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MAKE YOUR PAPERS “READABLE”! Integrating quotes. Pretest for Integrating Quotations 1. What punctuation mark should a writer use as part of the following.

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Presentation on theme: "MAKE YOUR PAPERS “READABLE”! Integrating quotes. Pretest for Integrating Quotations 1. What punctuation mark should a writer use as part of the following."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAKE YOUR PAPERS “READABLE”! Integrating quotes

2 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 1. What punctuation mark should a writer use as part of the following quotation used in a research paper? When discussing college drinking, experts make the following observations The misuse and abuse of alcohol is associated with a multitude of negative consequences, including hindering academic performance, drinking and driving, physical violence, conflict with peers, spontaneous and perilous... sexual activity, and property damage. (Woodyard and Hallam, 2010, p. 533) a. a semicolon b. a colon c. a comma d. quotation marks

3 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 2. What punctuation mark do writers use to show they have omitted some words from material they are quoting:  a. an ellipsis...  b. parentheses ( )  c. a dash –  d. squared brackets [ ]

4 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 3. What punctuation mark do writers use to show they have added their own words inside a group of words they are quoting:  a. an ellipsis...  b. parentheses ( )  c. a dash –  d. squared brackets [ ]

5 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 4. What letters do writers put in brackets to show that their original source had an error in spelling or grammar?  a. [error]  b. [sic]  c. [sp]  d. [oops]

6 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 5. Which of the following integrates or places a quote into the paper both smoothly and correctly from a source that appeared in the Journal of American College Health? Here is an actual excerpt from the article: Research shows 43% of undergraduates report heavy episodic drinking at least once in the last 2 weeks. Healthy People 2010 characterized heavy episodic drinking by young adults as a major national health problem which is often times associated with celebratory events. Tailgating parties at college football games, holiday festivities, and special events represent specific contexts in which high-risk drinking typically occurs. Research shows spring Break, St. Patrick’s Day, and Halloween are associated with increased quantities of alcohol consumption sometimes referred to as alcoholidays.

7 Pretest Integrating Quotations. Choose the best: a. Research shows 43% of undergraduates report heavy episodic drinking at least once in the last two weeks (Woodyard and Hallam). b. Many researchers and their statistics confirm “43% of undergraduates report heavy episodic drinking at least once in the last two weeks” (Woodyard and Hallam, 2010, p. 533). c. “Research shows 43% of undergraduates report heavy episodic drinking at least once in the last two weeks” ( cea-db7f-4fbb-9be3- 4e2256b96714%40sessionmgr14&vid=4&hid=24). cea-db7f-4fbb-9be3- 4e2256b96714%40sessionmgr14&vid=4&hid=24 d. Researchers say “43% report drinking” and researchers also say they drink too much at least “once in the last two weeks” (Woodyard and Hallam, 2010). They say tailgating parties are one place high risk drinking happens, too. They call some of these days “alcoholidays.”

8 Pretest for Integrating Quotations. 6. In number 5, which of the citations is in APA format?  a. Example a  b. Example b  c. Example c  d. Example d

9 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 7. Which of the following correctly integrates a short quotation from a site with no page numbers? (1) Cornett (2011) stated that “ My students are stellar.” (2) The professor reported “My students are stellar” (Cornett, 2011).  a. Number 1  b. Number 2  c. Both number 1 and number 2 are correct.  d. Neither number 1 nor number 2 are correct.

10 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 8. Which of the following correctly integrates a summary of an outside source’s main ideas?  a. This paper will discuss sources from the databases like Woodyard and Dane and what they have to say about college drinking.  b. Woodyard and Dane talk about all kinds of “alcohol consumption” and when it happens.  c. In The Journal of American College Health, Woodyard and Dane mention several myths about college drinking including the idea that football weekends are the main trigger.  d. “Alcohol consumption was greatest during typical weekend drinking” (Woodyard & Dane, 2010).

