History of isolation. China today is one of the remaining communist countries with no indication of renouncing it. China is emerging as a world power. ◦ Membership in the WTO ◦ Interaction with other countries ◦ Active in the United Nations
China goes outside its borders for investments, labor supplies, and raw materials. Highly industrialized. Large exports. Steadily moving toward capitalism but highly authoritarian government remains. Marketization and democracy do not always go hand in hand.
Dynastic Cycles – long periods of rule by a family. ◦ Chaos when family loses its power. ◦ Challenged by other ultimately successful families that create a new dynasty. ◦ Mandate of Heaven – right to rule by collective ancestral wisdom. Empire is guided by the heavens above.
Public authority rested in the hands of the Emperor and an elaborate bureaucracy. Highly centralized power. 1949 – Mao Zedong took over China and created a communist state. Current constitution not a major source of legitimacy because of authoritarianism.
LEGITIMACY ◦ Dynastic legitimacy established from the mandate of heaven. ◦ Weakening authority of the Emperor meant that the mandate of heaven had left him. ◦ The Revolution of 1911 Created the Chinese Republic Sun Yat-sen was first president. Democratic legitimacy rested with popular government. Regional warlords challenged the government.
LEGITIMACY ◦ Mao Zedong emerged with a version of authority known as Maoism. ◦ The People’s Republic of China established in 1949. ◦ Mao led the Communist Party until his death in 1976.
LEGITIMACY ◦ MAOISM Idealistic and egalitarian Endorsed centralized power Mass Line – communication by leaders with ordinary citizens to strengthen legitimacy.
LEGITIMACY ◦ The Politburo of the Communist party remains the legitimate source of power in China. ◦ Criticized in recent years because of corruption. ◦ Communist leaders do not appear to be loosening its hold on the government and economy. ◦ Central Military Commission – military representation in the government. Role in policymaking.
HISTORICAL TRADITIONS Dynastic influences on modern political system include 5 elements. ◦ 1. Authoritarian Power – Emperors had to face challenges just as the politburo faces decentralization. ◦ 2. Confucianism – Important since 6 th century. Democratic Centralism is the communist belief in a small group of leaders who rule for the good of the people.
HISTORICAL TRADITIONS 3.Bureaucratic Hierarchy Based on Scholarship. -Highly organized bureaucracies of elites educated in Confucian scholarship. -Candidates subjected to an examination system that was knowledge based in Confucian philosophy. -Major separation in Ancient China was between a large peasant population and the bureaucratic elite.
HISTORICAL TRADITIONS 4. The “Middle Kingdom” (zhong-guo) ◦ Center of Civilization ◦ Foreigners seen as barbarians ◦ Other civilizations inferior to China ◦ No one else has much to offer China ◦ Ideology has been challenged but not destroyed.
HISTORICAL TRADITIONS 5. Communist Ideologies ◦ Deng Xiaoping Theory Late 20 th Century influence Practical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization.
POLITICAL CULTURE ◦ Geographic Influences (isolationism) Access to oceans/ice free ports Many large and navigable rivers (high population areas) Major geographical/climate splits between the north and south. (has created a cultural split between north and south) Geographic isolation of the western part of the country Mountain ranges, deserts, and oceans that separate China from other countries.
POLITICAL CULTURE ◦ Historical Eras ◦ 1. Dynastic Rule – Confucian values of order, harmony, and hierarchy (superior and subservient positions. Created ethnocentrism (Middle Kingdom) ◦ 2. Resistance to Imperialism – Nationalism has resisted imperialism by European Nations and Japan. Hatred of “Foreign Devils” has created cautious dealings with capitalist countries today.
POLITICAL CULTURE Historical Eras 3. Maoism – Mao resisted the inequality implied by Leninism. Mao believed in strength of the peasant and centered his philosophy on 5 central values: 1. Collectivism – The good of the Community over the individual. 2. Struggle and Activism – pursue values of socialism. 3. Mass Line – Communication between party leaders and the people. 4. Egalitarianism 5. Self Reliance – Rely on own talents to contribute to community.
Historical Eras ◦ 4. Deng Xiaoping Theory Deng Xaioping ruled from 1978-1997 Don’t worry about whether a policy of capitalist or socialist as long as it improved the economy. Combination of socialist planning and the capitalist free market. The party should supervise all No allowances made for individual freedoms and/or democracy “It doesn’t matter whether a cat is black or white, as long as it catches mice.”
