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**Essentializing the AK Standards & Essential Elements**

Dillard Research Associates and Alaska Education & Early Development January 22, 2015

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**Objectives of Training**

To understand the reasons for linking IEPs with Alaska Standards in English language arts and Math To practice essentializing standards that are linked to the AK Standards

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**Why Link IEPs to AK Standards?**

IDEA 2004 – IEPs must include “academic and functional goals, designed to meet the child’s needs that result from the child’s disability to enable the child to be involved in and make progress in the general education curriculum.” Subsequent federal legislation requires all students to be provided access to the general education curriculum

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**Why Link IEPs to AK Standards? cont’d.**

Access to the general education curriculum is supported Instruction is focused on more challenging content and skills Collaboration between general and special educators is promoted All students in Alaska must have full access to the Alaska Statewide Assessment System. Alaska students with an IEP can be assessed with either the general assessment or Alaska’s alternate assessment, the AKAA.

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**Standards-Based Reform**

Change the way we think about instruction for special education students (social conception of disability that is strength-based) Raise expectations for student learning Provide access to grade-level content standards Plan, teach, and assess students so that they can participate and make progress in the general education curriculum Ensure that parents continue to be part of this discussion and understand the rationale for change

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**Tips for looking at the Standards**

Look for the essential content (nouns) Look for the essential intellectual operations (verbs) Look for vocabulary that limits the scope of the content and intellectual operations (delimiters) Consider prerequisite skills (access skills, including sensory/motor needs as well as use of supports) Consider the cognitive/linguistic process required to access the standard Add whole numbers (1-100). Noun = numbers, verb = Add, the delimiter is whole, scope, or delimiter, is (1-100).

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**What level of cognition is required in order to access the standard?**

Anderson’s Taxonomy Anderson et. al. 2001

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**Levels of Communication**

Students functioning at the Attention level are able to attend to content oriented stimuli and materials. At the Joint Attention level, they are able to attend to stimuli and materials jointly, along with a peer or teacher. Students who are communicating at the Pre-Symbolic level can explore patterns that exist among objects and graphic representations, which are pictures and picture symbols. They do not yet understand that numerals and letters have significance at these three levels. A student functioning at the Early Symbolic level is beginning to realize that numerals and letters contain meaning and significance. They can use abstract symbols, numerals, and letters to a very limited degree for meaningful purposes. Students functioning at the Symbolic level or higher understand that symbols, numerals, and letters have meaning and are communicating using symbols, numerals, and letters to a limited degree. Students functioning at the Conventional Symbolic level are using some language and social conventions in their communication patterns. Students functioning at the Extended Symbolic level are using language and social conventions more consistently and across contexts in their communication patterns. Students functioning at the Symbolic Skills for Transition level are demonstrating extended communication skills that are still below grade level expectations, but at a level of complexity that denotes that they could be assessed and instructed at a higher level. *Framework derived from multiple sources, including Browder, Downing, Reichle, Wetherby, & colleagues. Please see References.

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Apple Example The Big Apple – has nothing to do with NY, but we all understand the reference.

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**Essentializing Standards**

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**Essentializing Coding System**

(a) Essential content (nouns) is (b) Essential intellectual operations (verbs) are underlined, with complex verbs also bolded. (c) Delimiters of content or intellectual operations are italicized. boxed Note: This is the process you will see in our examples, which are done electronically. When you do this by hand for practice, you will circle complex verbs and put delimiters in (parentheses)

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**Essentialization Process**

Select standard Code using essentialization system Reduce depth, breadth, and complexity by: transforming complex verbs limiting scope of content/verbs eliminating extra text Generate the essentialized standard

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**Example 1: How to Essentialize an AK Reading Foundation Standard**

4.RF4 - Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. Read text with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. Essentialized standard: Read appropriate text with accuracy. Alaska Reading Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (Page 16) Can also essentialize further, such as match icons, match objects, understand text that is read to them.

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**Example 2: How to Essentialize an AK Number and Operations in Base Ten Standard**

4.NBT.4 - Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using any algorithm. Verify the reasonableness of the results. Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. Verify the reasonableness of the results. Essentialized standard: Add two-digit whole numbers with fluency. Fourth grade Number and Operations in Base Ten standard

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**Example 3: How to Essentialize an AK Writing Standard**

9-10.W.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, style, and features are appropriate to task, genre, purpose, and audience. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, style, and features are appropriate to task, genre, purpose, and audience. Essentialized standard: Write relevant text with accuracy.

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**Example 4: How to Essentialize a Standard**

9-10.L1 - Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Essentialized standard: Accurately identify icons when using expressive language.

