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BCTEAL 2014 JENNIFER WALSH MARR Reformulating Paraphrasing.

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Presentation on theme: "BCTEAL 2014 JENNIFER WALSH MARR Reformulating Paraphrasing."— Presentation transcript:

1 BCTEAL 2014 JENNIFER WALSH MARR Reformulating Paraphrasing

2 Purpose & Context What is the purpose of paraphrasing? Where & how is it introduced?

3 BC EAP Articulation Guide Subskill: Writing III  i. Write accurate paraphrases and summaries

4 Textbook Introduction Skills for Effective Writing 4 (2013) Cambridge University Press

5 Institutional Context

6 “Paraphrasing is not easy. In particular, it is impossible to paraphrase something you do not really understand. If you don't understand it, you will be overly dependent on the original words of your source. This can be a challenge for anyone studying a new subject or working in a second language.” -SFU Canvas (LMS) https://canvas.sfu.ca/courses/15986/wiki/3-dot-3-paraphrasing

7 Analysis “…the current ways of addressing the issue of plagiarism and textual borrowing in existing writing courses may well be failing developing academic writers.” (Tomaš, 2010, pg. 224)

8 Literature Review Disagreement among “experts” as to what’s acceptable and not:  Inconsistent instruction:  Tomaš & Rosenberg (2005) found textbooks contradicted one another with regards to instructions on how to paraphrase and whether there was room for student writers’ own interpretation or input in the paraphrase (Tomaš, 2010)  Inconsistent performance  University instructors’ own paraphrasing “involved verbatim repetition to an extent which could be regarded as plagiarism” (Roig, 2001, cited in Pecorari & Shaw, 2012)

9 Inconsistent Modeling Instructors don’t necessarily model appropriate referencing and acknowledgement with source materials in their classes, lessons and handouts. It’s hypocritical to have “loose referencing practices perpetuated” by instructors themselves (Tomaš, 2010, pg. 240)

10 Requirements Competence & authority “successful textual borrowing requires “understanding of others’ work, being able to restate that understanding, having the intellectual confidence to admit another’s precedence, and … mastering the control of various tools for the proper display of this recognition.” (Borg, 2000, cited in Tomaš, 2010, pg. 224, emphasis mine) Legitimacy to develop incrementally, through stages

11 Legitimate Stages Copying?  “copying, …, might provide a useful early step in the composing process, a way for them to develop a felt sense of written English,… a vehicle for learning the language and conventions they are attempting to appropriate” (Currie, 1998, pg. 14, emphasis mine)  “… a useful strategy for developing writers who are still in the process of acquiring a new language” (Keck, 2010, pg. 194).  Mining texts for structures, gambits, vocabulary

12 Requirements Competence & authority through legitimate stages Sustained practice:  Starting early (as social practice)  Contextualized (common/shared texts)  I would argue in various forms (both written and oral)

13 What instructors say they want: Tomaš’ survey of instructors (2010, p ):  Practice  Explicit process (not just the product)  Textual Strategies  Learning Strategies

14 Textual Strategies Functional gambits Reported Speech Collocations “verbs listing attribution” (Tomaš, 2010, p. 237) Disciplinary words

15 Textual strategies Disciplinary words  “Texts on a common topic necessarily draw on a particular shared pool of words and phrases, both technical and metadiscoursal, and also to some extent have shared preferences for grammatical structures” (Biber, Johansson, Leech, Conrad & Finegan, 1999, cited in Pecorari & Shaw, 2012, pg. 150, emphasis mine)  “students also need a sensitivity towards which words or phrases are considered to be unique or technical, and thus must be quoted or paraphrased; which words are so commonly used that they need not be quoted; and which words are so essential to the texts’ main idea that should not be replaced with synonyms” (Keck, 2010, pg. 217)

16 Learning Strategies  Notetaking  Key word identification  Source synthesis:  An appreciation for “intertextuality” “the relationship between two or more texts” (Pecorari & Shaw, 2012, pg. 149)

17 Implications: Paraphrasing is a nuanced skill. It takes time and practice. It requires socialization.

18 Where to go from here Context  How do we introduce and rationalize paraphrasing? Models & Practice  How can we support our students’ development? Modes  Is it purely a writing skill? Assessment  Can we make our assessment both nuanced and transparent?

19 Modes BC EAP Articulation Guide:  Reading subskill level III  e. Make useful study notes from reading  Listening subskill level III  h. Take notes  Speaking subskill level III  b. Some rewording or rephrasing to clarify meaning

20 Sample Textbooks

21 Context Avery, J., Robinson Fellag, L. (2006) College Reading 3

22 Guided Practice Thaine, C. (2012) Cambridge Academic English: Intermediate

23 More guided practice Thaine, C. (2012) Cambridge Academic English: Intermediate

24 Text analysis Hewings, M. (2012) Cambridge Academic English: Upper Intermediate

25 Different Modes Hewings, M. (2012) Cambridge Academic English: Upper Intermediate

26 Guided practice in different modes Assignment to students: 1) State which theory you agree with (summarize it briefly) 2) Explain why it’s a better idea 3) Give a warning of what might happen if we don’t follow this theory. Craven, M., Sherman, K. (2011) Q3 Skills for Success Listening & Speaking

27 Requirements Competence & authority “successful textual borrowing requires “understanding of others’ work, being able to restate that understanding, having the intellectual confidence to admit another’s precedence, and … mastering the control of various tools for the proper display of this recognition.” (Borg, 2000, cited in Tomaš, 2010, pg. 224, emphasis mine) Legitimacy to develop incrementally, through stages

28 Rationale This guided, sustained practice should help students: Build their critical thinking & synthesis skills Develop their voice & authority Establish themselves as legitimate participants in the academic community

29 Our learning outcomes We see paraphrasing as a nuanced, social skill Therefore, we: Introduce paraphrasing early Revisit regularly & with a variety of approaches Give opportunity to develop over time Discontinue the “othering”, punitive discourse


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