Historical Eras Importance of Informal Relationships “who has connections to whom” is more important than position. Based on the Long March (1934-1936) – Mao Zedong is chased by Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist army. Important to study the current leader’s relationship with leaders of the past.
Long and stable political history until 20 th century upheavals created regime change. Regional hegemony (control of surrounding countries) emerged early making China one of the most influential political systems in the world for many centuries. Dynastic cycles (seizure of control, strong growth and then decline) lasted until early 20 th century. 20 th century change was radical, violent, and chaotic leading to communism.
Change before 1949 Two disruptive influences threatened stability and challenged modern China: 1. Control by Imperialistic Nations ◦ Quing Dynasty fell to imperialism from England, Germany, France and Japan. ◦ Carved China into “spheres of influence” creating a hatred for the “foreign devils” and eventually rebellion against them.
Change before 1949 2. Revolutionary Upheavals ◦ Revolutions in 1911 and 1949 ◦ Three themes dominated the revolutionary era: 1. Nationalism – Reclaim strength and power lost during imperialist era. 1911 Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen successfully reestablished China as an independent country. 2. Establishing a New Political Community – Chiang Kai-Shek founded the Nationalist party (Guomindang) and Mao Zedong created the Chinese Communist Party
Change before 1949 Three themes dominated the revolutionary era: ◦ 3. Socioeconomic Development Challenge was to recover from years of Imperialism Soviet Union served as a model for policymaking Nationalists broke with them in 1928 Chiang Kai-Shek became president of China Mao Zedong and communist party were defeated
The Legend of the Long March (1934-1936) Resulted in strength for Mao and the Communist Party. Chiang and the Socialists pursued Mao and the Communists throughout China to defeat them. Chiang’s attention turned when Japan invaded China. Mao became a hero to the people and in 1949, he and his loyal friends on the March created the People’s Republic of China Chiang and the Socialists retreated to Taiwan.
Founding of the People’s Republic of China ◦ After WWII, civil war broke out between the forces of Mao against the forces of Chiang. ◦ Mao prevailed in 1949; Chiang retreats to Taiwan (Formosa). ◦ Mao establishes the People’s Republic of China and Chiang claimed his was the true government from Taiwan. ◦ This created the “Two Chinas” ◦ PRC was not recognized by the UN until 1972.
Two Phases of PRC Political Development 1. The Soviet Model (1949-1957) ◦ Mao was supported by USSR since the 1920’s ◦ USSR poured money and expertise into PRC. ◦ Mao and CCP turned attention to three areas: 1. Land Reform – Redistribution of property 2. Civil Reform – Elimination of opium addiction; womens rights. 3. Five Year Plans (1953-1957) nationalization of industry and collectivization of agriculture.
Two Phases of PRC Political Development 2. The Great Leap Forward (Unsuccessful) ◦ Nationalism and inequality are driving forces ◦ Attempt to transform to egalitarian society ◦ Emphasis mainly economic based on four principles: 1. All Around Development – Industry AND Agriculture 2. Mass Mobilization- Work harder, less unemployment 3. Political Unanimity and zeal- emphasis on party workers running gov. CADRES – low level party workers spurred people to work as hard as they could 4. Decentralization – Less central control
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Political, social, and economic change. Goal was to purify the party and country through radical transformation. Five Principles: ◦ 1. Ethic of Struggle ◦ 2. Mass Line ◦ 3. Collectivism ◦ 4. Egalitarianism ◦ 5. Unstinting Service to Society
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Primary goal was to remove all vestiges of old China and its hierarchical bureaucracy and emphasis on inequality. Universities and libraries destroyed Emphasis on elementary education (reading and writing) Education that created inequality was targeted for destruction.
Mao died in 1976 dividing his followers into three factions: 1. Radicals – Led by Jiang Qing (Mrs. Mao) supporting the Cultural Revolution. 2. Military – Led by Bin Biao, traditional policymaking body. 3. Moderates – Led by Zhou Enlai – Economic modernization and limited contact with other countries. Nixon 1972 visit.
