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2010 UBO/UBU Conference Title: ICD-10-CM General Guidelines Session: T-5-1000.

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Presentation on theme: "2010 UBO/UBU Conference Title: ICD-10-CM General Guidelines Session: T-5-1000."— Presentation transcript:

1 2010 UBO/UBU Conference Title: ICD-10-CM General Guidelines Session: T

2 Objectives History of International Classification of Diseases Why Change to ICD-10-CM General Guidelines 2

3 History of ICD – Endorsed by World Health Assembly (diagnoses only) 1994 – Release of full ICD-10 by WHO 2002 (October) – ICD-10 published in 42 languages (including 6 official WHO languages) Implementation – 138 countries for mortality – 99 countries for morbidity January 1, 1999 – U.S. implemented for mortality (death certificates) (1999 to 2013)? 3

4 History of ICD-10-CM CM – Clinical Modification – Only Used in the United States Approved by the four organizations that make up the Cooperating Parties for ICD-10-CM: – American Hospital Association (AHA) – American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) – Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) – National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) 4

5 I-10 Current Users United Kingdom (1995) Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) (1994 – 1997) France (1997) Australia (1998) Belgium (1999) Germany (2000) Canada (2001) 5

6 Why Change ICD-9-CM no longer adheres to the structure of its own classification No room for expansion = incomplete data Inconsistent data Unable to compare data internationally Overuse of NEC and NOS Not specific Ambiguity within the system – vague Non-standardized and repetitive code elements with undefined terms result in inconsistent coding 6

7 Final Rule ICD-10 Final Rule CMS-0013-F Published in Federal Register January 16, 2009 October 1, 2013 – Compliance date for implementation of ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS (no delays or extensions) – Business as usual for outpatient procedures – Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) or Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes 7

8 I-10 Conventions Format and Structure – Index – alphabetic listing Index to Diseases Index to External Causes of Injury – Tabular List – alphanumeric listing – Categories, Subcategories and Codes – First character for categories can be either a letter or a number – All categories are 3 characters – a three-character category that has no further subdivision is equivalent to a code 8

9 I-10 Conventions – Subcategories are either 4 or 5 characters. Codes may be 4, 5, 6 or 7 characters – Codes that have applicable 7th characters are still referred to as codes, not subcategories. A code that has an applicable 7th character is considered invalid without the 7th character Placeholder character – The ICD-10-CM utilizes a placeholder character “X” The “X” is used as a 5th character placeholder at certain 6 character codes to allow for future expansion 9

10 I-10 Conventions 7th Characters – Certain ICD-10-CM categories have applicable 7th characters. The applicable 7th character is required for all codes within the category, or as the notes in the Tabular List instruct. The 7th character must always be the 7th character in the data field. If a code that requires a 7th character is not 6 characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters 10

11 Abbreviations Index abbreviations – NEC “Not elsewhere classifiable” Tabular abbreviations NEC “Not elsewhere classifiable” This abbreviation in the Tabular represents “other specified”. When a specific code is not available for a condition the Tabular includes an NEC entry under a code to identify the code as the “other specified” code NOS “Not otherwise specified” 11

12 Punctuation [ ] Brackets are used in the tabular list to enclose synonyms, alternative wording or explanatory phrases. Brackets are used in the Index to identify manifestation codes ( ) Parentheses are used in both the Index and Tabular to enclose supplementary words that may be present or absent in the statement of a disease or procedure without affecting the code number to which it is assigned. The terms within the parentheses are referred to as nonessential modifiers : Colons are used in the Tabular List after an incomplete term which needs one or more of the modifiers following the colon to make it assignable to a given category 12

13 Other and Unspecified Codes Other and Unspecified codes “Other” codes – Codes titled “other” or “other specified” are for use when the information in the medical record provides detail for which a specific code does not exist. Index entries with NEC in the line designate “other” codes in the Tabular. These Index entries represent specific disease entities for which no specific code exists so the term is included within an “other” code 13

14 Other and Unspecified Codes “Unspecified” codes – Codes (usually a code with a 4th digit 9 or 5th digit 0 for diagnosis codes) titled “unspecified” are for use when the information in the medical record is insufficient to assign a more specific code. For those categories for which an unspecified code is not provided, the “other specified” code may represent both other and unspecified. Includes Notes – This note appears immediately under a three-digit code title to further define, or give examples of, the content of the category 14

15 Inclusion Terms Inclusion terms – List of terms is included under some codes. These terms are the conditions for which that code is to be used. The terms may be synonyms of the code title, or, in the case of “other specified” codes, the terms are a list of the various conditions assigned to that code – The inclusion terms are not necessarily exhaustive Additional terms found only in the Index may also be assigned to a code 15

