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Understanding Verb Forms What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular verbs Irregular verbs Six confusing verbs Sit/Set Rise/Raise Lie/Lay Review A Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Verb Forms What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular verbs Irregular verbs Six confusing verbs Sit/Set Rise/Raise Lie/Lay Review A Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Verb Forms What are the principal parts of verbs? Regular verbs Irregular verbs Six confusing verbs Sit/Set Rise/Raise Lie/Lay Review A Review B

2 What are the principal parts of verbs? Verbs “dress” differently for different occasions. She dresses casually. She dressed for school. She has dressed for graduation.

3 Verbs have four principal parts. Each principal part has a different function. What are the principal parts of verbs? Present Participle Base Form Past Past Participle talk draw [is] talk[is] draw ing talk ed dr e [have] talk ed [have] draw n ing More about participles w

4 Lucas has drawn a picture. She was talking. What are the principal parts of verbs? Participles When used as part of a verb phrase, participles follow a helping verb. Verb Phrase Helping Verb

5 What are the principal parts of verbs? These principle parts are used to form all of the different verb tenses.tenses Present Participle Base Form Past Past Participle They talk every day. They are talking now. They talked yesterday. They have talked for hours.

6 What are the principal parts of verbs? Tense Cody practices his trumpet every day. The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or state of being expressed by the verb. PastFuture Present Present Perfect He has practiced different songs. Future Future Perfect Perfect tenses indicate that something happened or existed before a specific point in time. Cody will practice for the concert. He will have practiced all the songs by then. Past Yesterday he practiced for two hours. Past Perfect He had practiced less the night before. Present

7 Regular verbs A regular verb generally forms its past and past participle by adding –d or –ed to the base form. Present Participle Base FormPastPast Participle clean ed [have] clean ed hope d [have] hope d The present participle is formed by adding –ing. clean ing

8 A common mistake is to leave the –d or –ed ending off the past and past participle forms. He use to play guitar. Nonstandard He used to play guitar. Standard We were suppose to meet there. We were supposed to meet there. Regular verbs Verbs

9 He almost drownded. Nonstandard He almost drowned. Standard The kitten attackted the paper bag. The kitten attacked the paper bag. Regular verbs Verbs Another common mistake is to add unnecessary letters.

10 Regular verbs Most regular verbs that end in e drop the e before adding –ing. hope Some verbs double the final consonant before adding –ing or –ed. hughugg ing hug hugg ed hop ing

11 Regular verbs 1.Teresa (call) me yesterday about the party. 2.Then Marty (move) the chairs onto the porch. 3.The salesclerk has (help) my mother before. Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses.

12 Regular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. 1.Teresa called me yesterday about the party. The past form of call is called.

13 Regular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. 2.Then Marty moved the chairs onto the porch. The past form of move is moved.

14 Regular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. 3.The salesclerk has helped my mother before. The past participle of help is helped.

15 Regular verbs [End of Section] Give the correct form (past, past participle, or present participle) of the verb in italics, as indicated in parentheses. 1. The dancers are (perform) on stage. (present participle) 2.We (watch) a folk dance an hour ago. (past) 3.We are (learn) dances from different countries. (present participle) 4.Someone in the audience has (request) an Irish square dance. (past participle) 5.I had (hope) to take dance lessons. (past participle) On Your Own

16 Give the correct form (past, past participle, or present participle) of the verb in italics, as indicated in parentheses. Regular verbs Answers 1. The dancers are performing on stage. (present participle) 2.We watched a folk dance an hour ago. (past) 3.We are learning dances from different countries. (present participle) 4.Someone in the audience has requested an Irish square dance. (past participle) 5.I had hoped to take dance lessons. (past participle)

17 nk Irregular verbs An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some way other than by adding –d or –ed. Base FormPastPast Participle drink hurt [have] hurt Some verbs do not fit the regular pattern. drnk a [have] dr u

