Presentation on theme: "APA Style Review Presentation created by Kristin McCracken, Bank Street Graduate School."— Presentation transcript:
APA Style Review Presentation created by Kristin McCracken, Bank Street Graduate School
What is APA Style? Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th edition. APA Style refers to the format for submitting articles to journals (academic periodicals). APA is the most commonly accepted style for social sciences (history, sociology, psychology, economics, etc.) and education. Bank Street College REQUIRES APA style for assignments.
General Format: One-inch margins, with one inch at top and bottom. Paginate (number the pages) on top right corner. Double space throughout. Indent each new paragraph with the tab key; flush left with wide space between paragraphs is not APA style. Use a “hanging indent" for reference list. Use a general font, such as Times New Roman, Helvetica or Arial.
Reference Citations: Every time you refer to an idea, work, study, or quotation from one of the sources you consulted, you need to cite that source. In other words, any part of your paper without citations must reflect your original ideas and work. Citations are enclosed in parentheses, although parts of the citation may be a part of your text (narrative). If the full citation is at the end of a sentence, the period goes AFTER the closing parenthesis, and there is no period after the last word of your text. Use only authors’ surnames in citations.
The period goes at the end of the sentence, i.e., after the closing parenthesis of the citation, if the citation is at the end of the sentence. Example: 2. The interpersonal problems of individuals with impaired object relations development have been amply described in both the analytic and family therapy literature (Kernberg, 1975).
Two authors – always cite both names, and use an ampersand. Parents differ in their willingness to disclose their sexual orientation (Casper & Schultz, 1999). However, if the authors’ names are part of your text, use “and”: Casper and Schultz (1999) found that parents differ in their willingness to disclose their sexual orientation. NOTE that the date, in parentheses, immediately follows the author’s or authors’ name(s) when they are part of your text.
Three or more authors: For the first citation, include all the names. Barriers and borders exist between the home and school settings (Phelan, Davidson, & Yu, 1993). When you cite the same work again, use et al. It is our job as teachers to make the transition from home to school as smooth as possible (Phelan et al.,1993). Note the correct usage of et al. (period, then comma).
Quotation marks enclose the quoted material. The period goes at the very end of the complete sentence, i.e., after the closing parenthesis of the citation. Quotations always require a page number. Example: 2.“Writing friendly letters to parents is an excellent way for teachers to share their impressions about classroom happenings” (Barclay, 2005, p. 196).
If you state the name of the author(s) as part of your text, place the date in parentheses DIRECTLY AFTER the name(s). Example: As suggested by Barclay (2005), we use anecdotes from our daily observations to illustrate what children are learning. If there’s a quotation, the page number(s) goes at the end. Barclay (2005) suggests, “The use of anecdotal material helps parents understand what their children are learning” (p. 107).
Block quotes: If your quotation is over 40 words, indent one tab for the entire quotation, do not use quotation marks, and place the period at the end of the quotation, not after the closing parenthesis of the page number. Demchak and Drinkwater (1992) argue: Inclusion of these additional variables mirrors the current holistic emphasis in the education of children with special needs. Examination of other relevant factors that define successful integration efforts are as equally important as noting progress in development of children with disabilities. (p. 77) NOTE: If the authors are not identified in your text before the quotation, the citation in parentheses would be: (Demchak & Drinkwater, 1992, p. 77) However, most of the time the author(s) and date in parentheses will precede a block quote.
If you refer to the source but do not quote, you do not need a page number. Example: 1.This is a time to have patience, to listen, and to ask clarifying questions to help understand where the parents are coming from (Margolis, 1991). Caveat: Paraphrasing Vs. Plagiarism
Citing a study mentioned in a work you consulted: According to Billings, Pearson, Gills, and Shureen's study (as cited in Barrera & Corso, 2003), what seems to be a language problem may stem from cultural differences. In the reference list for this citation, you would list Barrera & Corso, and NOT Billings, Pearson, Gills & Shureen. Your reference list should contain ONLY those works that you have consulted directly. You are directing your reader to your exact sources.
