Presentation on theme: "APA Formatting Tutorial"— Presentation transcript:
1 APA Formatting Tutorial Ohio Christian University“Does not wisdom call out? Does not understanding raise her voice?” (Proverbs 8:1, NIV)Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
2 What is APA?APA stands for American Psychological Association. It is a writing format, developed by that association, for organizing information in a term paper, thesis, or essay.APA guidelines show how to cite (give credit to) or document information within the body of a paper that was directly quoted, summarized, or paraphrased from a source. It is also used for citing facts, statistics, and visuals.Photo retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
3 APA PapersOCU requires APA format for all written assignments. This is common with many colleges and universities across the country.APA is discussed in detail on pages of Diana Hacker’s (2010) A Writer’s Reference with Exercises (6th Edition).The contents of this tutorial are based primarily on that book, the required grammar guide for Ohio Christian University students.Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
5 Title Page Let’s start with the title page. Turn to page 493 in the Hacker (2010)text for an example of a title page.However, Ohio Christian Universityhas a standard title page for allstudents to use with papers. If you do nothave this, contact your facilitator or theStudent Services Coordinator (MichelleBlanton to obtainone.Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
6 Abstract text for an example of an abstract. Turn to page 494 in the Hacker (2010)text for an example of an abstract.An abstract is basically an overview orsummary of your term paper/essay. Itappears directly after the title page. Itshould be around words inlength with no indentation.Most of OCU’s courses do not requirestudents to include an abstract intheir assignments because they areundergraduate courses. However, it isimportant to know what an abstractis because it is usually found inprofessional writings such asjournal/periodical articles, master’stheses, and doctoral dissertations.Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
7 APA Paper Elements All the elements of an APA paper include: The title page (see previous)The body of a paper, which includes:an introduction, section headings, anda conclusion.ReferencesPhoto retrieved from Microsoft Office OnlineNote: Sources quoted from or referred to in the body of thepaper must be cited according to APA guidelines.See pages in the Hacker (2010) for an example of anAPA paper. You may also go toClick on Model Papers, scroll to APA Papers, and download: Mirano’s “Can Medication Cure Obesity in Children? A Review of the Literature” (alternative undergraduate formatting)
8 Formatting the PaperDouble-space between lines, including block quotes and references.There should only be one space after each punctuation mark.Use one inch margins around your paper.The left margin should be even.The right margin should be ragged or uneven.Words are not to be divided between lines.See pages in the Hacker text (2010) for formatting details and more expectations.Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
9 Section HeadingsSee pages in the Hacker (2010) text for an example of section headings.Page 490 in the Hacker text (2010) tells us that the first heading level is typically enough in undergraduate writing.Utilizing section headings helps organize your written assignments. It also enables your instructor to move through your paper more easily and efficiently.Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
10 Long (Block) QuotesSee the top of page 465 for an example and page 490 for expectations in the Hacker (2010) text.Block quotes:Are often used when a writer feels that a lengthy quote adds to his or her paper. However, like any quote, be careful to use them sparingly.Consists of 40 words or more.Are introduced with a signal phrase and are started on a new line.Are indented ½ inch from the left margin of your paper.Are double-spaced.Quotation marks are not used around this type of quote, but double quotation marks are used for any quote within a block quote.The citation appears after the block quote. It is not included within the last sentence of a quote as with shorter quotes.
11 Including Visuals in APA Papers See page 497 in the Hacker (2010)Text for an example of a Table 1.Occasionally there will be a need toinclude a visual in your APA paper.These include:TablesFiguresPhotosChartsGraphsDrawingsPhotos Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
12 Guidelines for Including Visuals Page 490 in the Hacker (2010) text gives some general guidelines forvisuals.Visuals should be simple (condense information).Each visual should be labeled with an arabic numeral (i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3).Include a title for each visual.Indicate the source below the visual.Discuss or give an overview of the visual within the text/body of your paper.
14 Citations vs. References These two terms are often confused. So what’s the difference?“An in-text citation gives the author of the source (often a signal phrase), the date of publication, and at times a page number in parentheses. At the end of the paper, a list of references provides publication information about the source” (Hacker, 2010, p. 469).In-text citation example (used only in the body of the paper):As researchers Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) have explained, obesity was once considered “either a moral failing or evidence of underlying psychopathology” (p. 592).Reference example (used only in a reference list at the end of a paper):Yanovski, S.Z., & Yanovski, J.A. (2002). Durg therapy: Obesity. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346,
15 CitationsAPA utilizes in-text citations for documenting (giving credit to) authors for their works. The Hacker (2010) text gives examples of citations for different types of sources. These appear on pages Citations consist of: A signal phrase. Includes the author’s last name and publication date in parentheses. The page number appears (also in parentheses) at the end of a quote. Page numbers are not needed when summarizing or paraphrasing information, but are often used.
16 Citation ExampleSignal PhraseExample: According to Johnson and Johnson (2006), “A group may be defined as a number of individuals who join together to achieve a goal” (p. 5). The period goes after the citation at the end of a sentence unless you have used a block quote. Note: Use “pp.” when more than one page is listed in a citation. Use “n.d.” when a publication date is not given.