16 Excludes Notes The ICD-10-CM has two types of excludes notes. Each type of note has a different definition for use but they are all similar in that they indicate that codes excluded from each other are independent of each other Excludes1 – A type 1 Excludes note is a pure excludes note. It means “NOT CODED HERE!” An Excludes1 note indicates that the code excluded should never be used at the same time as the code above the Excludes1 note. An Excludes1 is used when two conditions cannot occur together, such as a congenital form versus an acquired form of the same condition 16

17 Excludes Notes Excludes2 – A type 2 excludes note represents “Not included here.” An Excludes2 note indicates that the condition excluded is not part of the condition represented by the code, but a patient may have both conditions at the same time. When an Excludes2 note appears under a code, it is acceptable to use both the code and the excluded code together, when appropriate 17

18 Etiology/Manifestation Etiology/manifestation convention (“code first,” “use additional code,” and “in diseases classified elsewhere” notes) – Certain conditions have both an underlying etiology and multiple body system manifestations due to the underlying etiology. For such conditions, the ICD-10- CM has a coding convention that requires the underlying condition be sequenced first followed by the manifestation 18

19 Etiology/Manifestation An example of the etiology/manifestation convention is dementia in Parkinson’s disease. In the index, code G20 is listed first, followed by code F02.80 or F02.81 in brackets. Code G20 represents the underlying etiology, Parkinson’s disease, and must be sequenced first, whereas codes F02.80 and F02.81 represent the manifestation of dementia in diseases classified elsewhere, with or without behavioral disturbance 19

20 And – With “And” – The word “and” should be interpreted to mean either “and” or “or” when it appears in a title “With” – The word “with” in the Alphabetic Index is sequenced immediately following the main term, not in alphabetical order 20

21 See and See Also “See” and “See Also” – The “see” instruction following a main term in the Index indicates that another term should be referenced. It is necessary to go to the main term referenced with the “see” note to locate the correct code – A “see also” instruction following a main term in the index instructs that there is another main term that may also be referenced that may provide additional index entries that may be useful. It is not necessary to follow the “see also” note when the original main term provides the necessary code 21

22 Code Also – Default Codes Code also note – A “code also” note instructs that two codes may be required to fully describe a condition, but this note does not provide sequencing direction Default codes – A code listed next to a main term in the ICD-10-CM Index is referred to as a default code. The default code represents that condition that is most commonly associated with the main term, or is the unspecified code for the condition 22

23 General Guidelines Locating a code in ICD-10-CM – Locate the term in the Index, and then verify the code in the Tabular List – Read and be guided by instructional notations that appear in both the Index and the Tabular List 23

24 General Guidelines Level of Detail in Coding – Diagnosis codes are to be used and reported at their highest number of digits available – A three-digit code is to be used only if it is not further subdivided. A code is invalid if it has not been coded to the full number of characters required for that code, including the 7th character, if applicable 24

25 General Guidelines Code or codes from A00.0 through T88.9, Z00-Z99.8 – The appropriate code or codes from A00.0 through T88.9, Z00-Z99.8 must be used to identify diagnoses, symptoms, conditions, problems, complaints or other reason(s) for the encounter/visit Signs and symptoms – Chapter 18 of ICD-10-CM, Symptoms, Signs, and Abnormal Clinical and Laboratory Findings, Not Elsewhere Classified (codes R R99) contains many, but not all, codes for S&S 25

26 General Guidelines Conditions that are an integral part of a disease process – Signs and symptoms that are associated routinely with a disease process should not be assigned as additional codes, unless otherwise instructed by the classification Conditions that are not an integral part of a disease process – Additional signs and symptoms that may not be associated routinely with a disease process should be coded when present 26

27 General Guidelines Multiple coding for a single condition – In addition to the etiology/manifestation convention that requires two codes to fully describe a single condition that affects multiple body systems, there are other single conditions that also require more than one code – The sequencing rule is the same as the etiology/manifestation pair, “use additional code” indicates that a secondary code should be added 27

28 General Guidelines Acute and Chronic Conditions – If the same condition is described as both acute and chronic, and separate subentries exist in the Alphabetic Index at the same indentation level, code both and sequence the acute code first 28

29 General Guidelines Combination Code A combination code is a single code used to classify: – Two diagnoses, or – A diagnosis with an associated secondary process (manifestation) – A diagnosis with an associated complication 29

30 General Guidelines Late Effects – Sequela – A late effect is the residual effect (condition produced) after the acute phase of an illness or injury has terminated. There is no time limit on when a late effect code can be used 30

31 General Guidelines Impending or Threatened Condition Code any condition described at the time of service as “impending” or “threatened” as follows: – If it did occur, code as confirmed diagnosis – If it did not occur, reference the Alphabetic Index to determine if the condition has a subentry term for “impending” or “threatened” and also reference main term entries for “Impending” and for “Threatened” 31

