Presentation on theme: "Good Luck on Finals!. Dependent & Independent Clauses Independent Clause (Simple Sentence)- is a group of words that has one subject, one verb, and."— Presentation transcript:
Dependent & Independent Clauses Independent Clause (Simple Sentence)- is a group of words that has one subject, one verb, and expresses a complete thought on its own. Example: Ms. Kieffer found three dollars in her purse.
Dependent & Independent Clauses Dependent Clause (Sentence Fragment)- is missing a subject, a predicate, or both; and does not express a complete thought on its own. Example: bought a salad for lunch
Dependent & Independent Clauses Independent and Dependent Clauses can be used in different combinations to form compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences.
Compound Sentences Compound Sentences are formed when two independent clauses are joined together. Ways to join two independent clauses together: 1. Using a Coordinating Conjunction w/ a comma 2. Using a Conjunctive Adverbs or Transitions w/semi-colon, and comma 3. Using a Semi-Colon
Compound Sentences Ways to join two independent clauses together Using a Coordinating Conjunction w/ a comma Example: Ms. Kieffer found three dollars in her purse, and she bought a salad for lunch. ForAnd NorBut OrYet SoF.A.N.B.O.Y.S
Compound Sentences Ways to join two independent clauses together: Using a Conjunctive Adverbs or Transitions w/semi- colon, and comma Example: Mr. Hogan was tired of grading essays; however, he endured and finished them by Monday. ThereforeNevertheless HoweverFurthermore ConsequentlyMoreover
Compound Sentences Ways to join two independent clauses together: 3. Using a Semi-Colon ; Example: Mrs. Mueller didn’t get enough sleep the night before; she bought a large coffee at Starbucks on the way to LMSA.
Complex Sentences Complex Sentences are formed when an independent is joined with one or more dependent clauses. Ways to join an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses: 1. Use a comma if the dependent clause comes before the independent clause.
Complex Sentences Complex Sentences are formed when an independent is joined with one or more dependent clauses. Ways to join an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses: 1. Use a comma if the dependent clause comes before the independent clause. 2. No comma is used if the independent clause comes first.
Complex Sentences Complex Sentences are formed when an independent is joined with one or more dependent clauses. Popular words used to signal a dependent clause. BecauseAlthoughSince IfWhenUntil UnlessAfterEven After
Complex Sentences Examples: 1. Even after being late three times, Mike didn’t think that he would be fired for being tardy. 2. Mike didn’t think that he would be fired for being tardy even after being late three times. BecauseAlthoughSince IfWhenUntil UnlessAfterEven After
Compound/Complex Sentences Compound/Complex Sentences are formed when two independent clauses are joined with one or more dependent clauses. Again, if the dependent clause comes first a comma is used to separate the independent clause; if the independent clause comes first no comma is necessary.
Compound/Complex Sentences Example: 1. Because the pipes in her condo building burst, she had to call a plumber; therefore, Courtney couldn’t make it to work. 2. Courtney couldn’t make it to work because the pipes in her condo building burst, and she had to call a plumber.
Relative Clauses Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and of which).
Relative Clauses Relative clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive. Restrictive clauses are essential meaning they cannot be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. Nonrestrictive clauses are nonessential and can be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. Use commas with nonrestrictive clauses to indicate the clause can be removed.
Periodic Sentences Periodic Sentence: Sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end (or until the period). a. In opening minds, instilling values, and creating opportunities, education has no equal.
Cumulative Sentences Cumulative Sentence: Sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence, and then builds and adds on. (it accumulates more information as it goes) The hotel has greatly expanded its customer base through the addition of a fitness spa, extensive advertising, and weekend specials.
Inverted Sentences Inverted sentence : a sentence where the verb comes before the subject Running along the top of the wall were three very large, very filthy rats. (Instead of “Three very large, very filthy rats were running along the top of the wall.”)
Periodic, Inverted, Cumulative Sentences and Parallel Structures Parallel Structure (Parallelism): Sentences or parts of sentences are parallel when structures within them take the same form. Parallelism is important at the level of the word, the phrase, and the clause.
Periodic, Inverted, Cumulative Sentences and Parallel Structures Parallel words: Golf requires hand-eye coordination, flexibility, and concentration. Parallel phrases: You will find the light bulbs in the closet or under the kitchen cabinet.
Periodic, Inverted, Cumulative Sentences and Parallel Structures Parallel clauses: "You can fool all the people some of the time, and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time." - Abraham Lincoln Parallel sentences: The students came. The students saw. The students conquered.