11 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 9. Use the following information which appears at the URL and write a paragraph on college age binge drinking that begins with a topic sentence and then uses a quote that is smoothly integrated:

12 Center for Science in the Public Interest Binge Drinking on College Campuses Defining Binge Drinking  concentration (BAC) to 0.08 or above. For a typical adult, this pattern corresponds to consuming 5 or more drinks (male), or 4 or more drinks (female), in about 2 hours.  --NIAAA National Advisory Council  College presidents agree that binge drinking is the most serious problem on campus.  While binge drinking rates vary by college, within colleges, binge drinking has remained stable over time. 1 Extent of College Drinking In 2005, about 10.8 million persons ages 12-20 (28.2% of this age group) reported drinking alcohol in the past month. Nearly 7.2 million (18.8%) were binge drinkers, and 2.3 million (6.0%) were heavy drinkers. 2 More males than females ages 12-20 reported current alcohol use (28.9% vs. 27.5%), binge drinking (21.3% vs. 16.1%), and heavy drinking (7.6% vs. 4.3%). 3 44% of students attending 4-year colleges drink alcohol at the binge level or greater. 4 Young adults aged 18-22 enrolled full-time in college were more likely than their peers not enrolled full time to use alcohol in the past month, to binge drink, and to drink heavily. 5 48% of college drinkers report that ‘drinking to get drunk’ is an important reason for drinking. Almost 1 in 4 drink alcohol 10 or more times a month and 29% report being intoxicated 3 or more times per month. 6 Binge drinkers consumed 91% of all alcohol that college students reported drinking,

13 Pretest for Integrating Quotations 10. What information should the author determine about the site above that would insure its credibility and that would help the writer integrate the material more effectively?

14 Why use quotes? Students who want to corroborate that they have an expert’s opinions as part of their evidence will use some of that expert’s words. Evaluate the two statements below:  So, everybody gets wasted in college, and it causes real problems for some people. I have this friend who failed his whole first semester.  Research at the University of Miami showed that alcohol contributed to 15% of first semester failure.

15 Why use quotes? When a careful writer borrows special phrases or original theories, he or she will make them stand out by using quotation marks:  CQ Researcher reports that binge drinking has “remained remarkably stable over time” (Mantel, 2006).  Mantel (2006) goes on to say that “paradoxically the percentage of students abstaining from alcohol is also increasing.”

16 Let’s look at an example: If a student is writing a research paper investigating college level binge drinking, he or she will need more to back up opinion than personal experience or the problems some friends may have had.

17 Investigating a topic First, the writer must come up with a question to answer about binge drinking at the college level. Try using the reporter’s questions to look at a topic:  Who is most likely to indulge in abusive binge drinking?  What constitutes abusive binge drinking?  Where is binge drinking most prevalent?  When is binge drinking most likely to occur?  Why do some students abuse alcohol to the point of poison?  How can binge drinking affect a college career?

18 Finding information Learn to use the academic databases to add credibility and depth of information to support a paper. Learn to dig deeply before accepting a free standing website at face value. If a website represents an objective and respected organization but lists no single author, learn when and how to use that site credibly.

19 When to use quotes: Use quotations to serve as examples of your main points and observations:  Binge drinking in colleges is not just the result of football games and events like a passing grade on a test. According to Woodyard and Dane (2010) in the Journal of American College Health, “alcohol consumption was greatest during typical weekend drinking.” ?  Use summaries in your own words to let your reader see main ideas overall, rather than overusing quotes. +

20 When to use quotes: Select quotations sparingly for a research paper or for literary analysis:  to illustrate or explain an opinion or idea  to reinforce a fact  to provide expert opinion that backs you up  to show opinions other than your own

21 How to use quotes: Repeat the author’s name and where the work “lives” then use quotation marks if you have borrowed more than 4 words in a row: In the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, McCauley (2010) claims that “binge drinking behavior [in women] directly contributes to a high risk of rape experiences.”

