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Two principles of assertion You don’t get what you don’t get ask for You get a lot of what you do ask for Source: Andrew Gibbons.

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Presentation on theme: "Two principles of assertion You don’t get what you don’t get ask for You get a lot of what you do ask for Source: Andrew Gibbons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Two principles of assertion You don’t get what you don’t get ask for You get a lot of what you do ask for Source: Andrew Gibbons

2 Two types of negotiation Distributive negotiation...where parties compete over the distribution of a fixed sum of value Integrative negotiation...where parties co-operate to achieve the maximum benefits by integrating their interests into an agreement

3 Two ways to view interpersonal fear F antasy E xpressed A s R eality F alse E vidence A ppearing R eal

4 Two aspects of a negotiation interest An interest is: A desire, concern, goal or need that drives a position An interest is what caused you to come to a conclusion

5 Two aspects to a negotiation position A position is a solution to the underlying issue A position is what is decided upon Source: NZ Steel

6 Three thoughts on interests and positions The real issues in conflict management and negotiation are interests not positions. Look beneath positions, find shared and conflicting interests. Skilled negotiators resolve conflict by uncovering all interests, and seek to build on common ones.

7 Three ways to manage emotions well Don’t attack their position, look behind it... Don’t defend your ideas, invite criticism and advice Recast an attack on you as an attack on the problem

8 Three keys to persuasion Atunement Bouyancy Clarity Source Dan Pink

9 Three aspects to a conflict situation Results The desired outcomes Process The way the conflict will be managed Emotions The feelings sought when resolved

10 Four steps to negotiation Start with the end in mind Help them prepare too - no surprises Seek and build alignment of interests Send one message - be organised From: Danny Ertel

11 Four ways to persuade Quickly establish credibility Frame your position on common ground Provide evidence supporting your wants Connect at an emotional level Source: Jay Conger Source: Butz & Goodstein Source: Butz & Goodstein

12 Four dilemmas for negotiators Conceding or Being stubborn Be jovial or Hostility Bending or Domineering Uncommitted or Undercommitted Source: W Masterbrook

13 Four stages of negotiation Prepare Assess objectives - yours and theirs Decide on areas of possible flexibility Plan approach and sequence of events Discuss Exchange positions and issues Create a positive working climate Listen carefully and question thoroughly Propose Specify what you want Seek compromise - get a win/win if possible Bargain Ask for what you want - modify if you need Don’t concede without trading

14 Four essentials for negotiation Separate the people from the problem Focus on interests not positions Generate many options Use objective standards Source: Fisher and Ury

15 Four reasons not to show your hand Sensitive or privileged information Information not yours to share Information that diminishes your power Information that may fluctuate

16 Four sources of conflict Commodities Principles Territory Relationships Source: Conflict resolution network

17 Four emotional realities Other people cannot... Anger make yourself mad Depress make yourself sad Offend take offence Hurt your feelings...your thoughts about the situation create your own bad feelings

18 Four major obstacles to negotiation Premature judgement A single answer Fixed pie Their problem

19 Four ways to get off to a good start Express respect for the other side’s experience and expertise Frame the task positively, as a joint endeavour Emphasise your openness to the other side’s interests and concerns Start with the agenda

20 Four ways to manage emotions Expressing Containing Reacting Responding

21 Five ‘C’s of negotiation Capitulation give in…bad idea Coercion force a short term ‘solution’ Compromise bargain and trade to agreement Concession deliberately, within the context of a plan... Consensus total harmony of opinion Source: Andrew Gibbons

22 Five ways to get past ‘no’ Don’t react, go to the balcony Disarm them: go to their side Change the game: don’t reject…reframe Make it easy to say yes, build a golden bridge Make it hard to say no, bring them to their senses not their knees Source: William Ury

23 Five things rules for investigative negotiation Find out why your counterpart wants what they want Seek to understand and mitigate the other’s constraints Interpret demands as opportunities Create common ground Keep investigating even after the deal has gone Source: Malhotra and Bazerman

24 Five things negotiators must know What you want and what you don’t What other parties want and don’t Your concessions Your alternatives Subject matter – yours and the other’s Source: John Dolany

25 Five factors around power and influence Technical competence Credibility Trust and honesty Interpersonal skills Drive, energy and enthusiasm Source: Mike Phipps

26 Five traps to be wary of when negotiating Irrational escalation Partisan perception Unreasonable expectations Overconfidence Unchecked emotions

27 Five ways to handle conflict Competing assertive and unco-operative Collaborating assertive and co-operative Avoiding unassertive and unco-operative Accommodating unassertive and co-operative Compromising mid-point on both dimensions Source: Robert Blake

28 Six types of assertion Basic Empathetic Consequence Negative feelings Discrepancy Responsive Source: Ken and Kate Back

