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Monomials Multiplying Monomials and Raising Monomials to Powers

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Vocabulary Monomials - a number, a variable, or a product of a number and one or more variables 4x, 20x 2 yw 3, -3, a 2 b 3, and 3yz are all monomials. Constant – a monomial that is a number without a variable. Base – In an expression of the form x n, the base is x. Exponent – In an expression of the form x n, the exponent is n.

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Writing - Using Exponents Rewrite the following expressions using exponents: The variables, x and y, represent the bases. The number of times each base is multiplied by itself will be the value of the exponent.

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Writing Expressions without Exponents Write out each expression without exponents (as multiplication): or

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Simplify the following expression: (5a 2 )(a 5 ) Step 1: Write out the expressions in expanded form. Step 2: Rewrite using exponents. Product of Powers There are two monomials. Underline them. What operation is between the two monomials? Multiplication!

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For any number a, and all integers m and n, a m a n = a m+n. Product of Powers Rule

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If the monomials have coefficients, multiply those, but still add the powers. Multiplying Monomials

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These monomials have a mixture of different variables. Only add powers of like variables. Multiplying Monomials

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Simplify the following: ( x 3 ) 4 Note: 3 x 4 = 12. Power of Powers The monomial is the term inside the parentheses. Step 1: Write out the expression in expanded form. Step 2: Simplify, writing as a power.

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Power of Powers Rule For any number, a, and all integers m and n,

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Monomials to Powers If the monomial inside the parentheses has a coefficient, raise the coefficient to the power, but still multiply the variable powers.

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Monomials to Powers (Power of a Product) If the monomial inside the parentheses has more than one variable, raise each variable to the outside power using the power of a power rule. (ab) m = a m b m

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Monomials to Powers (Power of a Product) Simplify each expression:

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Dividing Monomials

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For all integers “m” and “n” and any nonzero number “a” …… When the problems look like this, and the bases are the same, you will subtract the exponents. ANY number raised to the zero power is equal to ONE. If the exponent is negative, it is written on the wrong side of the fraction bar, move it to the other side.

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1. 2. Divide the coefficients Subtract the exponents When dividing the coefficients or subtracting the exponents, place the answer on the side of the fraction bar that has the larger value for that term.

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If you’re having trouble with the rules, try it like this……… First, factor numerator and denominator into prime factors. Second, cross out like terms from top to bottom. (reduce) Third, list remaining terms and multiply them back together.

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3. 4. Divide the coefficients Subtract the exponents When dividing the coefficients or subtracting the exponents, place the answer on the side of the fraction bar that has the larger value for that term. U’s cancel Each other

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5. Remember, if the exponent is negative, the term is written on the wrong side of the fraction bar, move it to the other side. 6. Now Subtract The Exponents

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7. Fix your negative exponent Now divide the coefficients but now ADD the exponents 8. ANY number raised to the zero power is equal to ONE.

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9. Fix your negative exponents Now divide the coefficients and combine the exponents

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10. Exponents OUTSIDE And INSIDE …… Distribute!! 11.

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12. First – Simplify the numerator!! Then the denominator Now Subtract The Exponents

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13. First – Simplify the numerator!! Then the denominator Now Subtract The Exponents

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14. Exponents OUTSIDE And INSIDE …… Distribute!! Fix your Negative exponents Now Subtract The Exponents

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Steps Multiply exponents Fix negative exponents Any neg. number raised to even power becomes positive… Subtract exponents (unless they are beside one another—then add)

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15. Exponents OUTSIDE And INSIDE …… Distribute!! Fix your Negative exponents Now Subtract The Exponents

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Multiply exponents

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Any neg. number raised to an even power is positive Exponents OUTSIDE And INSIDE …… Distribute!! Use ( ) when Typing the -4 Into calculator!

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