proctor, 2010) YES NO

87 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

88 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

89 AUTHOR CITATIONS Sources with MORE than 5 authors, require, in the first citation, you to give the primary (i.e., the 1st’s) author’s last name followed by et al. (which substitutes for the others’ names) followed by the (date) (i.e., if 6 or more authors use the primary author’s surname and et al. for all citations).

90 AUTHOR CITATIONS EXAMPLES Example for 6 or more authors: In their provocative paper, Smith et al. (2005) point out that... OR The authors (Smith et al., 2005) point out that...

91 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: In the first citation of a source with MORE than 5 authors, do you use the primary author’s last name followed by et al. and the date? YES NO

92 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

93 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

94 AUTHOR CITATIONS If a source has 3-5 authors, list their surnames in the 1st citation. Thereafter, use the primary author’s last name and et al. (date)

95 AUTHOR CITATIONS EXAMPLES Example for 3-5 authors: First Citation Hummel, Kaeck, Whatley, & Monetti, (2004). found that... OR It was found that...(Hummel, Kaeck, Whatley, & Monetti, 2004).

96 AUTHOR CITATIONS EXAMPLES Example for 3-5 authors: Later Citation Hummel et al. (1994) found that... OR It was found that...(Hummel et al., 1994).

97 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: If a source has 3-5 authors, should you list their surnames in all citations? YES NO

98 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

99 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

100 AUTHOR CITATIONS If the source has 2 authors, list both authors’ names in each citation.

101 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: If a source has 2 authors, should you list both surnames in each citation? YES NO

102 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

103 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

104 AUTHOR CITATIONS When connecting authors in an in-text citation, connect the last name with the others with the conjunction “and”. If the entire citation is given parenthetically, connect the names using an ampersand (&)

105 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are these correct examples of citations? In Text Citation: Research by Adams and Proctor (2010) suggested a significant difference between students with and without disabilities. Parenthetical Citation: (Adams & Proctor, 2010) YES NO

106 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

107 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

108 MULTIPLE SOURCES IN A SINGLE CITATION If several different sources all support a point made in a paper, you should list all of them in the parenthetical citation. In the citation, order the sources alphabetically according to the surnames of the primary authors. Connect each source using semicolons. Example: The use of medication such as Ritalin is becoming increasingly common (Barr, 1983; James & Allen, 1991; Smith et al., 1989).

109 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Is this a correct citation of multiple sources that all support a main point? The use of medication such as Ritalin is becoming increasingly common (James & Allen, 1991, Smith et al., 1989, Barr, 1983). YES NO

110 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

111 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

112 PAGE NUMBER CITATIONS Citations for paraphrasing do not require that you give page numbers, but it is encouraged that one do so (and some journals require it). Quoted work must specify the page(s) (e.g., p. 12; pp ) in the source where the quote originated. – the page number(s), in parentheses, ALWAYS follows the quotation.

113 PARAPHRASING EXAMPLES Hummel and Huitt (1994) state that less than 20% of the assessments used in education require critical thinking. OR Less than 20% of the assessments used in education require critical thinking (Hummel & Huitt, 1994, p. 12).

114 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Quoted and closely paraphrased work should specify the page number where the work originated? YES NO

115 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

116 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

117 QUOTING RULES THE 5-WORD RULE Verbatim accuracy – Avoid quoting (a) parts of a sentence and (b) taking information out of its context (also applies to paraphrasing) Avoid quoting work that cites or quotes other sources If you MUST, see section 6.17, p. 178 of the Manual

118 SHORT QUOTATIONS Short quotes (i.e., < 40 words) are done in text. Start and end the quote with “”marks. The page number(s) for a short quote always follows the quote and is given parenthetically. – The citation may also contain the author and date. In a short quote, the end punctuation follows the parenthetical citation.

119 SHORT QUOTE EXAMPLES Assessment practices need improvement. Hummel and Huitt (1994) state that, “over 80% of the test items examined did not require critical thinking” (p. 4). OR Assessment practices need improvement because, “over 80% of the test items examined did not require critical thinking” (Hummel & Huitt, 1994, p. 4).

