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5 Russia at War A.Themes B.Into the Brink: Decision for War C.War and Diplomacy D.Domestic Impact of War E.Politics of War and Defeat F.Society at War.

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Presentation on theme: "5 Russia at War A.Themes B.Into the Brink: Decision for War C.War and Diplomacy D.Domestic Impact of War E.Politics of War and Defeat F.Society at War."— Presentation transcript:

1 5 Russia at War A.Themes B.Into the Brink: Decision for War C.War and Diplomacy D.Domestic Impact of War E.Politics of War and Defeat F.Society at War G. Conclusion

2 A. Themes 1.Catastrophic military defeats, but turnaround in Defeats bring diplomatic triumphs, making separate peace unthinkable 3.Enormous social and economic strains generated by war, compounded by ethnic tensions 4.Politics of defeat: erosion of regime’s legitimacy, reemergence of united opposition 5.Society: polarization, radicalization, and re- emergence of revolutionary situation

3 B. Into the Brink: The Decision for War 1. Domestic tensions 2.Panslavism, patriotism, and politics 3.Durnovo memorandum (February 1914)

4 International Situation 1914 June 28 - Franz Ferdinand Assassinated July 28 - Austria declares war on Serbia July 30 - Nicholas orders mobilization August 1 - France mobilizes, Germany declares war

5 Russia at War: Images

6 August 1914: Cheers at the Winter Palace

7 Nicholas Greets Crowd (August 1914)

8 St. Petersburg: Conscription

9 Conscription in the Village

10 Tsar at “Stavka” in 1915 (Military HQ in Mogilev)

11 Tsar Inspects Troops (1916)

12 1914: Russian POWs after Dannenberg

13 1915: More Russian POWs

14 Russian POWs in Berlin

15 Russian Cemetery of Fallen in Battle

16 C. War and Diplomacy 1.Poor military preparedness 2.Diplomatic triumphs 3.Military record

17 War Record: 1914

18 War Record: 1915

19 War Record: 1916

20 D. Domestic Impact of War 1.Human and material losses 2.Economic dislocation 3.Refugees 4.Fears of treason

21 E. Politics of War and Defeat 1.Dynamics 2.Union with the Tsar: first five months 3.Defeat, opposition, concessions 4.Crisis of August Government: disarray and disintegration 6.Duma parties go left

22 F. Society at War 1.Privileged: nobles, bourgeoisie, professionals 2.Workers 3.Peasants 4.Minorities 5.Soldiers

23 G. Conclusions 1.War: from unity to polarization 2.Military defeats, diplomatic victories, and stabilization of the front 3.Extraordinary stress generated by war 4.Politics of war: defeat and delegitimation 5.Social polarization: Two Russias— privileged and “masses”


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