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Introduction Equations are mathematical sentences that state two expressions are equal. In order to solve equations in algebra, you must perform operations that maintain equality on both sides of the equation using the properties of equality. These properties are rules that allow you to balance, manipulate, and solve equations : Properties of Equality 1

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Key Concepts In mathematics, it is important to follow the rules when solving equations, but it is also necessary to justify, or prove that the steps we are following to solve problems are correct and allowed. The following table summarizes some of these rules : Properties of Equality

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Key Concepts, continued Properties of Equality : Properties of Equality PropertyIn symbolsIn words Reflexive property of equality a = aA number is equal to itself. Symmetric property of equality If a = b, then b = a. If numbers are equal, they will still be equal if the order is changed. Transitive property of equality If a = b and b = c, then a = c. If numbers are equal to the same number, then they are equal to each other. Addition property of equality If a = b, then a + c = b + c. Adding the same number to both sides of an equation does not change the equality of the equation.

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Key Concepts, continued Properties of Equality, continued : Properties of Equality PropertyIn symbolsIn words Subtraction property of equality If a = b, then a – c = b – c. Subtracting the same number from both sides of an equation does not change the equality of the equation. Multiplication property of equality If a = b and c ≠ 0, then a c = b c. Multiplying both sides of the equation by the same number, other than 0, does not change the equality of the equation. Division property of equality If a = b and c ≠ 0, then a ÷ c = b ÷ c. Dividing both sides of the equation by the same number, other than 0, does not change the equality of the equation.

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Key Concepts, continued Properties of Equality, continued 2.1.1: Properties of Equality 5 PropertyIn symbolsIn words Substitution property of equality If a = b, then b may be substituted for a in any expression containing a. If two numbers are equal, then substituting one in for another does not change the equality of the equation.

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Key Concepts, continued You may remember from other classes the properties of operations that explain the effect that the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division have on equations. The following table describes some of those properties : Properties of Equality 6

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Key Concepts, continued Properties of Operations 2.1.1: Properties of Equality 7 PropertyGeneral ruleSpecific example Commutative property of addition a + b = b + a3 + 8 = Associative property of addition (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)(3 + 8) + 2 = 3 + (8 + 2) Commutative property of multiplication a b = b a3 8 = 8 3 Associative property of multiplication (a b) c = a (b c)(3 8) 2 = 3 (8 2) Distributive property of multiplication over addition a (b + c) = a b + a c3 (8 + 2) =

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Key Concepts, continued When we solve an equation, we are rewriting it into a simpler, equivalent equation that helps us find the unknown value. When solving an equation that contains parentheses, apply the properties of operations and perform the operation that’s in the parentheses first. The properties of equality, as well as the properties of operations, not only justify our reasoning, but also help us to understand our own thinking : Properties of Equality 8

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Key Concepts, continued When identifying which step is being used, it helps to review each step in the sequence and make note of what operation was performed, and whether it was done to one side of the equation or both. (What changed and where?) When operations are performed on one side of the equation, the properties of operations are generally followed : Properties of Equality 9

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Key Concepts, continued When an operation is performed on both sides of the equation, the properties of equality are generally followed. Once you have noted which steps were taken, match them to the properties listed in the tables. If a step being taken can’t be justified, then the step shouldn’t be done : Properties of Equality 10

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Common Errors/Misconceptions incorrectly identifying operations incorrectly identifying properties performing a step that is not justifiable or does not follow the properties of equality and/or the properties of operations : Properties of Equality

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Guided Practice Example 1 Which property of equality is missing in the steps to solve the equation –7x + 22 = 50? : Properties of Equality EquationSteps –7x + 22 = 50Original equation –7x = 28 x = –4Division property of equality

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 1.Observe the differences between the original equation and the next equation in the sequence. What has changed? Notice that 22 has been taken away from both expressions, –7x + 22 and : Properties of Equality

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued 2.Refer to the table of Properties of Equality. The subtraction property of equality tells us that when we subtract a number from both sides of the equation, the expressions remain equal. The missing step is “Subtraction property of equality.” : Properties of Equality ✔

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Guided Practice: Example 1, continued : Properties of Equality

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Guided Practice Example 2 Which property of equality is missing in the steps to solve the equation ? : Properties of Equality EquationSteps Original equation Addition property of equality –x = 42 x = –42Division property of equality

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Guided Practice: Example 2, continued 1.Observe the differences between the original equation and the next equation in the sequence. What has changed? Notice that 3 has been added to both expressions, and 4. The result of this step is : Properties of Equality

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Guided Practice: Example 2, continued In order to move to the next step, the division of 6 has been undone. The inverse operation of the division of 6 is the multiplication of 6. The result of multiplying by 6 is –x and the result of multiplying 7 by 6 is 42. This matches the next step in the sequence : Properties of Equality 18

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Guided Practice: Example 2, continued 2.Refer to the table of Properties of Equality. The multiplication property of equality tells us that when we multiply both sides of the equation by a number, the expressions remain equal. The missing step is “Multiplication property of equality.” : Properties of Equality ✔

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Guided Practice: Example 2, continued : Properties of Equality

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