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5 Russia at War A.Themes B.Into the Brink: Decision for War C.War and Diplomacy D.Domestic Impact of War E.Politics of War and Defeat F.Society at War.

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Presentation on theme: "5 Russia at War A.Themes B.Into the Brink: Decision for War C.War and Diplomacy D.Domestic Impact of War E.Politics of War and Defeat F.Society at War."— Presentation transcript:

1 5 Russia at War A.Themes B.Into the Brink: Decision for War C.War and Diplomacy D.Domestic Impact of War E.Politics of War and Defeat F.Society at War G. Conclusion

2 A. Themes 1.Catastrophic military defeats, but turnaround in 1916 2.Defeats bring diplomatic triumphs, making separate peace unthinkable 3.Enormous social and economic strains generated by war, compounded by ethnic tensions 4.Politics of defeat: erosion of regime’s legitimacy, reemergence of united opposition 5.Society: polarization, radicalization, and re- emergence of revolutionary situation

3 B. Into the Brink: The Decision for War 1. Domestic tensions 2.Panslavism, patriotism, and politics 3.Durnovo memorandum (February 1914)

4 International Situation 1914 June 28 - Franz Ferdinand Assassinated July 28 - Austria declares war on Serbia July 30 - Nicholas orders mobilization August 1 - France mobilizes, Germany declares war

5 Russia at War: Images

6 August 1914: Cheers at the Winter Palace

7 Nicholas Greets Crowd (August 1914)

8 St. Petersburg: Conscription

9 Conscription in the Village

10 Tsar at “Stavka” in 1915 (Military HQ in Mogilev)

11 Tsar Inspects Troops (1916)

12 1914: Russian POWs after Dannenberg

13 1915: More Russian POWs

14 Russian POWs in Berlin

15 Russian Cemetery of Fallen in Battle

16 C. War and Diplomacy 1.Poor military preparedness 2.Diplomatic triumphs 3.Military record

17 War Record: 1914

18 War Record: 1915

19 War Record: 1916

20 D. Domestic Impact of War 1.Human and material losses 2.Economic dislocation 3.Refugees 4.Fears of treason

21 E. Politics of War and Defeat 1.Dynamics 2.Union with the Tsar: first five months 3.Defeat, opposition, concessions 4.Crisis of August 1915 5.Government: disarray and disintegration 6.Duma parties go left

22 F. Society at War 1.Privileged: nobles, bourgeoisie, professionals 2.Workers 3.Peasants 4.Minorities 5.Soldiers

23 G. Conclusions 1.War: from unity to polarization 2.Military defeats, diplomatic victories, and stabilization of the front 3.Extraordinary stress generated by war 4.Politics of war: defeat and delegitimation 5.Social polarization: Two Russias— privileged and “masses”


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