Deng Xiaoping’s Modernizations (1976-1997) Zhou Enlai’s Moderates gained control. 1978, Deng Xiaoping emerged as leader. “Four Modernizations” encouraged were industry, agriculture, science, and the military. New Direction includes: ◦ 1. “Open Door” trade policy- Trade with everyone ◦ 2. Reforms in Education- Higher standards; higher education ◦ 3. Institutionalization of the Revolution- restoring the legal system and bureaucracy of old China, decentralizing the government, modifying elections and infusion of capitalism.
With transition to a market based economy, transformations are happening in the citizen- state relationship. Most no longer see Communism as central to their lives. Patriotism and traditional pride are encouraged by the Communist Party.
Ethnic Cleavages ◦ Han Chinese – primary ethnic population ◦ PRC population is about 8% minority. ◦ Autonomous Areas (such as Tibet and Xinjiang) make up 60% of China’s territory with long resistance to the Chinese government. ◦ 55 recognized minority groups ◦ Most minorities live along borders with other countries. ◦ Chinese worry that they will demand independence such as Tibet. ◦ Uighurs- Muslim group who want to create a separate Islamic state. Will resort to violence.
Ethnic Cleavages 100 million in minority groups. Language ◦ Communist regime has tried to make Mandarin the official language of government and education. ◦ Dialects remain in Chinese society; centralized state has a hard time imposing its will on huge territorial spaces.
Rural – Urban Cleavages Massive economic growth in cities. Increased gap in incomes has between rural and urban areas. Some call the divide between rural and urban areas as the new “two Chinas” Increased protesting in rural areas; gov’t is not looking out for rural areas 2006- PM Wen Jiabao announced new emphasis on “a new socialist countryside” to lift the lagging rural economy.
Pre-1949 citizens were seen as subjects of the government; not participants in a political system Communists created a relationship between the CCP and the citizens. Old traditions of personal ties and relationships still mold the political processes and influence actions and beliefs of elites and citizens. Recently, social movements supporting democracy, religion, and community ties over nationalism has influenced Chinese politics and has defined relationships with other countries.
Party and Participation Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Largest political party in the world. (58 million +) Small minority of the total population Only 8% of population are members. CCP’s Youth League is increasing party membership numbers. By 2005, 70 million are members of the Youth League.
Party and Participation Deng’s reforms have replaced the old Cadres with technocrats (technical training, high ranking members in party bureaucracy) who are increasingly leading the party. Less than 40% of membership is from peasantry. Officials, intellectuals, technicians, and professionals are the fastest growing membership category. Women make up 20% of the membership. Capitalists can now become members (since 2001)
Growth of Civil Society Civil Society is increasing in part because the party cannot control modern communications systems (cell phones, fax, tv satellite dishes, and internet) Civil Society – private organizations that may or may not directly challenge the authority of the state. They focus on social problems (AIDS, environment, legal reform)
Growth of Civil Society Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are now allowed to register with the government. Thousands of NGOs are now registered. Increasing tolerance of religion has led to rebounding Christianity and Buddhism. 1999-2001 – Evidence of increased government crackdown on religion found in suppression of religious movement Falon Gong.
Protests ◦ Tiananmen Square Massacre (1989) Limits to protest in China Message by the government is that democratic movements that defy party leadership will not be tolerated. Protests have been increasing in China that may pose serious threats to the CCP in the near future END OF 1 ST HALF - CHINA
Authoritarian – Decisions are made by political elites chosen from the CCP. Decentralization – Devolution of power to subnational governments. Expansive land. CCP controls government structures. Military is important in political hierarchy.
CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY (CCP) Legitimacy from historical best interests of all people. Organization of CCP ◦ Hierarchy at all levels (village/township, county, province and nation. ◦ Leader is called General Secretary ◦ Party has separate constitution than government.
Organization of CCP Central Party Congress ◦ 2000 members ◦ Meets every 5 years ◦ Rubber stamps party leader decisions ◦ Little policymaking ability
Organization of CCP Central Committee ◦ 340 members ◦ Meet annually for one week ◦ Carries on business of the National Party Congress between meetings ◦ Limited policymaking powers ◦ Meetings are called PLENUMS ◦ Members of the politburo are chosen from this group.