120 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are short quotes done in text using quotation marks followed by the page number in parenthesis and then the punctuation? YES NO

121 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

122 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

123 LONG QUOTATIONS Long quotes (> 39 words) do not use quotation marks. Instead, they are uniformly indented 5-7 spaces on just the left margin. Use the end punctuation of the long quote. Follow the quote’s end punctuation with a parenthetical citation giving the page(s). No punctuation follows the citation. Use the tab key or re-set the top and bottom triangles on the ruler bar half-way to 1

124 LONG QUOTE EXAMPLE Hummel et al. (1994) expected criticisms on how they used the term negative reinforcer: We stand by our use of the term for two reasons. First, negative reinforcer has been used this way previously in our field. Second, negative reinforcer is more complementary to our proposed system’s other terms and symbols than either punisher or aversive stimulus. (p. 5) While the symbol for negative reinforcer fits their diagraming system,... **Had the introduction not given the authors and date, this information would also be in the parenthetical citation.

125 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Are long quotes indented 5-7 spaces without quotation marks followed by the page number in parenthesis and then the punctuation? YES NO

126 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

127 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

128 REFERENCES References are always begun on a new page. The word References (level 1 but no bold) should be centered at the top of the page. Reference all (and only) works cited in the manuscript.

129 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Do references begin on a new page with the word References centered at the top of the page? YES NO

130 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

131 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

132 REFERENCES The list of references should be alphabetized using the surname of the primary author. If there are more than 6 authors, list the 1 st seven names followed by 3 ellipsis points then the last author’s surname and initials.

133 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: If one reference was by Smith and Jones (1999), and another was by Kennedy and Johnson (2007), is Smith and Jones (1999) referenced first on the page? YES NO

134 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

135 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

136 REFERENCES The 1st line of each reference is flush with the left margin; remaining lines of the reference are indented. See the next 2 slides to adjust Word rulers to do so automatically.

137

138

139 Checkpoint Select YES or NO: Is the first line of each reference intended and the remaining lines flush with the left margin? YES NO

140 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

141 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

142 REFERENCES There are at least 77 different types of references in APA style. This program will cover 4 of the most commonly used by students: – Books, journal articles, conference presentations, and electronic media. For other types of references, see pp , chapter 7, of the Manual.

143 BOOK REFERENCES The generic form for a book reference is: Surname, 1st and middle initials of authors *. (copyright date). Title of book (ed.). City, ST: Publisher. Example: Tuckman, B. W., & Monetti, D. M. (2010). Educational psychology. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Centage Learning. * List all names if 7 or fewer; if more than 7 authors, list the first 6 followed by …and the last author’s surname and initials.

144 Checkpoint Tuckman, B. W., & Monetti, D. M. (2010). Educational psychology. Wadsworth Centage Learning: Boston, MA. Select YES or NO: Is the above a correct APA reference for the following book? – Title: Educational Psychology – Authors: David M. Monetti, Ph.D. and B. W. Tuckman – Copyrighted in 2010 by Wadsworth Centage Learning, Boston Massachusetts YES NO

145 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

146 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

147 BOOK REFERENCES Chapter in an edited book: Surnames and initials of authors. (copyright). Title of chapter. Editors’ names with initials before surnames (Eds.), Title of book. City, ST: Publisher. Example: Huitt, W. G., Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2009). Designing direct instruction. In C. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models: Volume III, building a common knowledgebase (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

148 Checkpoint Huitt, W. G., Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2009). Designing direct instruction. In C. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.), Instructional-design theories and models: Volume III, building a common knowledgebase (pp ). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Select YES or NO: Is the above a correct APA reference for the following chapter? Authors: Huitt, W. G., Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2009). Chapter Title: Designing direct instruction. Editors: C. Reigeluth & A. Carr-Chellman (Eds.) Book Title: Instructional-design theories and models: Volume III, building a common knowledgebase (pp ). Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ YES NO