17 Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online More on Signal PhrasesPhoto Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online“APA requires that the use of the past tense or the present perfect tensein signal phrases introducing cited material” (Hacker, 2010, p. 469).Example: In his study on adult learning Adams (2008) indicated …Note: Use all quotes sparingly. Summarize or write in your own words asmuch information as possible in your papers.Signal Phrase
18 Citations for Internet Sources Note: Internet citations Example of an Internet are done a little Citation: differently from citations from hard copy (Jones, 2007, Overseas sources. They usually Ministry section, para. 4) include the section name and paragraph OR number. (The symbol ¶ or the abbreviation “para” (Jones, 2007, Overseas is used in those citations.) Ministry section, ¶ 4)
19 Brackets within Quotations “Brackets (square parentheses) allow you to insert your own words into quoted material to explain a confusing reference or to keep a sentence grammatical in your context” (Hacker, 2010, p. 464). [ ] Brackets are also used to indicate an error within a quotation from a source. The letters sic (in italics) enclosed in brackets are placed next to that error. [sic] Example: The hymn was writtin [sic] well over two hundred years ago.
20 The Ellipsis Mark. . .From time to time you will come across a quote you want touse, but feel it is much longer than you need for yourpaper. “To condense a quoted passage, you can use theellipsis mark (three periods, with spaces between) toindicate that you have omitted words. What remains mustbe grammatically complete” (Hacker, 2010, p. 464).
21 Personal Communications See page 472 in the Hacker (2010) text.Personal communication citations areused for:Interviews (Face-to-face or via telephone)sMemosLettersNote: Personal communications are notincluded on the reference page.Example of an In-Text PersonalCommunication Citation:(P. Hanson, personal communication, December5, 2008)Photo retrieved from Microsoft Office Online
22 Indirect SourcesSometimes you will use information in your paper that comes from a secondary source. In other words, one author quoted or summarized the works of another author and included that information in his or her work.In that case, the citation is done a little differently.The original source should appear in the signal phrase.The citation will include the secondary source. The secondary source should appear on your reference page (Hacker, 2010, p. 473)
23 Example Citation for Indirect Sources Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard (1977) developed the theory of Situational Leadership. They concluded from their study at Ohio State University “that most leadership activities can be classified into two distinct behavioral dimensions: initiation of structure (task actions) and consideration of group members (relationship of maintenance actions)” (as cited in Johnson & Johnson, 2006, p. 197). However, you would need to find the reference information for Hersey and Blanchard and include it in your Reference Page. This is surprisingly easy using Amazon and Google Books.
25 ReferencesAny time information is cited within a body of a paper, a reference must be listed for that source on the reference page (s). See pages in the Hacker (2010) text for examples of physical references.Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office OnlineReview pages to properly reference:BooksJournal/Periodical ArticlesPopular Magazine ArticlesGovernment Documents
26 Example of an APA Reference Blanchard, K., & Hodges, P. (2005). Lead like Jesus: Lessons from thegreatest leadership role model of all time. Nashville, TN: ThomasNelson, Inc.Note:Initials are used for the first and middle names of the authors.The publication date goes next to the author’s/authors’ name(s).The book title is in italics. Only the first word and all proper nouns are capitalized in a title or subtitle.Use a hanging indent with your references.Alphabetize references according to the authors.Double-space individual references.Include the city and state where a resource was published.
27 References for Electronic Sources See pages in the Hacker (2010) text for examples of Internet references. Internet or electronic references are a little different from other references. The date of retrieval and the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) are often included in them. The URL will the lead reader to the exact location where the information was found on the internet. Note: While the web is a great place to find information for a paper, the disadvantage of using an electronic source is that web sites often change their information and some sources are only available for a certain period of time.
28 Example of an Electronic Reference Alimo-Metcalfe, B., & Ablan-Metcalfe, J. (2005). Leadership: Time for a new direction? Leadership Research & Development Ltd, 1, Retrieved May 2005, from
30 Writing MechanicsThe Hacker (2010) provides a nutshell for all the essential aspects required of an excellently prepared academic paper. Please observe the breakdown of the book below and utilize often as you write.Composition and Style: pages 3-174Correctness: pagesAcademic Research: pagesAPA Formatting: pagesOverview of Basic Grammar: pages
31 Other ResourcesAmato, C. J. (2002). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA: A friendly Manual for formatting research papers according to the American Psychological Association style guide (3rd ed.). Corona, CA: Stargazer Publishing Company.American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Purdue University APA Format InformationAmerican Psychological Association
32 Don’t be afraid to ask questions! Photo Retrieved from Microsoft Office OnlineIf you have questions on any of the APA Guidelines or writing mechanics, please don’t hesitate to ask your instructor. We are here to help! For “we are God’s fellow workers…” (1 Corinthians 3: 9, NIV).
33 ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Blanchard, K., & Hodges, P. (2005). Lead like Jesus: Lessons from the greatest leadership role model of all time. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, Inc.Hacker, D. (2010). A writer’s reference with exercises (6th ed.). Boston, MA:Bedford/St. Martins.Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, F. P. (2006). Joining together: Group theory and group skills. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.Photos Retrieved from Microsoft Office Online