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Lambda Calculus and Lisp PZ03J

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Lambda Calculus The lambda calculus is a model for functional programming like Turing machines are models for imperative programming. The basic lambda calculus has just 3 constructs: variables, function definition (creation), and function application.

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Grammar The terminals are variables x, y, z, … and also lambda, period, parentheses and numbers. M -> x | (M M) | x.M If F and A are both expressions then so is (F A) and indicates the application of the function F with A as its parameter. If F is a expression then so is x.F This is a function definition and is also called an ABSTRACTION because it generalizes the expression F for any value substituted for x.

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Example of Function Definition x.x is a way of expressing the identity function f(x) = x without having to give it a name. x.2x represents the function f(x) = 2x

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Bound and Free Variables A bound variable is a variable that is in the scope of a declaration (lambda binding) for that variable. A variable that is not bound is free. In the expression: x. y.(x z) x is bound and z is free (the y-binding has no effect as there is no y in the body of the expression) Examples: x. y.(yz) x.(x b)

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Bound Variables Any bound variable may have its name changed without altering the meaning of the expression. Just change all occurrences of the variable in that scope. x.x is the same as y.y However, x. x.x is the same as x. y.y (scope rules)

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Scope of Lambda Bindings In the expression x.F, the scope of the declaration (or lambda binding) x is limited to F.

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Frequently the parentheses are left off when it will not cause confusion. In these cases, remember: –Application is left associative: a b c = ((a b) c). –There is only one lambda expression in the body of an abstraction. ( x.x y)

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Reduction The Reduction Operation (also called application or evaluation) In (F A), the function F is applied with the parameter A. ( x.x b) => b ( x.xy b) => by

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Constants and functions We can add constants (both for variables and functions), like 0, 1, 2 …, plus ( x.x 4) => 4 (plus 5 4) => 9 Here “plus” stands for x.( y.x+y)

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There is sometimes a choice of order of reduction. When the reduction of a lambda expression terminates (it doesn't always), the order of evaluation makes no difference. Evaluate: ( x.(xxx) ( x.x a)) one way => ( x.(xxx) (a)) => (aaa) other way => ( x.x a) ( x.x a) ( x.x a) => aaa

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Some expressions do not terminate ( x.(xx)) ( x.(xx)) and some get more complicated (can you find an example??

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Modeling Logic Lambda expressions can be used to model arithmetic (plus 4 5) How can we define lambda expression to give us arithmetic and logic? Define TRUE and FALSE so that we can use them in an conditional statement A B C where if A reduces to True then the result is B, if A reduces to False then the result is C (like C expression z = (a>b)? a: b; //z gets max(a,b)

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Defining True and False Define T == x. y. x and F == x. y. y T P Q => ( x. y. x) P Q => ( y.P) Q => P F P Q => ( x. y. y) P Q => ( y.y) Q => Q

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Other Logic Operators Similarly define NOT == x.((x F)T) AND == x. y.((x y)F) OR == x. y.((x T)y)

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Lambda Calculus Models Functional Programming Languages Imperative languages are abstractions of the Von Neumann architecture; a computation is done by performing a sequence of operations that changes the values of memory locations through assignments. Functional languages do computations by defining functions and evaluating expressions.

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Style Comparison Imperative: sequence, iteration, conditional Functional: functional composition, recursion, conditional Imperative: change the value of existing object with assignment Functional: compute a new object (garbage collection issues) Imperative: side-effects can cause errors Functional: no side effects (or limited to I/O) leads to referential transparency – if you call a function with the same parameters, you always get the same result.

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Structure of Functional Programs Functional languages (FLs) have primitive functions and a mechanism for defining new functions and an expression evaluator that will evaluate an expression using the primitive and newly defined functions. A functional program usually consists of a series of function definitions followed by an expression using those functions.

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Functional Composition FLs rely on functional composition instead of sequence. f(x) = x + 1 g(x) = x * 2 Instead of (imperative style ) x = x + 1; x = x * 2; we say g(f(x))

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First Class Values Functions as first class values: functions can be passed as parameters and returned. A function that returns a function as its result is a "higher order" function.

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Lisp and Scheme Lisp was the first FL and is the one most people think of. It has a simple syntax using prefix notation and parentheses. Scheme is a dialect of Lisp. It has static scope rather than dynamic, uses meaningful identifiers, true and false are #T and #F, predicates end in ? ( so (atom? (x) ) returns #F because x is not an atom (it is a list). Also uses prefix notation.

