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**Variables, Expressions and Arithmetic Operators in JAVA**

Lecture #3 JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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Variables A variables can be considered as a name given to the location in memory where values are stored. One syntax of variable declaration dataType variableName; Do you imagine that the variable can change its value – yes, that is why it is called as variable. Is the following variable name is legal: GrandTotal ? Suggest good name for it? JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Variable Names and Keywords**

Use only the characters 'a' through 'z', 'A' through 'Z', '0' through '9', character '_', and character '$'. A name can’t contain space character. Do not start with a digit. A name can be of any length. Upper and lower case count as different characters. So SUM and Sum are different names. A name can not be a reserved word. A name must not already be in use in this part of the program. A reserved word is a word which has a predefined meaning in Java. For example int, double, true, and import are reserved words. JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Questions on Variable Names**

int good-bye; int shrift = 0; char thisMustBeTooLong; int bubble = 0,toil = 9, trouble = 8 int 8ball; int double; JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Answers int good-bye; //bad variable name int shrift = 0; //OK**

char thisMustBeTooLong; //OK in syntax //but poor choice in variable name int bubble = 0,toil = 9, trouble = 8 // “;” missing at the end int 8ball; //can’t start with a digit int double; //double is a reserve word JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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Expressions An expression is a combination of constants (like 100), operators ( like +), variables(section of memory) and parentheses ( like “(” and “)” ) used to calculate a value. x = 1; y = x; This is the stuff that you know from algebra, like: (32 - y) / (x + 5) There are rules for this, but best rule is that an expression must look OK as algebra. Based on what you know about algebra, what is the value of /2 + 2 ? Spaces don’t much matter. JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Arithmetic Operators What is the value of –12 + 3**

An arithmetic operator is a symbol that asks for doing some arithmetic. Operator Meaning Precedence - Unary minus highest + Unary Plus highest * Multiplication middle / Division middle % Modulus middle + addition low - Subtraction low JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**basicOperation.java class basicOperation {**

//arithmetic using variables public static void main() { int a = 1+ 1; int b = 3 * 3; int c = / 4; int d = -2; System.out.println( “a = ” + a); System.out.println(“b = ” + b); System.out.println(“c = ” + c); System.out.println(“d = ” + d); } JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**basicMath.java class basicMath { //arithmetic using variables**

public static void main() { int a = 1+ 3; int b = a * 3; int c = b / 4; int d = c – a; int e = -d; System.out.println( “a = ” + a); System.out.println(“b = ” + b); System.out.println(“c = ” + c); System.out.println(“d = ” + d); System.out.println(“e = ” + e); } JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Parentheses Difference between -1 * ( 9 - 2 ) * 3 and -1 * 9 - 2 * 3**

To say exactly what numbers go with each operator, use parentheses. Nested Parentheses: The expression is evaluated starting at the most deeply nested set of parentheses (the "innermost set"), and then working outward until there are no parentheses left. If there are several sets of parentheses at the same level, they are evaluated left to right. ( ( ( ) / ( 2 * 2 ) ) - ( ) ) + 7 Are arithmetic expressions the only kind of expression? JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**intergerDivision.java class integerDivision {**

public static void main ( String[] args ) { System.out.println("The result is: " + (1/2 + 1/2) ); } What is the value of 99/100 ? Change print statement to “print” (1.0/2 + 1/ 2 .0) JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**final reserve word class calculateTax {**

public static void main ( String[] arg ) { l final char c = ‘A’; f final int count = 0; } JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Assignment No.1 Check that your program prints the correct results.**

Write a program that averages the synsets created for three months April, May and June. Declare and initialize variable to the synset entered for each month. Compute the average and write out the results, something like this: Synsets Entered for April: 12 Synsets Entered for May : 14 Synsets Entered for June: 8 Average Synset Entered: Check that your program prints the correct results. JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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**Assignment No. 2 Check the correctness of the result.**

Write a program that computes summation of 1 to n numbers where n can be any positive number. Declare and initialize variables and print the output as Value of n is : 5 Sum of first 5 positive numbers : 15 Check the correctness of the result. JAVA-NLP Lecture series

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