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Combining Sentences When should you combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words Inserting phrases Using and, but, or Using subordinate.

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Presentation on theme: "Combining Sentences When should you combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words Inserting phrases Using and, but, or Using subordinate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combining Sentences When should you combine sentences? How to combine sentences Inserting words Inserting phrases Using and, but, or Using subordinate clauses Review A Review B

2 When should you combine sentences? Wouldn’t it be boring to have the exact same weather... every... day? single...

3 Notice how too many short sentences make this paragraph boring to read. Now see how sentence combining makes the paragraph shorter and more interesting. Reading the same type of sentence over and over again can also be boring. Thomas Edison created a talking doll. He created the talking doll in 1894. The doll would recite a nursery rhyme or poem. It said the words when a crank in its back was turned. The talking doll was very popular. Edison opened a factory. Thomas Edison created a talking doll in 1894. The doll would recite a nursery rhyme or poem when a crank in its back was turned. The talking doll was very popular, and Edison opened a factory. [End of Section] When should you combine sentences? Too many short sentences

4 How to combine sentences Inserting words Combine short sentences by taking a key word from one sentence and inserting it into the other. Ken gave me a beautiful rose. The rose was pink.pink.Ken gave me a beautifulpinkrose. key word You may have to change the form of the word. Roses come from shrubs. The shrubs have thorns.thornsRoses come fromthorny shrubs.

5 How to combine sentences Inserting words When you change the form of a word, you often add an ending that makes the word an adjective or an adverb. thorn thorny NounAdjective quickquickly AdjectiveAdverb

6 How to combine sentences Inserting words 1.My grandfather is an excellent singer. He mostly sings the blues. 2.The oil seeped out of the engine. It seeped at a slow rate. (Change slow to slowly.) 3.The plant has long leaves. The leaves have points on them. (Change points to pointed.) Combine the following short sentences by inserting the word in italics into the first sentence. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms.

7 How to combine sentences Inserting words 1.My grandfather is an excellent blues singer. Combine the following short sentences by inserting the word in italics into the first sentence. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. 2.The oil seeped slowly out of the engine. 3.The plant has long, pointed leaves.

8 How to combine sentences Inserting words [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by inserting a word from the second sentence into the first sentence. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. 1. Peanuts are a crop of many warm regions. They are a major crop. 2.The oil from peanuts is used in dressings. The dressings are for salads. 3.Peanuts are a food for snacking. Peanuts are good for your health. (Change health to healthful.) 4. Try some peanuts today. They taste good. (Change taste to tasty.) On Your Own

9 How to combine sentences Inserting words Combine each pair of sentences by inserting a word from the second sentence into the first sentence. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. Possible Answers 1. Peanuts are a major crop of many warm regions. 2.The oil from peanuts is used in salad dressings. 3.Peanuts are a healthful food for snacking. 4.Try some tasty peanuts today.

10 Exercise 4 Text p. 460

11 Brown bears gather in groups. They gather near rivers. How to combine sentences Inserting phrases You can also combine sentences by inserting a phrase from one sentence into another. phrase Tina spotted a snake. She spotted it during her hike. near rivers.Brown bears gather in groupsnear rivers. during her hike.During her hikeTina spotted a snake.

12 How to combine sentences Phrase A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject. down the snowy hills skiing all day an excellent skier to get to the top of the mountain

13 Kendra worked for her uncle Sometimes you can create a new phrase by changing the form of the verb. How to combine sentences Inserting phrases Kendra worked for her uncle. She learned about photography. worked workingWorking for her uncle,Kendra learned about photography. learnedto learn to learn about photography. learned

14 How to combine sentences Inserting phrases 1.The blizzard hit the city. It hit in the middle of the night. 2.We are taking care of Chewy. Chewy is Dianne’s pet hamster. 3.She learned the names of all the bones. She studied every night. (Change studied to studying.) Combine the following short sentences by inserting the phrase in italics into the first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms.

15 How to combine sentences Inserting phrases 1.The blizzard hit the city in the middle of the night. Combine the following short sentences by inserting the phrase in italics into the first sentence. Add commas where necessary. Hints in parentheses tell how to change word forms. 2.We are taking care of Chewy, Dianne’s pet hamster. 3.Studying every night, she learned the names of all the bones.

16 How to combine sentences Inserting phrases [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by inserting a phrase from one sentence into the other sentence. Some sentences may be combined in different ways. Add commas where necessary. 1. The pony has brown spots. The spots are on its back. 2.We left for the movie theater. We left after dinner. 3.Enrique plays in the school orchestra. Enrique is a master of the violin. 4.The vines should be trimmed. These are the vines growing on the fence. On Your Own

17 How to combine sentences Inserting phrases Combine each pair of sentences by inserting a phrase from one sentence into the other sentence. Some sentences may be combined in different ways. Add commas where necessary. Possible Answers 1. The pony has brown spots on its back. 2.We left for the movie theater after dinner. 3.Enrique, a master of the violin, plays in the school orchestra. 4.The vines growing on the fence should be trimmed.

