Presentation on theme: "1799-1815. 1769-born in Corsica Attended military school in France Joins army of the National Assembly Becomes general of the French Army by Directory."— Presentation transcript:
1769-born in Corsica Attended military school in France Joins army of the National Assembly Becomes general of the French Army by Directory in “savior of the Republic” after successful cannonade to ward off conservatives
Coup d’etat= stroke the state November 9, 1799 Napoleon uses his military prestige and success to overthrow the Directory Believed the Directory to be corrupt and not interested in promoted the betterment of French welfare
November 10, French Consulate in place 3 leaders called Consuls 1 st Consul- Napoleon Bonaparte 2 nd Consul- Napoleon’s brother Lucien Bonaparte 3 rd Consul-former Director- Sieyes Napoleon drafts a new constitution naming him as 1 st consul of France for life…unbeknownst to the other consuls
Plebiscite= vote of YES or NO on specific question plebiscite votes YES-1 st Consul of France 1802-plebiscite votes YES-1 st Consul of France for life 1804-plebiscite votes YES- EMPEROR OF FRANCE
December 2, 1804 Napoleon’s Coronation at Notre Dame Cathedral He crowns himself -big controversy- WHY??
Makes good and lasting changes to economy, society, and religion. Enlightened but did limit some rights as well. Reforms focused on four areas: Economic Order Social Order Religious Order Legal Order
Slowed inflation Balanced budget National Bank Controlled circulation of money Paid off debt Sold Louisiana Territory to President ?? What was this purchase called? Who explored the territory?
Welcomed émigrés (nobles) back on good behavior Promoted officials by merit not nobility Set up Lycees (public schools)
Establish CONCORDAT New relationship b/w church and state Allowed freedom of religion Promoted Catholicism as “great majority” and “true” religion of France Eliminated any political control of Pope
Established the Napoleonic Code of Laws Set of 101 new laws establishing strong sense of law and order Many laws still in use today Equality under the law Censured newspapers Reduced women’s rights Restored slavery in French Colonies
Military genius Expert in use of artillery Developed innovative artillery strategy still in use today Father of modern artillery warfare
Napoleon quickly forced his power across Europe Battle of Austerlitz-December 1805 Invades Austria Forces emperor to make peace and forms alliance Battle of Jena-October 1806 Invades Prussia Forces King to make peace and forms alliance
Battle of Friedland: June 1807 Fought in Poland Against Russians Forces Czar Alex I to the bargaining table PEACE OF TILSIT Napoleon can have western ½ of Poland and all of Europe Alex I can have eastern ½ of Poland and all Ottoman Empire Peaceful coexistence Non-aggression Pact
Battle of Trafalgar: October 1805 Massive naval battle against British Royal Navy GB lead by Admiral Horatio Nelson Fought off coast of Spain Big loss for Napoleon Nelson shot by sniper and dies moments after hearing the British won This loss sets Napoleon on a obsessive mission to “get” Great Britain
he becomes blinded by success and makes three decisive mistakes… 1. Continental System 2. The Peninsular War 3. Invasion of Russia
1806 GOAL: to make Europe self-sufficient from GB Blockaded GB goods into Europe GB blockades back European economy suffers Causes War of 1812
Goal: Make brother Joe King of Spain and take Portugal from GB Spanish guerrillas fight in the name of NATIONALISM Napoleon never gets Portugal and Joe never gets the crown Napoleon losses 300,000 men
June, 1812 GOAL: quickly take Russia as punishment for breaking Continental System Invades with Grand Army of 400,000 men Scorched-earth policy sucks him in Never get Russia December, 1812-Returns with 10,000 men Beginning of the end for Napoleon
Europe has Napoleon at his weakest and decide to attack Grand Alliance takes him on and wins Exiled to Elba, but returns; Last 100 days Finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Wellington Exiled again…but much further away—St. Helena Dies on the island in 1821 Why don’t they just kill’em?
Congress of Vienna ( ) AGENDA: Restore order and stability in Europe 4 weeks of meetings turned into 8 months Ring Leader and Host Klemens von Metternich – Foreign Minister of Austria Put down the “Experiments of Democracy” Major conservative Wants to restore all rightful monarchs to the throne
Legitimacy Balance of Power Containment of France Klemens von Metternich
3 Major Goals 1. Encirclement of France Strengthen countries around France Prevent French aggression 2. Balance of Power Strengthen weaker countries to offset France’s size and power 3. Legitimacy Restore the monarchies deposed by Napoleon Uphold conservative political ideals
1. Great Britain 2. Austrian Empire 3. Prussia 4. Russia 5. France Was it right to keep France a great power?