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Lists: the Built-in Data Structure Lists consist of elements (atoms (symbolic and numeric) and lists) separated by spaces and enclosed in parentheses. The basis data structure is a 'cons' cell. Ex. three lists each with 3 elements (ALPHA BETA GAMMA) (12 14 16) ( (A B) (HELLO THERE) 94)

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Internal Representation (ALPHA BETA GAMMA) (12 14 16)

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Representation of Lists ( (A B) (HELLO THERE) 94)

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Exercises Diagram : ( (0 2) (1 5) (2 3) ) Identify the following as atoms, lists, or neither. If a list, how many elements are in the (top level) list? ATOM (this is an atom) ( ( (3) ) ) ( ( ) ((a b) 3 (c d e)) (* (+ 3 1) (+ 2 1) )

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Working with Lists First and Rest takes lists apart (CAR and CDR, Head and Tail) First (12 14 16) is 12 Rest (12 14 16) is (14 16) First ( Rest (12 14 16) ) is? NOTE: Rest always returns a list! The empty list is written () or nil. So, rest of (12) is (). First and rest only work on lists

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Set and Quote set listA = ' ( (A B) (HELLO THERE) 94) Note, set makes listA into a constant. It is "assigned" this string literal, but it cannot be changed. Also, the single quote means to take what follows as a literal and not try to evaluate it. What do the following expressions evaluate to? rest (first listA) first (first (rest listA ) )

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Making Lists with CONS CONS takes an expression (atom or list) and a list, puts them together and returns a new list whose first element is the expression and remaining elements are those of the old list. cons a '(b c)constructs the list (a b c) (cons (first listA) (rest listA) ) puts together a list just like listA (first (cons a x) ) = a (rest (cons a x) ) = x

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Doing Arithmetic The operators + - * / do what you think they would: (+ 3 4)evaluates to7 (- 3 1)evaluates to 2 (/ 3 1)evaluates to 3 (- 24 (* 4 3))evaluates to 12 Note: on most systems, (/ 1 3) will evaluate to 1/3. Equality operators: = works on numeric symbols and numbers; EQUAL? works on any atom; equality for lists?

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Defining Functions (DEFINE (name para) (body) ) Examples: (DEFINE (square a) (* a a) ) (DEFINE (second list) (First (Rest list)))

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Conditionals (IF (condition) (then_part) (else_part) ) (COND (p_1 expression-or-expr-list) (p_2 expression-or-expr-list) … (p_n expr) (ELSE expr);; ELSE is #T );; exp associated with first true p_x is executed

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Example: Fibonacci Numbers F(0) = 1, F(1) = 1, F(n) = F(n-1) + F(n-2) Number sequence is: 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 … (define (fib n) (if (or (= n 0) (= n 1) ) 1 (+ (fib (- n 1) ) (fib (- n 2) ) )

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Higher Order Functions: map The function map takes a function and a list as parameters and returns a list with the function applied to each element of the original list. (define map (f x) (cond ( (nil x) nil ) (else (cons (f (first x)) (map(f (rest x)) ) ) ) )

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Example with map (define TimesTen x (* 10 x) ) Then (map TimesTen '(12 14 16) ) returns the list ??

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CAR and CDR CAR and CDR instead of FIRST and REST: Both LISP and Scheme allow the CAR and CDR functions to be combined in a composite form. That is, assuming x is a list, (CAR ( CDR x) ) can be written (CADR x)

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More CAR and CDR The general form is: CxxxR where you can have any number of x's (at least one) and each x is A or D signifying CAR or CDR. The order of the A's and D's indicates the order of CAR's and CDR's in the expression. Thus, (CDAR x) (CDR( CAR x)) (CADDR x) (CAR( CDR( CDR x)) ) What is (CADADR '( (a b) (c d) (e f) ) )

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Predicates in Scheme NULL? is this an empty list? EQ? are two atoms equal? LIST? is parameter a list? ZERO? is a numeric zero?

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Equality for Simple Lists (DEFINE (eqsimple L1 L2) (COND ((NULL? L1) (NULL? L2)) ((NULL? L2) ‘() ) ((EQ? (CAR L1) (CAR L2)) (eqsimple (CDR L1) (CDR L2) ) ) (ELSE ‘() ) ) )

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Lambda Calculus and Lisp PZ03J Coen256/NotesCh4.doc Coen171/FunctionalProgramming.doc

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