18 Exercise 5 Text pp. 462-3

19 How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or You can combine sentences by using the coordinating conjunctions and, but, or or. Katie and Tyrone both enjoy crossword puzzles. Katie likes crossword puzzles but hates word-find puzzles. Tyrone or Katie will help you solve that crossword puzzle. And shows similarity. But shows a contrast. Or shows a choice.

20 How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or You can combine sentences by using and, but, or or to create a compound subject. Step 1. Look for sentences that have the same verb. Same verb Kangaroos have pouches. Koalas have pouches. Kangaroos have pouches. Koalas have pouches. Step 2. Join the subjects with a connecting word such as and, but, or or. Kangaroos and koalas have pouches.

21 When you use and to join two subjects, the new compound subject will be plural, so make sure you use a plural verb. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or Tim plays tennis. Ken plays tennis. Tim and Ken play tennis. The plural verb play agrees with the plural compound subject Tim and Ken.

22 Carlos will play soccer in the park. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or You can combine sentences by using and, but, or or to create a compound verb. Step 1. Look for sentences that have the same subject. Same subject Carlos will go to the movies. Step 2.Join the verbs with a connecting word such as and, but, or or. Carlos will go to the movies or play soccer in the park.

23 1.Dolphins are warm-blooded. Porpoises are warm-blooded. 2.You can clean your room now. You can wait until after lunch. 3.Juan bought a bicycle. Juan did not ride it. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

24 1.Dolphins and porpoises are warm-blooded. Since both sentences had the same verb, the combined sentence has a compound subject. The conjunction and shows that the ideas are similar. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

25 2.You can clean your room now or wait until after lunch. Since both sentences had the same subject, the combined sentence has a compound verb. The conjunction or shows that there is a choice. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

26 3. Juan bought a bicycle but did not ride it. Since both sentences had the same subject, the combined sentence has a compound verb. The conjunction but shows a contrast between ideas. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

27 [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. 1.Parakeets make good pets. Gerbils make good pets. 2.The question confused me. It did not trick me. 3.Mara eats well every day. Mara exercises every day. 4.Maples grow well in this area. Birches grow well too. 5.Jason may bring the snacks. Heidi may bring them. On Your Own How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

28 Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound subject or a compound verb. Possible Answers 1. Parakeets and gerbils make good pets. 3.Mara eats well and exercises every day. 4.Maples and birches grow well in this area. 2.The question confused but did not trick me. 5.Jason or Heidi will bring the snacks.

29 Exercise 6 Text p. 464

30 How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or If the two sentences are related and equally important, you can form a compound sentence.compound sentence To make a compound sentence, join the two sentences with a comma and a coordinating conjunction. Jan sliced the bread.I made the soup. Jan sliced the bread, and I made the soup. Brett likes math. Greta prefers science. Bret likes math, but Greta prefers science.

31 How to combine sentences Compound sentence A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and a connecting word. Each independent clause has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Independent clause Comma Connecting word Missy passed the ballMarta made the shot., andMissy subject verb Martapassedmade

32 1.The blinds were closed. The doors were locked. 2.The mail carrier has arrived. He does not have the letter. 3.Becky will draw the map herself. If not, Jim will help her. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

33 1. The blinds were closed, and the doors were locked. The conjunction and shows that the ideas in the two halves of the sentence are equal in importance. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

34 2.The postal worker has arrived, but he does not have the letter. The conjunction but shows the contrast between the ideas in the two halves of the sentence. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. Possible Answer How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

35 3.Becky will draw the map herself, or Jim will help her. The conjunction or shows a choice between the ideas in the two halves of the sentence. Combine the following short sentences by forming a compound sentence. Be prepared to explain your answers. Possible Answer How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

36 [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound sentence. 1. Nelia mowed the grass. Burt pulled the weeds. 2.The bakery has already closed. The café is still open. 3.Planets do not give off light of their own. Stars do. 4.We can keep the old system of measurement. We can switch to the metric system. On Your Own How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

37 Combine each pair of sentences by forming a compound sentence. Possible Answers 1. Nelia mowed the grass, and Burt pulled the weeds. 2.The bakery has already closed, but the café is still open. 3.Planets do not give off light of their own, but stars do. 4. We can keep the old system of measurement, or we can switch to the metric system. How to combine sentences Using and, but, or or

38 Exercise 7 Text p. 465

39 How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses Another way to combine sentences is to turn one sentence into a subordinate clause and attach it to the other sentence, an independent clause.subordinate clauseindependent clause Amy painted the walls.I cleaned the floor. while I cleaned the floor Subordinate clause Amy painted the walls while I cleaned the floor. When you combine sentences this way, you get a complex sentence. complex sentence Independent clause The subordinate clause adds information by telling what else was going on while Amy was painting. Attach the subordinate clause

40 How to combine sentences Subordinate clause A subordinate clause (or dependent clause) has a subject and a verb but does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a sentence. Subject after the bridge was built Verb after the bridge was built What happened after the bridge was built?

