Presentation on theme: "PUNCTUATION- Part 2 By Dr. Sarwet Rasul. Review of previous learning: What is punctuation? Why to use punctuation? Introduction to common punctuation."— Presentation transcript:
How to Use a Colon? Rule 1 Use the colon after a complete sentence to introduce a list of items. In this case a colon is a replacement of words ‘such as’, ‘namely’, ‘for example’, ‘that is’ etc. Examples: When you join the camp bring some basic items: edibles, sleeping bags, heaters, and warm clothing. I want the following items: papers, pens and pencils. I need a cook who can cook the following food: (1) Continental, (2) Chinese, and (3) Italian.
Rule 2 The list you create after a colon you may or may not use capitalization for it. In the same way punctuation is optional when using single words or phrases in bulleted form. Examples: I need a cook who can cook the following food: (1) Continental, (2) Chinese, (3) Italian. I need a cook who can cook the following food: (1) Continental (2) Chinese (3) Italian See this example: These are some of the rules of camping: 1. Do not lit fire near a camp. 2. If you see something unusual, report it. 3. Have fun!
Rule 3 A colon can be used between two sentences. Use a colon instead of a semicolon between two sentences in the case when no coordinating conjunction is used to connect these sentences and the second sentence is an explanation of the first sentence. Examples: I like Chinese food: egg-fried rice are my favorite. (Note): Compare this rule with the rule of using a semi-colon.
Rule 4 Use the colon to introduce a direct quotation that is of more than forty words or three lines in length. In this case quotation marks are not used. Example: Mahboob and Ahmar (2004: p.1003) encapsulate the whole journey of English in the subcontinent as: English was first introduced in the Indo-Pak subcontinent by the British in the 16th century. It received official recognition with the passing of Macaulay’s minutes of 1835. Throughout the British era, English kept gaining political and social status. By 1947, when Pakistan and India gained their independence from the British, the English language had become so entrenched in the socio-political fabric of the region that it was retained as an official language in both the countries.
Rule 5 A colon is used to follow the salutation of a business letter even when addressing someone by his/her first name. Note: Do not use a semicolon after a salutation. However, for personal correspondence a comma is used after the salutation. Examples: If the name of a person is Raza Ahmad you can use: Dear Mr. Raza: Dear Mr. Ahmad:
So far we have learnt five rules of using a colon. Mainly a colon is used when a detail or explanation of something that has already been talked about is given.
Rules Exclamation mark is used to show emphasis or surprise. Exclamation marks are not used in formal or official writing. An exclamation mark can be used after a single word or at the end of a sentence construction. Examples: Hurrah! Aha! I'm shocked by your behavior! What are you doing! Oh my God!
Rule 1: Use quotation marks for a direct quotation only. Example: ‘‘Will you attend the party’’ he asked. He asked if I would attend the party.
Rule 2: Do not use quotation marks with quoted material that is more than forty words or three lines in length. Do you remember we have already discussed it with reference to the use of colon?
Rule 3: Place full stops always inside quotation marks. Example: He said, ‘‘you need to complete the project.’’
Rule 4: When you have two questions together in a sentence that is a question outside the quoted material and a question inside the quoted material, use only one question mark. In this case the question mark will be placed outside the quotation mark. Example: Did he say, ‘‘May I leave?’’
Rule 5: There is a certain way of using quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes. Example: He said, ‘‘Akram said, ‘Do not spoil the project.’’’
Some other uses of quotation marks You can use quotation marks to indicate a unique, unusual or ironic use of a word. Example: Autocracy in the name of people is called “democracy”. You can also use quotation marks around the titles of pieces of literature, art, song titles, names of magazine or newspaper articles, essays, speeches, chapter titles, short films, television or radio shows etc. Examples: “Othello" by Shakspeare “Capital Talk" by Hamid Mir
So we have learnt different uses of quotation marks. We have also seen in which cases quotation marks are not to be used. Mainly quotation marks are used when direct speech of a speaker is presented. Please remember quotation marks are also sometimes called “Speech Marks”.
General use: Parentheses are used to emphasize content. They place more emphasis on the enclosed material or content than commas.
Rule 1: Parentheses or small brackets are used to enclose numbers or letters when listed items are given. Example: We need a research assistant who can (1) collect data, (2) enter it, and (3) analyze it systematically.
Rule 2: A very important use of parentheses is to show words or figures that are added to clarify, to provide some additional information or are used as an aside. Examples: I will pay you one hundred dollars ($100). The subordinate finally answered (after a long pause that seemed like ages) that he did not understand the task. Please look at these examples: My brother- a computer engineer - fixed my computer. My brother, a computer engineer, fixed my computer. My brother ( a computer engineer) fixed my computer.
To remember: A full stop is placed inside parentheses only if a complete sentence is inside the parentheses. Examples: Please read the report on the project. (I have enclosed it as Attachment A.) Please read the report (Attachment A).
Thus we can conclude about the use of parentheses or small brackets that they are mainly used to enclose additional information.
Rule1: Use the apostrophe with contractions. We always use apostrophe at the spot where some letter(s) has been removed. Examples: don’t, doesn’t, isn’t, aren’t You’re wrong, she’s right. He’s a great manager.
Another use of apostrophe Rule 2: Use the apostrophe where the noun that should follow is implied. Example: This was his father’s, not his, opinion.
Rule3: Use the apostrophe to show possession. In case of singular possession, an s is added and the apostrophe is placed before the s to show singular possession. Examples: a boy’s coat a child’s food
Rule 4: When you want to show plural possession, make the noun plural first. Then immediately use the apostrophe. Examples: two girls’ hats two men’s hats two actresses’ hats two children’s hats
Rule 5: With a singular compound noun, show possession with ’s at the end of the word. Example: my brother-in-law’s car
Rule 6: If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and then use the apostrophe. Example: My two brothers-in-law’s houses are situated on this street.
Rule 7: Use the apostrophe and s after the second name only if two people possess the same item. Examples: Sara’s and Amna’s project contracts will be renewed next year. (Indicates separate ownership.) Sara and Amna’s project contracts will be renewed next year. (Indicates joint ownership of more than one contract.)
Rule 8: Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns: his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours, whose. They already show possession so they do not require an apostrophe. Example: Correct: This notebook is hers, not yours. Incorrect: Sincerely your’s. Correct: Sincerely yours. Incorrect: Your’s Truly Correct: Yours Truly
1. To check whether a compound noun is two words, one word, or hyphenated, you may need to look it up in the dictionary. If you can’t find the word in the dictionary, treat the noun as separate words. Examples: eyewitness eye shadow eye-opener 2. All compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine are hyphenated. Examples: The manager had forty-eight workers in his team. 3. Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. Example: Add one-fourth of a cup of sugar in the flour.
4. Hyphenate between two or more adjectives when they come before a noun and act as a single idea. Example: friendly-looking man (compound adjective in front of a noun)
1.An en dash, named for the width of a typesetter’s n key, is a little longer than a hyphen. It is used for span of time when you might otherwise use to. Examples: The years 2010–2012 January–July 2. An em dash is longer than an en dash (named for the width of a typesetter’s m key). It is used for addition emphasis: Example: You are my child—the only child— so I love you very much.
An em dash is longer than an en dash (named for the width of a typesetter’s m key). Don’t use it just because you are uncertain about correct punctuation. In informal writing, em dashes may replace commas, semicolons, colons, and parentheses to indicate added emphasis, an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought. Example: You are the friend—the only friend—who offered to help me. EM DASH