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Towards Excellence in Public Sector Performance ACCOUNTABILITY OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZAITONS: Voluntary Accountability Networks, Stakeholder Participation,

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Presentation on theme: "Towards Excellence in Public Sector Performance ACCOUNTABILITY OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZAITONS: Voluntary Accountability Networks, Stakeholder Participation,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Towards Excellence in Public Sector Performance ACCOUNTABILITY OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZAITONS: Voluntary Accountability Networks, Stakeholder Participation, and the “Other” Invisible Hand David A. Bell, MPA K. Leroy Irvis Fellow—PhD Student Graduate School of Public and International Affairs University of Pittsburgh November 1- 4, 2009***Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Global Public Partnership Lessons for Performance Excellence  Definitions: CSO, Accountability, Network  Theoretical Basis for Network Mechanism  Comparative Overview: Three Networks  Opportunities and Challenges  Concluding Comments

3 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations Global Public Partnership Lessons for Performance Excellence  Lessons from Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe  Regulatory administrative relief  Networks—Participation—and…

4 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations The “Other” Invisible Hand

5 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Civil Society Organizations (CSO)  Shaped by time, culture, government, market  Empirically grounded in multi-faceted CSOs  Integration disconnect  Supplementary regulatory means  Tangible performance

6 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge:  Civil Society Organizations (CSO)  Organized  Private  Not profit-distributing  Self-governing  Voluntary Adapted from the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector project. Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Regina List.

7 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge:  Accountability  Evaluation of performance  Evaluation of good governance  Evaluation of legitimacy  Evaluation limitations  Evaluation as a component

8 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Accountability  Explicit and Implicit Standards  Laws, Regulations, Policies  Increased Knowledge, Skill, Abilities  Change in Behavior or Status  Trust, Credibility, Goodwill, Honesty  Perceptions and Support With No Consideration of Explicit Explicit Implicit

9 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Accountability  Valid Factors of Accountable Behavior  Effectiveness: Programs and Services  Reliability: Organizational Structure and Governance  Legitimacy: Transparency, Mission-Focused, Connection to Community

10 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations Construct Validity Factor Explicit StandardsImplicit Standards Effectiveness  Contractual obligations  Performance targets  Budget variances  Donor agency philosophy  Program participants  Financial objectives/strategies Reliability  Foundation grant stipulations  Government contract provisions  IRS exempt purpose criteria  Peer CSOs expectations  Representation views of various stakeholders  Beliefs about allocation of resources Legitimacy  CSO membership  Certification, expertise, knowledge  Performance, effectiveness  Distinctive values  Informal relationships  Empowering people  Nature of “ voice ” (as, with, for, about those served)

11 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Accountability is: Serving in accordance to the explicit and negotiated-implicit standards for effectiveness, reliability, and legitimacy for the benefit of clients, volunteers, employees, contributors/donors, and the public.

12 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Network  Claudia Liebler and Marian Ferri: Contextual constructed and understood  Michael Edwards “Context”: CSO networks as channels of participatory and open debate to help participating CSOs find balance between sovereignty and the demands of stakeholders

13 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Network  Joan Goodin’s categorization of networks:  Sectoral Category: including capacity building and development of standards

14 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Definition Challenge :  Network  Contextually constructed and understood  Is a context of debate to balance CSO sovereignty and stakeholders interests  Categorized as building CSO capacity and standards to maintain and enhance accountable behavior

15 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Reflexive Governance Framework The conditions for debate-process success are identifiable, and once identified, must be intentionally created  Assumption: CSO stakeholders representing their interests lead to CSO organizational learning and the maintenance and enhancement of accountable behavior

16 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Context for effective Reflexive Governance —The “Other” Invisible Hand  The “invisible” threat of direct regulatory action  Enforcement actions focused on recalcitrant CSOs  Compliant organizations better performance than nonmember CSOs  Recalcitrant CSOs--membership shows no difference

17 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Comparative Overview of CSO Accountability Networks  The American Council for Voluntary International Action

18 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  The American Council for Voluntary International Action—InterAction  Members engaging in advocacy are required to have a clear policy  Racial diversity a core value  Program evaluation: Quantitative and Qualitative  Governance: Board stipulations

19 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  The American Council for Voluntary International Action—InterAction  Certification & membership  Member complaint procedure  Annual self-certification of compliance

20 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  International Non-Governmental Organisations Accountability Charter—INGO Charter  Members engaging in advocacy—explicit ethical policies  Diversity in external and internal activities  Report on activities and achievements

21 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  International Non-Governmental Organisations Accountability Charter—INGO Charter  Minimum governance tools and processes  Network participation: Signator  Annual report  Focus on large international CSOs

22 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Philippine Council of NGO Certification--PCNC  Advocacy viewed through:  Mission and goals  Evaluation of performance  Diversity not explicitly addressed  Program implementation and evaluation

23 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Philippine Council of NGO Certification--PCNC  Governance: Extent of Board involvement and knowledge of organization  Certification: Extensive analysis of documents and site visit—evaluation team influence  Seal of approval and donee institution status

24 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  The “Other” Invisible Hand  Accountability Networks: Challenges and Opportunities  Cost: money and time  Participation

25 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  The “Other” Invisible Hand  Accountability Networks: Challenges and Opportunities  Participation  Stakeholders would rather move their support than stop to advance organizational learning and improve mechanisms to facilitate accountable behavior  Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen: Economic development requires the democratic system to be developed and strengthened

26 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  Who is watching the “watchdog”?  Accountability Networks: Challenges and Opportunities  Participation  Democratic CSOs: Priorities and values of citizens  “…the issue of practice to be of central importance in the contributions that can be expected”

27 Accountability of Civil Society Organizations  The “Other” Invisible Hand” CSO voluntary accountability networks… Like democratic institutions… Require participation by a broad range of stakeholders and… Require the context of a threat of direct regulatory action in order to:  Advance CSO organizational learning  Maintain and enhance accountable behavior

28 The “Other” Invisible Hand Excellence is dedication To a job that’s hard to do, Going the extra mile And always trying to follow through. Excellence is communication, Sharing everything you know, And learning how to listen So your expertise will grow. Excellence is appreciation of the talent that you see, Acknowledging a job well done Inspires success and loyalty. Excellence is aspiration With a higher goal in mind, To trust in God and reach for things Of a more rewarding kind.


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