149 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

150 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

151 JOURNAL REFERENCES The generic form for journal articles is: Surname, Initials. (publication date). Title of article. Name of Journal, volume # (issue # if needed), xx-xx (inclusive range of pages). Example: Barrett, B. H., Beck, R., Binder, C., Cook, D. A., Engelmann, S, Greer, R. D.,... Watkins, C. L. (1991). The right to effective education. The Behavior Analyst, 14,

152 JOURNAL REFERENCES Only provide an issue # (in parentheses, next to the vol. # but not italicized) if each issue starts with page 1. If a source has 7 or fewer authors, list all seven in its reference. If the work has more than 7 authors list the names of the first 6, then use 3 ellipsis points and the last author’s name and initials. Example: Barrett, B. H., Beck, R., Binder, C., Cook, D. A., Engelmann, S, Greer, R. D.,... Watkins, C. L. (1991). The right to effective education. The Behavior Analyst, 14,

153 JOURNAL REFERENCES If one uses an article downloaded from the Internet, reference the article as you would any journal article. After the final period, add Retrieved from with the article’s URL (do not use a period after the URL). Example: Reffel, J. A., Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2004). The impact of interactive computer-based cases on motivation and achievement. Georgia Educational Research Journal, 1 (1), Retrieved from m

154 JOURNAL REFERENCES If you download an article in pdf format, its reference is done like a regular journal reference (i.e., you do NOT need a “retrieved” statement)

155 JOURNAL REFERENCES If an article is retrieved from the Internet and has a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), the DOI # is used INSTEAD of the article’s URL. Example: Briihl, D. S., & Wasieleski, D. T. (2004). A survey of master's-level psychology programs: Admissions criteria and program policies. Teaching of Psychology, 31, doi: /s top3104_5

156 Checkpoint Figarola, P. M., Gunter, P. L., Reffel, J. M., Worth, S. R., Hummel, J. H., & Gerber, B. (2008). Effects of students graphing their performance data on calculations of math facts. Behavior Analysis and Practice, 1(2), Select YES or NO: Is the above a correct APA reference for the following article? – Title: “Effects of students graphing their performance data on calculations of math facts” – Authors: P. M. Figarola, Philip L. Gunter, Julie M. Reffel, Susan R. Worth, John Howard Hummel, and Brian Gerber – Published in 2008 in volume 1, issue two (pages 36-41) of Behavior Analysis and Practice YES NO

157 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

158 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

159 CONFERENCE PAPER REFERENCE The generic form for a conference paper or poster is: Surname, Initials. (year, month). Title of paper. Sentence describing the conference and the City, ST where it was held.

160 CONFERENCE PAPER EXAMPLE Example: Hummel, J. H., Monetti, D. M., & Huitt, W. G. (2007, October). Improving instruction using task analyses. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Georgia Educational Research Association, Savannah. Notice that no state abbreviation was given because it is understood.

161 Checkpoint Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2001, November). The Midas touch: Transforming lesson plans using the direct instruction model. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Georgia Educational Research Association, Clayton State College and University, Morrow, GA. Select YES or NO: Is the above a correct APA reference for the following convention paper? – Title: The Midas touch: Transforming lesson plans using the Direct Instruction Model – Authors: David M. Monetti and John H. Hummel – Presented in November of 2001, Georgia Educational Research Association’s meeting at Clayton State College and University in Morrow, GA. YES NO

162 Incorrect Answer You are incorrect. Please REVIEW the previous information. REVIEW

163 Correct Answer You are correct. Proceed to the next slide.

164 INTERNET SOURCES Set the reference up like an on-line source and provide a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) address in the Available section when using information from sites on the World Wide Web (Internet). Example: Hummel, J. H., Huitt, W. G., & Kaeck, D. J. (1995, June). Research, validity, and reliability. Retrieved from

165 Internet Resource for APA Style APA has a website devoted to the 6 th edition of the manual. Consumers are encouraged to use the site for additional information.

166 Congratulations! You have successfully completed APA Style for Students! Use the following code word to validate your post-quiz: CODEWORD


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