Organization of CCP Politburo/Standing Committee ◦ Top of CCP structure ◦ Chosen by the Central Committee ◦ Decisions dictate government policy ◦ 24 members ◦ Standing Committee has 7 members ◦ Secret meetings
NON COMMUNIST PARTIES ◦ CCP allows 8 “democratic parties ◦ ½ million membership ◦ Controlled by CCP and they do not challenge CCP candidates. ◦ Advisors to party leaders. ◦ Independent party organization not allowed by CCP
ELECTIONS CCP controls elections Direct elections only at local level People’s Congresses at higher levels chosen by lower level Congresses. Local level elections moving toward democratic elections.
THE POLITICAL ELITE Personal connections or GUANXI holds Chinese politics together. Nomenklatura – system of choosing cadreas from lower levels for advancement based on loyalty and contributions to the party.
FACTIONALISM Factions have split in three ways 1. Conservatives ◦ Strong party power ◦ No democracy or independent organizations. ◦ Li Peng has been most prominent leader ◦ Since 2003, leadership of this faction has been weak.
FACTIONALISM Factions have split in three ways 2. Reformers/Open Door ◦ Supports capitalist economy and open door trade, membership in WTO and trade with the US. ◦ Focus is economic growth and development, not democracy. ◦ Leaders include Jiang Zemin, Zhu Rongji. ◦ Current president Hu Jianto and PM Wen Jiabao are in this faction.
FACTIONALISM Factions have split in three ways 3. Liberals ◦ Accept political liberties and democratic movements ◦ Support economic and political reform ◦ Faction Leader Hu Youbang’s death in 1989 led to Tiananmen Square incident. ◦ Zhao Ziyang also a leader of this faction. ◦ No power since Tiananmen Square. ◦ Fang-shou – seen in all factions is a cycle of tightening up and loosening up.
CORRUPTION ◦ Corruption in a major problem because of guanxi and economic boom. ◦ Corruption is a threat to the CCP. ◦ 2007 – Tainted food, health products, and drugs on world market. Leader of regulating agency was arrested, convicted, and executed.
INTEREST GROUPS Not permitted to influence policymaking unless controlled by the CCP. CCP forms mass organizations around demographics like occupation or social categories. Danwei – social units based on place of work. More independent groups are forming. State Corporatism is seen in the state’s relationship with these organizations.
INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT Parallel Hierarchies that are separate but interact with each other: ◦ Chinese Communist Party ◦ The State or Government ◦ The People’s Liberation Army ◦ Dual Role – relationship between the party and the government. CCP uses vertical supervision.
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT The People’s Congresses Top level of government Chooses the president and vice-president. Announces Politburo decisions at meetings. Introduces new leaders of China to the world. The Executive/Bureaucracy President and VP serve 5 year terms, limited to two terms, must be 45 years old. Hu Jintao is president and general secretary of CCP Premier is head of government appointed by president. Wen Jiabao is currently premier. He directs the State Council Bureaucracy is at all levels. Lower level positions held by cadres (officials and party members paid by gov’t.)
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT The Judiciary Four tiered “People’s Court” People’s Procuratorate – nationwide organization that provides prosecutors and defenders to the courts. New law code introduced No judicial review Judicial system is subservient to the CCP 99% conviction rate with long prison terms and many executions.
INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENT The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) All ground, air, and naval armed services. 3 million active and 12 million reserves. Important influence on politics and policy. CENTRAL MILITARY COMMISSION – representative group to the government led by many party leaders.
Since 1979 policymaking has been focused on reconciling centralized political authority with marketization and privatization of the economy. China appears to be creating a capitalistic system with authoritarianism.
POLICYMAKING PROCESS: FANG-SHOU ◦ Fang-Shou – Letting go, tightening up cycle. ◦ Three types of actions/policies Economic Reform with demand for political reforms) Letting go (democratic movements and economic reform) Tightening up by the CCP with force.
POLICY ISSUES – THREE CATEGORIES 1. Democracy and Human Rights ◦ Some input from the National People’s Congress is accepted by the Politburo. ◦ More emphasis on laws and legal procedures. ◦ Protestors in Tiananmen Square in 1989 demanded democratic reforms and criticized corruption. ◦ People’s Liberation Army sent to shut down the demonstration resulting in hundreds killed by the PLA. ◦ International human rights organizations has condemned China for the incident.
