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Outline What Is Function ? Create Function Call Function Parameters Functions Function Returning Values PHP Variable Scopes Passing by Reference Vs Value.

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Presentation on theme: "Outline What Is Function ? Create Function Call Function Parameters Functions Function Returning Values PHP Variable Scopes Passing by Reference Vs Value."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Outline What Is Function ? Create Function Call Function Parameters Functions Function Returning Values PHP Variable Scopes Passing by Reference Vs Value Pass Array To Function

3 What Is Function ?  In PHP we have tow type of functions : 1) User-defined Function. 2) Built-in Function.  User-defined Function : is the function created by user.  Built-in Function : is the function created by PHP, and ready to use.  The real power of PHP comes from its functions.  We just talk about user defined function in this chapter

4 User-Defined Function  User-defined function is just a name we give to a block of code that can be executed whenever we need it. This might not seem like that big of an idea, but believe me, when you understand and use functions you will be able to save a ton of time and write code that is much more readable!  A function will be executed by a call to the function.  You may call a function from anywhere within a page.  A function will be executed by a call to the function.  PHP function guidelines:  Give the function a name that reflects what the function does  The function name can start with a letter or underscore (not a number)

5 Create a PHP Function  Begins with keyword function and then the space and then the name of the function then parentheses”()” and then code block “{}” function functionName() { //code to be executed; }

6 Create a PHP Function Note: Your function name can start with a letter or underscore "_", but not a number! We want our function to print out the company motto each time it's called, so that sounds like it's a job for the echo command!

7 Call Function - Example

8 Parameters Functions To add more functionality to a function, we can add parameters. A parameter is just like a variable. Parameters are specified after the function name, inside the parentheses.

9 Parameters Functions

10 Parameters Functions – Call

11 Parameters Functions - Call

12 Parameters Functions - Call "; } echo "My name is "; writeName(“muneer ","."); echo " My family's name is "; writeName(" Masadeh ",“,"); echo “ I am Dr in "; writeName(“CS Department ",“!"); ?>

13 Function Returning Values  In addition to being able to pass functions information, you can also have them return a value. However, a function can only return one thing, although that thing can be any integer, float, array, string, etc. that you choose!  How does it return a value though? Well, when the function is used and finishes executing, it sort of changes from being a function name into being a value. To capture this value you can set a variable equal to the function. Something like: $myVar = somefunction();  Let's demonstrate this returning of a value by using a simple function that returns the sum of two integers.

14 Functions Returning Values – Example

15 Function Returning Values – Example

16 Function Returning Values – Example

17 PHP Variable Scopes The scope of a variable is the part of the script where the variable can be referenced/used. PHP has four different variable scopes: local global static parameter

18 Local Scope A variable declared within a PHP function is local and can only be accessed within that function:

19 Local Scope The script above will not produce any output because the echo statement refers to the local scope variable $x, which has not been assigned a value within this scope. You can have local variables with the same name in different functions, because local variables are only recognized by the function in which they are declared. Local variables are deleted as soon as the function is completed.

20 Global Scope A variable that is defined outside of any function, has a global scope. Global variables can be accessed from any part of the script, EXCEPT from within a function. To access a global variable from within a function, use the global keyword:

21 Global Scope A variable that is defined outside of any function, has a global scope. Global variables can be accessed from any part of the script, EXCEPT from within a function. To access a global variable from within a function, use the global keyword:

22 Global Scope

23 Global Scope PHP also stores all global variables in an array called $GLOBALS[index]. The index holds the name of the variable. This array is also accessible from within functions and can be used to update global variables directly. The example above can be rewritten like this:

24 Global Scope

25 Static Scope When a function is completed, all of its variables are normally deleted. However, sometimes you want a local variable to not be deleted. To do this, use the static keyword when you first declare the variable:

26 Static Scope

27 Static Scope Then, each time the function is called, that variable will still have the information it contained from the last time the function was called. Note: The variable is still local to the function.

28 Parameter Scope A parameter is a local variable whose value is passed to the function by the calling code. Parameters are declared in a parameter list as part of the function declaration:

29 Passing Variable to a fonction You can pass a variable by Value to a function so the function can’t modify the variable. You can pass a variable by Reference to a function so the function can modify the variable.

30 Passing Variable By Value

31 Passing Variable By Reference

32 Passing Variable By Reference

33 Passing Variable By Reference

34 Passing Variable By Reference

35 Example Chapter

36 Example

37 Example echo " Min number between( $num1, $num2, $num3, $num4 ) = ".mins($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4)." "; echo " Positive numbers between( $num1, $num2, $num3, $num4 ) "; posi($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4); echo " "; echo " Negative numbers between( $num1, $num2, $num3, $num4 ) "; nega($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4); echo " "; }

38 Example function cal($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4,$op ) { switch($op) { case "+": return ($num1 + $num2+ $num3 + $num4 ); break; case "*": return ($num1 * $num2 * $num3 * $num4 ); break; case "/": return ($num1 / $num2 / $num3 / $num4 ); break; default : return ($num1 - $num2 - $num3 - $num4 ); break; }

39 Example function maxs($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4) { $max1 = $num1; if ($num2 > $max1) { $max1 = $num2; } if ($num3 > $max1) { $max1 = $num3; } if ($num4 > $max1) { $max1 = $num4; } return $max1; /* max is the largest value */ }

40 Example function mins($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4) { $min1 = $num1; if ($num2 < $min1) { $min1 = $num2; } if ($num3 < $min1) { $min1 = $num3; } if ($num4 < $min1) { $min1 = $num4; } return $min1; /* max is the largest value */ }

41 Example function posi($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4) { echo " "; $count = 0; if($num1 > 0) { echo " The $num1 is positive numbers "; $count++; } if($num2 > 0) { echo " The $num2 is positive numbers "; $count++; }

42 Example if($num3 > 0) { echo " The $num3 is positive numbers "; $count++; } if($num4 > 0) { echo " The $num4 is positive numbers "; $count++; } echo " The Total positive numbers is $count "; echo " "; }

43 Example function nega($num1, $num2, $num3, $num4) { $count = 0; echo " "; if($num1 < 0) { echo " The $num1 is negative numbers "; $count++; } if($num2 < 0) { echo " The $num2 is negative numbers "; $count++; }

44 Example if($num3 < 0) { echo " The $num3 is negative numbers "; $count++; } if($num4 < 0) { echo " The $num4 is negative numbers "; $count++; } echo " The Total negative numbers is $count "; echo " "; } ?>


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