18 Since most English verbs are regular, people sometimes try make irregular verbs follow the regular pattern. Such verb forms are not standard. Irregular verbs NonstandardStandard breakedbroke drived drove knowed knew

19 n Irregular verbs Changing vowels 1. Some irregular verbs form the past and past participle by changing vowels. Base FormPastPast Participle begin n Other Verbs that Change Vowels findfound[have] found holdheld[have] held ringrang[have] rung swimswam[have] swum beg [have] beg u a

20 Irregular verbs Changing consonants 2.Other irregular verbs form the past and past participle by changing consonants. Base FormPastPast Participle makema [have] ma d Other Verbs that Change Consonants bendbent[have] bent buildbuilt[have] built lendlent[have] lent spendspent[have] spent d e e

21 Irregular verbs Changing vowels and consonants 3.Some irregular verbs form the past and past participle by changing both vowels and consonants. Base FormPastPast Participle rider [have] r Other Verbs that Change Vowels and Consonants buybought[have] bought seesaw[have] seen speakspoke[have] spoken wearworewore[have] worn od e idden

22 Irregular verbs No change 4.A few irregular verbs make no change at all in their past and past participle forms. Base FormPastPast Participle put Other Verbs that Make No Change cost [have] cost cut [have] cut hit [have] hit read [have] read put [have] put

23 Irregular verbs 1.My cousin has (find) a new canyon trail. 2.Her grandfather (build) the shed himself. 3.Last night we (see) Mr. Torrence at the mall. Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. 4.The tickets should not have (cost) so much.

24 Irregular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. The past participle of find is found. 1.My cousin has found a new canyon trail.

25 Irregular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. 2.Her grandfather built the shed himself. The past form of build is built.

26 Irregular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. The past form of see is saw. 3.Last night we saw Mr. Torrence at the mall.

27 Irregular verbs Give the correct past or past participle form of each verb in parentheses. 4.The tickets should not have cost so much. The past participle of cost is cost.

28 Irregular verbs [End of Section] Give the correct form (past or past participle) of each verb given in parentheses. 1. Two graceful swans ________ across the lake. (swim) 2.Gabriela ________ me her softball glove. (lend) 3.Nate ________ a fleece jacket on the hike. (wear) 4.I have already ________ the wrapping paper. (cut) 5.Have you ________ your best on the science project? (do) On Your Own

29 1. Two graceful swans ________ across the lake. (swim) 2.Gabriela ________ me her softball glove. (lend) 3.Nate ________ a fleece jacket on the hike. (wear) 4. I have already ________ the wrapping paper. (cut) 5.Have you ________ your best on the science project? (do) swam lent wore cut done Irregular verbs Answers Give the correct form (past or past participle) of each verb given in parentheses.

30 Six confusing verbs Six verbs in English require special attention. lielay sitsetriseraise Does the baby lie still or lay still? Are the children?sittingsetting Do the fansor?riseraise or

31 Six confusing verbs To figure out which verb is correct, ask... Don usually sits up front. Does the verb have a direct object?direct object No object They set the boxes down. Direct object

32 Another way to remember which verb to use is to think about what they mean. Six confusing verbs sitto be in place setto put (something) in place lieto recline layto put or place (something) riseto go up raiseto make (something) go up

33 A direct object is a word or word group that receives the action of the verb or shows the result of the action. Six confusing verbs They set the boxes down. Direct object boxes set what down? boxes

34 The verb sit means “to be seated” or “to rest.” Sit / Set They sit on the sand. The verb set means “to put (something) in a place.” Set usually has a direct object. He will set the books down soon. Direct object

35 Sit / Set The sun sets in the West. No object Set Set has other meanings that do not require a direct object. Check a dictionary to see whether or not the meaning you intend takes an object.

36 Sit / Set Principal Parts of Sit and Set Base Form Present Participle PastPast Participle sit[is] sittingsat[have] sat set[is] settingset[have] set We sit on the park bench.We are sitting on the bench. We sat there all day. We have sat on the bench before. She sets the lantern down. She is setting it down now. She set the lantern on the table. She has sat it down already.

