Presentation on theme: "Summary & Paraphrase. You should be able to: Select main ideas and supporting details. Paraphrase from given details. Write coherently in your own words."— Presentation transcript:
You should be able to: Select main ideas and supporting details. Paraphrase from given details. Write coherently in your own words. Produce correct reinterpretations of given information. Summarize information presented as statistical data.
Difference between Summary & Paraphrase To paraphrase means to express someone else's ideas in your own language. To summarize means to distil only the most essential points of someone else's work. Paraphrase and summary are indispensable tools in essay writing because they allow you to include other people's ideas without cluttering up your essay with quotations.
Paraphrase Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. References must be provided. Can use SOME quotations; include page. Retains the content and sense of the original. Does not add to or detract from the original. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.
Summary Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
Paraphrase -usually point-by-point. Summary- main ideas.
Steps - Summary Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is. Eliminate supporting details (statistics, analogies, examples, etc.).
Steps- Paraphrase Make notes in your own words. Convert the ideas from your notes into full sentences. Provide a reference. Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly. Go back to the original to ensure that (a) your paraphrase is accurate and (b) you have truly said things in your own words.
Signal Words Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g. According to X. (2008), “….” (p. 3). X. (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3). Use such signal verbs as: acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc. Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases
(1) Formatting a Paraphrase Include the author’s name in a signal phrase followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects.
(2) In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase Provide the author’s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a paraphrase. Though feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).
Summary or Paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in- text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. OR APA style is a difficult citation format for first- time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Short Quotations (40 words or less) If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199). Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Long Quotations If the quotation has more than 40 words, use a block quotation. Begin the quotation on a new line and indent a half-inch from the left margin. Omit quotation marks Double-space the entire quotation, and at the end of the quotation, provide citation information after the final punctuation mark.
John Nicholson (1820) anticipated this effect when discussion farming methods in the nineteenth century: Perhaps it would be well, if some institution were devised, and supported at the expense of the State, which would be so organized as would tend most effectually to produce a due degree of emulation among Farmers, by rewards and honorary distinctions conferred by those who, by their successful experimetnal efforts and improvements, should render themselves duly entitled to them. (p. 92)
Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that... Berndt (1981b) subsequently realised that...
Authors With the Same Last Name To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)
Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi- colon. (Berndt, 2002; Harlow, 1983)
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association (2000),...
Organization as an Author: If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving [MADD], 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000)
Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list since readers may not have access. A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
Banwarie (2010) A United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) resolution on language policy passed about five decades ago declared that a child learns better in his/her native language (UNESCO, 1953). This resolution has significant meaning for language education in the Caribbean region. The implications of this document are that Creole languages in the region should be recognized as languages in their own right and worthy enough to be employed in methods of instruction in the classroom. Interestingly, that was five decades ago and not much has changed. Very few Caribbean countries have adopted any policy in recognition of the UNESCO findings. It is not that the UNESCO’s findings are flawed or stand in isolation that the Caribbean countries “ignored” the resolution, but it is because of subtle socio-political motives of the ruling class of the day (Devonish, 2007).
Even with independent governments, not much has changed in light of the recent substantial and credible research by the region’s premier linguists. It has been argued that the native language should play a major part in teaching English, and developing students’ language proficiencies (Craig, 1976; Rickford, 1976). Patrena Francis reports that in the Hope Valley Experimental School in Jamaica, as recent as 2008, the method of instruction is Jamaican (or Patois), and the teachers report that students grasp more knowledge and are able to actively apply it to their evaluation of the learning material before them. The use of the Creole in such classrooms, the teachers report, enable the students to experience a “sense of belonging” while boosting their “self-confidence” ( as cited in Jamaica Gleaner, 2008, p., 35).