Citing a personal communication: Give initials, surname, and exact a date as possible: Knowing basic grammar is very important (K. McCracken, personal communication, July 20, 2006). According to K. McCracken, knowing basic grammar is very important (personal communication, July 20, 2006). NOTE: Because this information is not recoverable, do not include personal communications in your reference list.
Reference List: Center the title at the top of a separate page at the end of the paper: References (capital R, the rest not capitalized. Do not underline or make bold. If you only have one source, still create a new page and call it Reference. DO NOT title this page Bibliography, Works Cited, or anything other than References or Reference. This is an alphabetized (by author) list of sources that you have cited in your paper. All works should be cited in your paper. Use the “hanging indent” form – for each item, the first line should be flush left, subsequent lines are indented one tab space.
Authors: list last name and initials of author(s) – not full first name(s). Example: 1. Hacker, D. (2001). The Bedford handbook (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Note: Do not italicize the edition reference in the title.
Book, chapter, and article titles are in sentence case (i.e., first word, proper nouns, and first word after colon are capitalized; the rest is in lower case). Books: Barclay, K. (2005). Together we can: Forming partnerships with families. New York: Wiley. Hacker, D. (2001). The Bedford handbook (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. (NOTE format for edition of book – parentheses, numeral, not italicized, “edition” abbreviated as “ed.”, close parentheses, period.)
Chapter in an edited book: Porter, T. B. (2005). Crib notes on a complex issue. In R. Rice (Ed.), Family, friend and neighbor child care: Research, practice, and policy (pp. 2-11). New York: Bank Street College of Education. Journal article: Sussman, M. (1999). Effects of grade retention on Mexican immigrant children. Elementary School Journal, 25(1), 10-36.
Book and journal titles are italicized; titles of articles in journals or chapters in edited books are NOT. Book Example: Barclay, K. (2005). Together we can: Forming partnerships with families. New York: Wiley. Journal Example: Sussman, M. (1999). Effects of grade retention on Mexican immigrant children. Elementary School Journal, 25(1), 10-36.
Handy guide: Use this for reference! Book titles: Italicized, sentence case Journal (periodical) titles: Italicized, title case Chapters in books: Plain format, sentence case Journal (periodical) articles: Plain format, sentence case
Chapter in an edited book: Porter, T. B. (2005). Crib notes on a complex issue. In R. Rice (Ed.), Family, friend and neighbor child care: Research, practice, and policy (pp. 2- 11). New York: Bank Street College of Education.
Order of references: Same author(s), different years: earliest first: Rice, R. (1999). Rice, R. (2005). Single author precedes multiple authors beginning with same name: Porter, T. (2005). Porter, T. & Rice, R. (2004). Same author, same year, two different works: Porter, T. (2001a). Porter, T. (2001b).
When the publisher is the same as the author: American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Sample Reference List: References Barclay, K. (2005). Together we can: Forming partnerships with families. New York: Wiley. Porter, T. B. (2005). Crib notes on a complex issue. In R. Rice (Ed.), Family, friend and neighbor child care: Research, practice, and policy (pp. 2-11). New York: Bank Street College of Education. Porter, T. B., & Rice, R. N. (2004). Kith and kin child care: Blessings and burdens. Washington, DC: Zero to Three. Sussman, M. (1999). Effects of grade retention on Mexican immigrant children. Elementary School Journal, 25(1), 10-36.
Electronic Citations and References “At a minimum, a reference of an internet source should provide a document title or description, a date (either the date of publication or update or the date of retrieval, and an Internet address [URL])” (American Psychological Association, 2001, p. 269).
Reference list examples below are taken from the APA Manual, pp. 271-272. Internet article based on a print source: VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Article in Internet-only journal: Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html Website: New York City Department of Education. Retrieved March 6, 2008, from http://schools.nyc.gov/default.aspx
Other things to consider APA also provides standards about other issues: Concise and bias-free writing Punctuation, spelling and capitalization Italicizing and abbreviating Numbers, metrication and statistics Tables and figures Footnotes and appendixes Concise Rules of APA Style (2005) is a handy guide.