37 Sit / Set 1.The family (sat, set) down at the table. 2.She (sat, set) the basket on the floor. 3.The lawn chairs are (sitting, setting) by the pool. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it.

38 Sit / Set Sat is the past form of sit, which means “to be seated” and takes no object. 1.The family (sat, set) down at the table. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it.

39 Sit / Set Set is the past form of set, which means “to put (something) in a place.” Set takes the direct object basket. 2.She (sat, set) the basket on the floor. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it. Direct object

40 Sit / Set Sitting is the present participle form of sit, which means “to rest” and does not take an object. 3.The lawn chairs are (sitting, setting) by the pool. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it.

41 Sit / Set [End of Section] Give the correct form of sit or set for each of the following sentences. 1. I ______ on a broken chair at the party yesterday. 2.Last night Kim ______ her ring on the dresser. 3.At the game, Kevin was ______ next to Paolo. 4.I have ______ here for hours waiting for you. 5.Before she left, Josie had ______ a loaf of bread on the counter. On Your Own

42 Give the correct form of sit or set for each of the following sentences. 1. I ______ on a broken chair at the party yesterday. 2.Last night Kim ______ her ring on the dresser. 3.At the game, Kevin was ______ next to Paolo. 4.I have ______ here for hours waiting for you. 5.Before she left, Josie had ______ a loaf of bread on the counter. Answers Sit / Set sat set sitting sat set

43 Rise / Raise The verb rise means “to go upward.” Slowly the balloons rise into the sky. The verb raise means “to lift (something) up.” Raise usually has a direct object. They raised the flag. Direct object

44 Raise can also mean “to grow” or “to bring to maturity.” Both of these uses also take a direct object. Rise / Raise The Johnsons raise wheat. Direct object My aunt raises sheep. Direct object

45 Rise / Raise Principal Parts of Rise and Raise Base Form Present Participle PastPast Participle rise[is] risingrose[have] risen raise[is] raisingraised[have] raised The sun rises in the East. The sun is rising now. The sun rose at 7:15 A.M. The sun has risen. Shawn raises the blinds each morning. Shawn is raising the blinds for us. Shawn raised the blinds yesterday. Shawn has raised the blinds often.

46 Rise / Raise 1.The winner proudly (rises, raises) her trophy. 2.Smoke is (rising, raising) from the factory. 3.He gently (rose, raised) the injured turtle from the lake. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it.

47 Rise / Raise Raises is the correct form because the verb means “to lift (something) up” and takes the object trophy. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it. 1.The winner proudly (rises, raises) her trophy. Direct object

48 Rise / Raise For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it. 2.Smoke is (rising, raising) from the factory. Rising is the correct form because the verb means “to lift (something) up” and takes no object.

49 Rise / Raise For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it. 3.He gently (rose, raised) the injured turtle from the lake. Rising is the correct form because the verb means “to lift (something) up” and takes the object turtle. Direct object

50 Rise / Raise [End of Section] Give the correct form of rise or raise for each of the following sentences. 1. Please ______ the sign higher. 2.I hope the bread is ______. 3.Sparks ______ from the fire and scattered into the night sky. 4.They ______ the couch while I looked under it. 5.Prices have ______ steadily for almost a year. On Your Own

51 Give the correct form of rise or raise for each of the following sentences. 1. Please ______ the sign higher. 2.I hope the bread is ______. 3.Sparks ______ from the fire and scattered into the night sky. 4.They ______ the couch while I looked under it. 5.Prices have ______ steadily for almost a year. Rise / Raise Answers raise rising rose raised risen

52 Lie / Lay The verb lie means “to rest,” “to recline,” or “to be in a place.” The pigs lie in the grass. The verb lay means “to place (something somewhere).” Lay usually takes a direct object. The chef lays the food on the plate. Direct object

53 Lie / Lay The girl lied about spilling the paint. Lie Lie can also mean “to tell an untruth.” The past and past participle forms for this meaning of lie are lied and [have] lied.