29 Six parts to a BATNA: B est A lternative T o N egotiated A greement Source: Ury and Fisher

30 Six parts to the POTASH model of negotiation P lanning O pening T esting out A djusting S haping H andshaking

31 Six things really good negotiators do well Consider the context Build relationships Commit explicitly to honesty and openness Negotiate in person Deal with the principal Trust, but verify Source: Roy Lewicki

32 Six questions on personal power What does power mean to you? Who has power over you? Over whom do you have power? Around whom do you feel powerful? Around whom do you feel powerless? How do you manage your power? Source: Conflict resolution network

33 Six reasons we don’t use personal power We comply unwillingly with others We don’t use our skills and talents We choose not to be assertive We are afraid to ask We feel trapped by past difficulties We use disempowering language Source: Conflict resolution network

34 Six questions to prepare emotionally for negotiation How do you want to feel going into the negotiation? Why? What can you do beforehand to put yourself in an ideal emotional state? What can throw you off balance during a negotiation? What can you do in the midst of a negotiation to regain your balance? How do you want to feel when you are finished?

35 Six mistakes in negotiation Neglecting the other side’s interests Letting price bulldoze other interests Searching too hard for common ground Letting positions drive out interests Neglecting BATNAs Not recognising your own partiality Source: James Sibenius Source: Butz & Goodstein Source: Butz & Goodstein

36 Seven steps to rational negotiation Interests Options Alternatives Legitimacy Relationships People Commitment Source: Harvard University

37 Eight signs of a successful negotiation team Size of the team A united front Role fit Mutual respect Preparation time spent well Clarity of personal contributions and outcomes Leadership Time spent together developing understanding Source: Andrew Gibbons

38 Eight things negotiators can do... Say ‘no’ effectively Inspire confidence Be ingenious ‘Take it’ without negative reactions Be a patient listener Have a sense of humour See the wider context - the wider picture Articulate complex issues clearly and concisely From: Bruce Morse Source: Butz & Goodstein Source: Butz & Goodstein

39 Eight keys to negotiation Offer incentives - create a need and a want Put a price on the status quo Seed ideas early - build on these Reframe if you need - keep it flexible Build consensus - seek common ground Help others save face Keep the dialogue going ive Look for new perspectives - be creat ive From:: D Kolb and J Williams Source: Butz & Goodstein Source: Butz & Goodstein

40 Nine ideas for negotiators Don’t get personal Control your emotions Don’t talk out of school Leave something on the table for the other guy First offers aren’t final offers Don’t negotiate with yourself Don’t be afraid to take a risk Don’t over- attribute strength to other parties Seek expertise if you need Source: Robert Winner

41 Nine tips for negotiators Focus on interests first, positions second Build trust Listen Probe Challenge everything Be patient Don’t make the first move Don’t accept the first offer Don’t make unilateral concessions Source: Poyner and Sprouill

42 Nine keys to negotiation Have an alternative - negotiate with freedom of choice Negotiate when you have an agreement in principle Aim high, first positions set limits on best possible outcomes Let the other party state their case and wants first List and clarify what the others want before you get started Bargain and trade - don’t just give anything away Keep the whole picture in mind throughout Be alert for variable and new issues throughout the process Keep accurate notes and summarise progress continuously Source: Alan Chapman

43 Ten ‘right’s as a person I have a right to: Be treated with respect as an equal person Define my needs and ask reasonably for what I want and need Define my own limits and to say ‘no’ Express my feelings and opinions Make my own decisions and to change my mind Seek clarification and understanding if something is not clear Make mistakes without feeling guilty or made to look foolish Hold my own set of values Be listened to when I speak Refuse to take inappropriate responsibility for other’s issues

44 Ten ways to counter an impasse When stuck, talk about how you feel Reframe the issue Break complex issues down When in doubt, restate, restate, restate Stay flexible Affirm areas of agreement Clarify criteria Reaffirm or revise ground rules Take a break Explore alternatives

45 The best negotiators do this: Spend the time it takes to prepare really well Test understanding and summarise a lot Ask many questions to clarify and explore Give ‘internal’ information Flag up behaviour - unless disagreeing Avoid ‘irritators’ Never make immediate counter-proposals Don’t get into defend/attack spirals Work through one issue at a time Recognise and emphasise common ground Assess their performance thoroughly Source: Andrew Gibbons

46 Twelve ways to win people to your way of thinking The only way to get the best of an argument is to avoid it Show respect for the other person’s opinions If you are wrong, admit it quickly and emphatically Begin in a friendly way Get the other person saying ‘yes yes’ immediately Let the other person do a great deal of the talking Let the other person feel that the idea is his or hers Try honestly to see things from the other person’s point of view Be sympathetic with the other person’s ideas and desires Appeal to the nobler motives Dramatise your ideas Throw down a challenge Source: Dale Carnegie

47 Thirteen key issues around Negotiation People Objectives Principles Timing Bargaining/trading Movement Authority Control Convergence/divergence BATNAs Skills Leverage History and aftermath Source: Andrew Gibbons

48 Can you distinguish between interests and positions? Can you give examples?

49 “The only behaviour we can control is our own”

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