POLICY ISSUES – THREE CATEGORIES 2. The Rule of Law ◦ Communist point of view is that law is part of politics that the bourgeoisie used to suppress the proletariat. ◦ Communist leaders have never considered the rule of law a legitimate principle. ◦ Legal codes have begun to revive since 1978. ◦ Corruption has led to an advancement in criminal law. ◦ Procuratorates have grown. ◦ Chinese criminal justice is harsher than most other nations.
POLICY ISSUES – THREE CATEGORIES 3. CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES ◦ It has been assumed that there would be an increase of individual civil rights and liberties. ◦ However, there are few signs of change in political policies increasing them.
ECONOMIC POLICY “Iron Rice Bowl” Mao called the policy of a command economy directed by democratic centralism. Deng Xiaoping initiated a series of economic reforms to make up the socialist market economy which is a gradual infusion of capitalism while still retaining state control.
ECONOMIC POLICY Agricultural Policy ◦ The People’s Communes- Collective farms of 250 families. During the Great Leap Forward, they were merged into People’s Communes of several thousand families. Failed due to poor management and lack of cooperation by the peasants. ◦ Household Responsibility System- Early 1989’s- Replaced the People’s Communes. Families take charge of growing and marketing crops. They pay government taxes and contract fees to villages. They can keep or sell what they produce. Has proven successful.
ECONOMIC POLICY “Private Business” ◦ Includes urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries under control of the CCP. ◦ Private business has been more profitable and successful than state-owned business. ◦ Township and Village Enterprises (rural factories and businesses run by local government and private entrepreneurs) has become the backbone of economic strength in the rural areas. Slowed migration of peasants to cities.
ECONOMIC POLICY Economic Problems: ◦ 1. Unemployment and Inequality. Marketization has brought high levels of unemployment. Hope is that a booming economy will take care of the unemployment problem. Some have grown very rich while others remain poor. A FLOATING POPULATION of rural immigrants seeking jobs in cities has grown. New migrants are blamed with problems in the cities.
ECONOMIC POLICY Economic Problems: 2. Inefficiency of the State Sector ◦ Today ¾ of industry is privately owned. ◦ Remaining large state sector is full of corruption, inefficiency, and excess workers. ◦ Government has supported the state sector with subsidies.
ECONOMIC POLICY Economic Problems: 3. Pollution ◦ Air and Water pollution has risen due to increased industrialization. ◦ China has surpassed the US in greenhouse gasses. ◦ Beijing and Shanghai have some of the most polluted air in the world. ◦ Acid Rain from emissions fall on South Korea and Japan. ◦ Target improvements have not been met.
ECONOMIC POLICY Economic Problems: 4. Product Safety ◦ 2007- Chinese businesses were caught exporting faulty products (poisoned pharmaceuticals, dangerous toys, bad dog food, faulty tires, and unhealthy shellfish) to other nations. ◦ Central government has lost control of production.
FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE China has integrated into the world community despite threats to invade Taiwan or improve human rights. Foreign Policy Under Mao ◦ Support for third world revolutionary movements. ◦ China broke from USSR in late 1950’s from dependence to independence.
FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE US/Chinese Relations ◦ No contact until the early 1970’s ◦ New era with President Nixon’s visit to China in 1972. ◦ Deng Xiaoping’s leadership led to the “open door” policy for trade with the US. ◦ Today, the US imports more than it exports from China.
FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE International Trade and Business Today ◦ Special Economic Zones (SEZs)- established in 1979 creates regions where foreign investors were given preferential tax rates and other incentives. ◦ Trade and Industry has expanded since 1978. ◦ Now a member of the WTO and has “most favored nation” status in trade with the US. ◦ Deng Xiaoping emphasized economic reform but retained command of the country.
FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Hong Kong ◦ 1997- Great Britain returned control of Hong Kong to China. ◦ “One Country, Two Systems” agreement signed in 1984. Hong Kong under Chinese rule but would maintain capitalist and legal systems and way of life. ◦ Hong Kong has same civil liberties as under British rule.
FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE Taiwan ◦ Destination of Chiang Kai-Shek after the “Long March.” ◦ Claims status as a Republic of China free from rule of Communist China. ◦ China claims that Taiwan is historically and legitimately part of China. Taiwan disagrees. ◦ Divided ideas by Taiwan on how to deal with China. Some want defiance, others want compromise. ◦ THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION, YOU ARE NOW SCHOLARS IN CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.