Appositives An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that tells you something about a nearby noun or pronoun. Examples: The Doctor, the last Time Lord, travels throughout all of time and space in the TARDIS. A private detective, Sherlock Holmes, lives on 221B Baker Street.
Appositives Punctuating Appositives If an appositive contains nonessential material (material that can be removed from the sentence without altering its meaning), set the appositive off from the rest of the sentence with commas or other appropriate punctuation. If, on the other hand, the information is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no punctuation is necessary. Below is an example: The novel Me Talk Pretty Sometimes is hilariously painful. (Me Talk Pretty Sometimes is essential to the sentence because it tells you which novel is hilariously painful.)
Semicolons Semicolons are used to separate clauses or phrases that are related and that receive equal emphasis. Semicolons join independent clauses in a compound sentence if no coordinating conjunction is used. EXAMPLE: Michael seemed preoccupied; he answered our questions abruptly. Semicolons are used before a conjunctive adverb (transition word) that joins the clauses of a compound sentence. EXAMPLE: The emergency room was crowded; however, Warren was helped immediately. Semicolons help avoid confusion in lists where there are already commas. EXAMPLE: We traveled to London, England; Paris, France; Berlin, Germany; and Sofia, Bulgaria.
Colons Colons follow independent clauses and are used to call attention to the information that comes after. Colons come after the independent clause and before the word, phrase, sentence, quotation, or list it is introducing.
Colons Examples of Colons in sentences: The nightclub played many different types of music: rock, hip-hop, electronica, indie and even soul. We knew who would be first in the race: speedy Steve. There are three countries beginning with Z: Zaire, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Colons Quick Note: *Never use a colon after a verb that directly introduces a list. INCORRECT: The things on Joe’s mind are: finals, work, and Linda.
Dashes Dashes connect groups of words to other groups of words in order to emphasize a point or show that the information is unessential. Usually the dash separates words in the middle of a sentence from the rest of the sentence, or it leads to material at the end of the sentence.
Dashes Examples of Dashes: 1. My memories of my grandmother—and they are some of my strongest childhood memories—inspire me to imitate her gentle strength. In the middle of a sentence, a dash can put special emphasis on a group of words or make them stand out from the rest of the sentence.
Dashes Examples of Dashes: 1. New York, Washington D.C., and rural Pennsylvania—these were the areas most immediately affected by terrorism. The dash can also be used to attach material to the end of a sentence when there is a clear break in the continuity of the sentence or when an explanation is being introduced.
Quotation Marks Quotation marks are used to show the beginning and end of a quotation or a title of a short work. Quotation marks enclose the exact words of a person (direct quotation). EXAMPLE: Megan said, "Kurt has a red hat." *Do not use quotation marks around a paraphrase (using your own words to express the author’s ideas) or a summary of the author's words. EXAMPLE: Megan said that Kurt’s hat was red.
Quotation Marks Quotation marks set off the titles of magazine articles, poems, reports, and chapters within a book. (Titles of books, magazines, plays, and other whole publications should be underlined or italicized.) EXAMPLE: "The Talk of the Town" is a regular feature in Time magazine.
Quotation Marks QUOTATION MARKS WITH OTHER PUNCTUATION 1. Place periods and commas inside quotation marks. EXAMPLE: Aida said, “Aaron has a blue shirt.” 2. Place semicolons and colons outside quotation marks. EXAMPLE: He calls me his "teddy bear"; I'm not a bear.
Quotation Marks 3. Place question marks or exclamation points inside the quotation marks if they punctuate the quotation only. EXAMPLE: "Are we too late?" she asked. 4. Place question marks or exclamation points outside the quotation marks if they punctuate the entire sentence. EXAMPLE: Why did she say, "We are too late"?
Parentheses Elements inside parentheses are related to the sentence but are nonessential. Parentheses set off additions or expressions that are not necessary to the sentence. They tend to de-emphasize what they set off. EXAMPLE: We visited several European countries (England, France, Spain) on our trip last year.
Parentheses Parentheses enclose figures within a sentence. EXAMPLE: Grades will be based on (1) participation, (2) in-class writing, and (3) exams. When the group inside the parentheses forms a complete sentence but is inserted inside a larger sentence, no period is needed. However, if a question mark or exclamation point is needed, it may be used. EXAMPLE: The snow (she saw it as she passed the window) was now falling heavily.
Parentheses When parentheses are used to enclose an independent sentence, the end punctuation belongs inside the parentheses. EXAMPLE: Mandy told me she saw Amy’s new car. (I saw Amy’s car before Mandy.) She said it was a nice car.