32 General Guidelines – If the subterms are listed, assign the given code – If the subterms are not listed, code the existing underlying condition(s) and not the condition described as impending or threatened Reporting Same Diagnosis Code More than Once – Each unique ICD-10-CM diagnosis code may be reported only once for an encounter Laterality – For bilateral sites, the final character of the codes in the ICD-10-CM indicates laterality 32

33 General Guidelines Documentation for BMI and Pressure Ulcer Stages – For the Body Mass Index (BMI) and pressure ulcer stage codes, code assignment may be based on medical record documentation from clinicians who are not the patient’s provider since this information is typically documented by other clinicians involved in the care of the patient (e.g., a dietitian often documents the BMI and nurses often document the pressure ulcer stages – The BMI codes should only be reported as secondary diagnoses 33

34 Modifications from ICD-9-CM 3-7 alpha-numeric characters vs. 3-5 numeric with I-9 Added trimester characters to obstetrical codes Revised diabetes mellitus codes (5th digits from ICD-9- CM will not be used) Expanded codes (e.g., injury, diabetes) Supplemental chapters (V and E codes) have their own classification in I-10 Laterality 21 chapters vs. 17 with I-9 (no supplemental chapters) Separate chapters for the eye and adnexa and the ear 34

35 Laterality ICD-10-CM code descriptions include right or left designation – Right side = 1 – Left side = 2 – Bilateral = 3 – Unspecified side is either a 0 (zero) or 9, depending on whether it is a fifth or sixth character 35

36 Laterality Examples S Bite, right thigh S Bite, left thigh S Bite, unspecified thigh M77.00 Medial epicondylitis, unspecified elbow M77.01 Medial epicondylitis, right elbow M77.02 Medial epicondylitis, left elbow 36

37 Structure ICD-10-CM codes consist of 3 – 7 characters – Character 1 is alpha (A – Z, not case sensitive) – Character 2 is numeric – Character 3 is either alpha (not case sensitive) or numeric – Characters 4 – 7 are alpha (not case sensitive) or numeric 37

38 Structure A66 Yaws R92.1 Mammographic calcification found on diagnostic imaging of breast A69.20 Lyme disease, unspecified O9A.111 Malignant neoplasm complicating pregnancy, first trimester S42.001A Fracture of unspecified part of right clavicle, initial encounter for closed fracture 38

39 Some Interesting Facts 1,922 I-10-CM three-character diagnosis categories 1,025 I-9-CM three-character diagnosis categories 32,074 I-10-CM codes without 7th character extension vs. 13,678 codes in the 2008 version of ICD-9-CM 45 unique values for 7th character extensions–82% of the codes with 7th character extensions are in the injury and poisoning chapters ICD-10-CM codes being alphanumeric and including all letters except U 39

40 Placeholders The ICD-10-CM utilizes a placeholder character “X” The “X” is used as a 5th and /or 6th character placeholder at certain 6 and/or 7 character codes to allow for future expansion Examples: – O33.5xx0 Maternal care for disproportion due to unusually large fetus, not applicable or unspecified 7th characters 1-9 in this category are for multiple gestation – T46.5x2 Poisoning by other antihypertensive drugs, intentional self-harm 40

41 Seventh Character Certain ICD-10-CM categories have applicable 7 characters – The applicable 7th character is required for all codes within the category, or as the notes in the Tabular List instruct – The 7th character must always be the 7th character in the data field – If a code that requires a 7th character is not 6 characters, a placeholder X must be used to fill in the empty characters (5th and/or 6th) 41

42 Seventh Character Example: – T50.B96A Underdosing of other viral vaccines, initial encounter – T50.B96D Underdosing of other viral vaccines, subsequent encounter – T50.B96S Underdosing of other viral vaccines, sequela – A = initial encounter – D = subsequent encounter – S = sequela 42

43 Fracture Seventh Character AInitial encounter for closed fracture BInitial encounter for open fracture type I or II Initial encounter for open fracture NOS CInitial encounter for open fracture type IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC DSubsequent encounter for closed fracture with routine healing ESubsequent encounter for open fracture type I or II with routine healing FSubsequent encounter for open fracture type IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC with routine healing GSubsequent encounter for closed fracture with delayed healing HSubsequent encounter for open fracture type I or II with delayed healing 43

44 Fracture Seventh Character JSubsequent encounter for open fracture type IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC with delayed healing KSubsequent encounter for closed fracture with nonunion MSubsequent encounter for open fracture type I or II with nonunion NSubsequent encounter for open fracture type IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC with nonunion PSubsequent encounter for closed fracture with malunion QSubsequent encounter for open fracture type I or II with malunion RSubsequent encounter for open fracture type IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC with malunion SSequela 44

45 Manual Layout Index follows the guidelines at the front of the manual Neoplasm table follows index (instead of being in the middle of the index) Table of drugs and chemicals follows neoplasm table Index to External Causes Tabular listings 45

46 Questions 46


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