54 Lie / Lay These verbs are easy to confuse because the past form of lie is also lay. Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Base Form Present Participle PastPast Participle lie[is] lyinglay[have] lain lay[is] layinglaid[have] laid After his walk, the dog lay on the grass. Past form of lie Please lay the blanket on the bed. Base form of lay lay

55 Lie / Lay Principal Parts of Lie and Lay Base Form Present Participle PastPast Participle lie[is] lyinglay[have] lain lay[is] layinglaid[have] laid The cat lies on the chair. The cat is lying there still.The cat lay down an hour ago.The cat has lain there a long time. He lays the cane against the wall.He is laying the cane against the wall.He laid the cane there earlier. He has laid it there before.

56 Lie / Lay 1.Please do not (lie, lay) your gloves on the heater. 2.Micki (lay, laid) in bed all day with a cold. 3.The napkins are (lying, laying) on the table. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it.

57 Lie / Lay Lay is the correct form because the verb means “to place (something somewhere)” and takes the object gloves. 1.Please do not (lie, lay) your gloves on the heater. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it. Direct object

58 Lie / Lay In this sentence, lay is the past form of lie. The verb means “to rest” or “to recline” and does not take an object. 2.Micki (lay, laid) in bed all day with a cold. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it.

59 Lie / Lay 3.The napkins are (lying, laying) on the table. For each of the following sentences, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. If the verb has a direct object, identify it. Lying is the correct present participle form because the verb means “to be in a place” and takes no object.

60 Lie / Lay [End of Section] Give the correct form of lie or lay for each of the following sentences. 1. Then the clerk ______ the small package on the scale. 2.Those clothes will ______ on the floor until you pick them up. 3.Who ______ this paintbrush on the bare floor? 4.That wet towel has been ______ here all day long. 5.After his playtime, the puppy ______ down and slept. On Your Own

61 Give the correct form of lie or lay for each of the following sentences. 1. Then the clerk ______ the small package on the scale. 2.Those clothes will ______ on the floor until you pick them up. 3.Who ______ this paintbrush on the bare floor? 4.That wet towel has been ______ here all day long. 5.After his playtime, the puppy ______ down and slept. Lie / Lay Answers laid lie laid lying lay

62 Review A Give the correct form (past, past participle, or present participle) of each italicized verb, as indicated in parentheses. 1.After lunch we (wash) the car and mowed the lawn. (past) 2.Marcos has (look) everywhere for his boots. (past participle) 3.My aunt is (bring) the salad. (present participle) 4.I (know) the answer, but I ran out of time. (past) 5.Most of the leaves have already (fall) from the trees. (past participle)

63 2.Marcos has looked everywhere for his boots. (past participle) 3.My aunt is bringing the salad. (present participle) 1.After lunch we washed the car and mowed the lawn. (past) Review A Give the correct form (past, past participle, or present participle) of each italicized verb, as indicated in parentheses. 4.I knew the answer, but I ran out of time. (past) 5.Most of the leaves have already fallen from the trees. (past participle)

64 Review B For each sentence, choose the correct verb form in parentheses. 1.Geraldo (rose, raised) the branch so I could get by. 2.I had (lain, laid) my hat on the back of the chair. 3.Everyone (sat, set) quietly during the recital. 4.The children were (sitting, setting) in their seats waiting for the show to start. 5.The foam has (rise, raised) to the top of the drink. 6.The baby is (laying, laying) in his crib.

65 Review B 1.Geraldo raised the branch so I could get by. 2.I had laid my hat on the back of the chair. 3.Everyone sat quietly during the recital. 4.The children were sitting in their seats waiting for the show to start. 5.The foam has risen to the top of the drink. 6.The baby is lying in his crib. For each sentence, choose the correct verb form in parentheses.

66 The End


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