Presentation on theme: "In-text Source Citations For APA. APA requires parenthetical references in the text to document quotations, paraphrases, summaries, and other material."— Presentation transcript:
APA requires parenthetical references in the text to document quotations, paraphrases, summaries, and other material from a source. These citations correspond to full bibliographic entries in your Reference Page. An in-text citation always indicates which source on the reference page the writer is referring to, and it explains in what year the material was published. For quoted material, the in-text citation also indicates where in the source the quotation can be found.
Basic format for a quotation: Generally, use the author’s name in a signal phrase to introduce the cited material, and place the date, in parentheses, immediately after the author’s name. The page number, preceded by p., appears in parentheses after the quotation. –Robert Gitlin (2001) pointed out that “political critics, convinced that the media are rigged against them are often blind to other substantial reasons why their causes are unpersuasive” (p. 141).
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author’s name, the year, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation: –(Gitlin, 2001, p. 141). For electronic texts or other works without page numbers, you may use paragraph numbers with the abbreviation para. Driver (2007) has noticed “an increasing focus on the role of land” in policy debates over the past decade (para.1).
Basic format for a paraphrase or summary: Include the author’s last name and the years as in the first example, but omit the page or paragraph number unless the reader will need it to find the material in a long work. –Robert Gitlin (2001) has argued that critics sometimes overestimate the influence of the media on modern life.
Two Authors Use both names in all citations. Use and in a signal phrase, but use an ampersand (&) in parentheses: –Babcock and Laschever (2003) have suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do. –A recent study has suggested that many women do not negotiate their salaries and pay raises as vigorously as their male counterparts do (Babcock & Laschever, 2003).
Corporate or Group Author If the name of the organization or corporation is long, spell it out the first time you use it, followed by an abbreviation in brackets. In later references, use the abbreviation only: –First citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2006). –Later citations: (CDC, 2006).
Unknown Author Use the title or its first few words in a signal phrase or in parentheses. A book’s title is italicized, as in the following example; an article’s title is placed in quotation marks: –The employment profiles for this time period substantiated this trend (Federal Employment, 2001).
Electronic Document Cite a Web or electronic document as you would a print source, using the author’s name and date: –Link and Phelan (2005) argued for broader interventions in public health that would be accessible to anyone, regardless of individual wealth.
Electronic Document, con’t. For the following electronic sources without names, dates, or page numbers: –Author unknown: Use a shortened form of the title in a signal phrase or in parentheses. If an organization is the author, then use the same format as you would an unknown author.
Electronic Document, con’t. Date Unknown: –Use the abbreviation n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year: (Hopkins, n.d.). No page numbers: –Many works found online or in electronic databases lack stable page numbers. If paragraph numbers are included in such a source, then use the abbreviation para: (Giambetti, 2006, para. 7). –If not paragraph numbers are included but the source includes headings, give the heading and identify the paragraph in the section: Jacobs and Johnson (2007) have argued that “the South African media is still highly concentrated and not very diverse in terms of race and class” (South African Media after Apartheid, para. 3).
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