22 How to use quotes: Use an indirect statement with that. Notice the punctuation. When they investigated dangerous consumption, Maggs, Williams and Lee (2011, p. 54) report that “gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership” are major factors contributing to such consumption.

23 How to use quotes: Use a complete sentence lead-in and a colon and two spaces:  The Journal of American Health reports on the research of Griffin, Umstattd, and Usdan (2010, p. 523) who report the following: “College women continue to consume high levels of alcohol and engage in risky sexual behaviors despite the threat of negative consequences.”  More than 3 lines? Use the long indented form. Leave off the quotation marks.

24 How to use quotes: Use the author's name and/or authority to introduce quotations from secondary sources:  Editors of the journal Community College Week cite situations arising in Florida.  Griffin and Umstad, researchers in psychology, state... Use an introductory phrase or clause:  Community College Week (2008) reinforced the need for “New rules in effect... targeting binge drinking.”

25 Signal Phrases: Try some of these. According to statistics from Harvard’s Wechsler, as quoted by the Center for Science in the Public Interest,...  Check it out: This site has documentation at the bottom for all of its stats- As the author explains... As one researcher points out... The authors of the web site Center for Science in the Public Interest point out that... In the words of the organization known as ______

26 Learn other ways to say “says.” acknowledges, adds, admits, affirms, agrees, argues, asserts, believes, claims, comments, compares, confirms, contends, declares, demonstrates, denies, disputes, emphasizes, endorses, grants, illustrates, implies, insists, notes, observes, points out, reasons, refutes, rejects, reports, responds, states, suggests, thinks, underlines, writes

27 Learn to use these: Ellipsis... Colon : Squared brackets [ ] Round parentheses ( ).

28 Learn to use these: If using an ellipsis to show you have omitted some words along with a parenthetical reference at the end of a sentence, put the fourth period after the parentheses: According to one critic, the last part of A Midsummer Night's Dream shows “ the relationship between art and life...” ( Barton, 2004).

29 Learn to use these: Use brackets [ ] to indicate changes that you want to make to improve readability. Reproduce your source exactly in a quotation. Use the abbreviation [sic] immediately after a problem word or obvious mistake because you can’t change the words of others: "There were no pieces of strong [sic] around the boxes," one witness wrote.

30 Learn how to use a long quote: Introduce long quotations with a complete sentence followed by a colon. In A Room of One's Own, Virginia Wolff (1936, p. 60) speaks about women in literature and history : A very odd, composite being thus emerges. Imaginatively she is of the highest importance; practically she is completely insignificant. She pervades poetry from cover to cover; she is all but absent from history.

31 What if you quote someone who quotes someone? Use double quotation marks for a quotation and single quotation marks for a quote inside of a quote: Jackson (2009) reports on student psychological issues: “ ' Have I then sold myself, ' reported the student, ' to the fiend who constitutes the demon rum? ’ " (237).

32 Where is the end? Always put periods and commas inside quotation marks, except when there is a parenthetical documentation. Cornett (2011) states, “ My students are stellar. ” “My students are stellar” (Cornett, 2011).

33 The end is near! Are you ready to try that test again?

34 Now for a beginning: Find a source related to your research paper topic by using the library databases. Write a paragraph that sums up one of the main ideas from your source. In your paragraph, include one quotation, properly integrated.  Introduce a quotation using either the author’s name or the sponsoring organization’s name.  Use one of the words that “integrate” a quotation.  Use an ellipsis (... ) as part of your quotation.  Use commas and periods correctly with a parentheses.

35 Group Work Share your sample paragraph with another student in class. Discuss the following or write a response:  Is the quotation integrated smoothly?  Does the paragraph make sense to the reader?  Would the reader follow through and look up the source to “read more about the subject”?  What would the reader say is the reason for choosing to use the quote in the paragraph? In other words, why would the writer have chosen this quote?  How could the writer revise or strengthen the paragraph? In other words, what is a different verb that the writer could use to integrate the chosen quote?

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