41 How to combine sentences Independent clause An independent clause (or main clause) has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause can stand by itself as a sentence. Subject Many motorists use the bridge daily. Traffic improved. Verb Subject Verb Many motorists use the bridge daily. Traffic improved. Many motorists use the bridge daily.

42 After the bridge was built, How to combine sentences Complex sentence Traffic improved after the bridge was built. A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Independent ClauseSubordinate Clause Complex sentences are also reversible. Insert a comma after the subordinate clause when it begins a sentence. traffic improved.

43 How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses You can create a subordinate clause by replacing the subject of an independent clause with who, which, or that. Mr. Garcia is a leader.He has helped many people. who has helped many people Mr. Garcia is a leader who has helped many people. He runs the local food bank. It feeds thousands. which feeds thousands. He runs the local food bank, which feeds thousands. Subject Attach the subordinate clause

44 How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses You can also make a subordinate clause by adding a word that indicates time, such as after, before, since, when, or while. The fans were happy. Their team made a goal. when their team made a goal. The fans were happy when their team made a goal. Then we had lunch.We watched the match. after we watched the match After we watched the match, we had lunch. Sometimes you’ll have to change the other sentence slightly before inserting the subordinate clause. Attach the subordinate clause

45 How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses You can also make a subordinate clause by adding a word that indicates place, such as where. A shed now stands on the spot. The tree grew there. where the tree grew. A shed now stands on the spot where the tree grew. They went to Rome. They saw the Vatican there. where they saw the Vatican. They went to Rome, where they saw the Vatican. Attach the subordinate clause

46 1.Many visitors arrived. The gates opened. (Use before.) 2.The Aztecs practiced a religion. It affected every part of their lives. (Use that.) 3.We stopped at a roadside stand. There we bought some apples. (Use where.) Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into a subordinate clause and attaching it to the first. The hints in parentheses tell you how to start the subordinate clause. How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses

47 1.Many visitors arrived before the gates opened. How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses Possible Answer The subordinate clause before the gates opened tells when the visitors arrived. Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into a subordinate clause and attaching it to the first. The hints in parentheses tell you how to start the subordinate clause.

48 How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses 2.The Aztecs practiced a religion that affected every part of their lives. The subordinate clause that affected every part of their lives tells something more about religion. Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into a subordinate clause and attaching it to the first. The hints in parentheses tell you how to start the subordinate clause. Possible Answer

49 3.We stopped at a roadside stand, where we bought some apples. The subordinate clause where we bought some apples tells something more about roadside stand. Combine the following short sentences by turning the second sentence into a subordinate clause and attaching it to the first. The hints in parentheses tell you how to start the subordinate clause. How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses Possible Answer

50 [End of Section] Combine each pair of sentences by using a subordinate clause. The hints in parentheses tell you how to start the subordinate clause. 1. Dee received pearls. She graduated. (Use when.) 2.The pearl is a gem. It is made by certain kinds of oysters. (Use that.) 3.A pearl becomes round. It is formed in the soft part of the oyster. (Use after.) 4. Beautiful pearls are found in tropical seas. The best pearl oysters live there. (Use where.) On Your Own How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses

51 Possible Answers Combine each pair of sentences by using a subordinate clause. The hints in parentheses tell you how to start the subordinate clause. 1. Dee received pearls when she graduated. 2.The pearl is a gem that is made by certain kinds of oysters. 3.A pearl becomes round after it is formed in the soft part of the oyster. 4.Beautiful pearls are found in tropical seas, where the best pearl oysters live. How to combine sentences Using subordinate clauses

52 Review A [End of Section] Combine each of the following pairs of sentences. The hints in parentheses will help you decide what combining method to use. 1.The baby gave me a smile. The smile was bright. (Insert a key word.) 2.Mother has installed new blinds. They block the bright afternoon sun. (Use which to begin a subordinate clause.) 3.Susie plays the drums. She plays in the school band. (Insert a phrase.) 4.The downpour began at midnight. It was still raining the next morning. (Make a compound sentence.)

53 Review A 1.The baby gave me a bright smile. 2.Mother has installed new blinds, which block the bright afternoon sun. 3.Susie plays the drums in the school band. 4.The downpour began at midnight, and it was still raining the next morning. Combine each of the following pairs of sentences. The hints is parentheses will help you decide what combining method to use.

54 Review B [End of Section] Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and rewrite the following paragraph without changing its original meaning. Dr. James Naismith invented the game of basketball. He invented it in the late 1800s. The first basketball teams started in 1891. They had nine players instead of five. The first basket was a peach basket. A player had to retrieve the ball. This happened when a score was made.

55 Review B Using all of the sentence-combining skills you have learned, revise and rewrite the following paragraph without changing its original meaning. Dr. James Naismith invented the game of basketball in the late 1800s. The first basketball teams started in 1891, and they had nine players instead of five. The first basket was a peach basket. A player had to retrieve the ball when a score was made. Possible Answers

56 The End


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