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**Quick Review of Essentializing**

Select standard Code using essentialization system Reduce depth, breadth, and complexity by: transforming complex verbs limiting scope of content/verbs eliminating extra text Generate the essentialized standard

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**Your Turn to Practice Essentializing Standards**

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #1**

3.RL1 - Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text (e.g., making basic inferences and predictions), referring explicitly to details from the text as the basis for the answers. Identify the essential content: _____________________________ Identify the essential intellectual operation(s):________________ Identify the delimiter(s):__________________________________ See Activity #1 of “2_DRA_IEP_Essentialize_Standards_Worksheet_VF.docx”

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #1**

3.RL1 - Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text (e.g., making basic inferences and predictions), referring explicitly to details from the text as the basis for the answers. Essential content: questions , understanding Essential intellectual operation(s): ask, answer, demonstrate Delimiter(s): and, to, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers, and, (e.g., making basic inferences and predictions)

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #1**

Reduce depth, breadth, and complexity Eliminate unnecessary content, intellectual operations, and delimiters Generate the essentialized standard Answer questions about a text. One way to answer the Essentialized Elements for Activity 1.

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #2**

Activity 1 7.NS.3. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. (Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.) For example, use models, explanations, number lines, real life situations, describing or illustrating the effect of arithmetic operations on rational numbers (fractions, decimals). Identify the essential content: ______________________________________________ Identify the essential intellectual operation(s):_________________________________ Identify the delimiter(s):___________________________________________________ See Activity #2 of “2_DRA_IEP_Essentialize_Standards_Worksheet_VF.docx”

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #2**

Activity 2 7.NS.3. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. (Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.) For example, use models, explanations, number lines, real life situations, describing or illustrating the effect of arithmetic operations on rational numbers (fractions, decimals). Essential content: problems Essential intellectual operation(s): Solve Delimiter(s): real-world and mathematical, involving the four operations with rational numbers, (Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.), and For example, use models, explanations, number lines, real life situations, describing or illustrating the effect of arithmetic operations on rational numbers (fractions, decimals).

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #2**

Reduce depth, breadth, and complexity Eliminate unnecessary content, intellectual operations, and delimiters Generate the essentialized standard: Solve addition and subtraction word problems. One way to answer the Essentialized Elements for Activity 2.

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #3**

Activity 3 8.RI2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; restate and summarize main ideas or events, in correct sequence, after reading a text. Identify the essential content: ______________________________________ Identify the essential intellectual operation(s):_________________________ Identify the delimiter(s):___________________________________________ See Activity #3 of “2_DRA_IEP_Essentialize_Standards_Worksheet_VF.docx”

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #3**

8.RI2 – Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; restate and summarize main ideas or events, in correct sequence, after reading a text. Essential content: central idea , text , summary Essential intellectual operation(s): Determine, analyze, restate or summarize Delimiter(s): a, of a text, and, its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to characters, setting, plot, main ideas or events, correct sequence, after reading the text

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**Practice Essentialization of Standard #3**

Reduce depth, breadth, and complexity Eliminate unnecessary content, intellectual operations, and delimiters Generate the essentialized standard: Identify the central idea and main ideas of a text. One way to answer the Essentialized Elements for Activity 3.

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**Quick Review of Essentializing**

Select standard Code using essentialization system Reduce depth, breadth, and complexity by: transforming complex verbs limiting scope of content/verbs eliminating extra text Generate the essentialized standard

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**Developing Nodes Initial Precursor (IP) Distal Precursor (DP)**

Proximal Precursor (PP) Target (T) Successor (S)

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**Internet Resources Alaska State Standards in ELA and Math –**

state.ak.us/akstandards/ Alaska State Standards in other content areas– DLM Claims & Conceptual Areas in Math – DLM Claims & Conceptual Areas in ELA –

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**Resources Used Carol Kosnitsky –**

Writing IEPs that Align with Common Core Standards IEPs and Arizona Common Core Standards Ginevra Courtade, Ph.D. University of Louisville & Diane Browder, Ph.D. University of North Carolina, Charlotte – Aligning IEPs to Common Core State Standards for Students with Moderate and Severe Disabilities

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References Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing. Addison, Wesley, Longman Inc. New York. Browder, D., Wakeman, S., & Jimenez, B. (2006). Creating access to the general curriculum with links to grade level content for students with Significant cognitive disabilities. Downing, J. E. (2005). Teaching communication skills to students with severe disabilities. (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Reichle, J., Beukelman, D. R., & Light, J. C. (2002). Exemplary practices for beginning communicators: Implications for AAC. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes. Wendell, Wendell (1996). The social construction of disability (p. 60). New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. Wetherby, A. M., Warren, S. F., & Reichle, J. (Eds.). (1998). Transitions in prelinguistic communication (pp ). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

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Contacts Please submit any additional questions or comments to one of us at the following addresses. Thank you for your attention today! Kim Sherman, Dillard Research Associates Dan Farley, Dillard Research Associates Sevrina Tindal, Dillard Research Associates HelpDesk

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