4Government and Politics in China History of isolation.China today is one of the remaining communist countries with no indication of renouncing it.China is emerging as a world power.Membership in the WTOInteraction with other countriesActive in the United Nations
5Government and Politics in China China goes outside its borders for investments, labor supplies, and raw materials.Highly industrialized. Large exports.Steadily moving toward capitalism but highly authoritarian government remains.Marketization and democracy do not always go hand in hand.
6SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER Dynastic Cycles – long periods of rule by a family.Chaos when family loses its power.Challenged by other ultimately successful families that create a new dynasty.Mandate of Heaven – right to rule by collective ancestral wisdom. Empire is guided by the heavens above.
8SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER Public authority rested in the hands of the Emperor and an elaborate bureaucracy.Highly centralized power.1949 – Mao Zedong took over China and created a communist state.Current constitution not a major source of legitimacy because of authoritarianism.
10SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER LEGITIMACYDynastic legitimacy established from the mandate of heaven.Weakening authority of the Emperor meant that the mandate of heaven had left him.The Revolution of 1911Created the Chinese RepublicSun Yat-sen was first president.Democratic legitimacy rested with popular government.Regional warlords challenged the government.
11SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER LEGITIMACYMao Zedong emerged with a version of authority known as Maoism.The People’s Republic of China established in 1949.Mao led the Communist Party until his death in
12SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER LEGITIMACYMAOISMIdealistic and egalitarianEndorsed centralized powerMass Line – communication by leaders with ordinary citizens to strengthen legitimacy.
13SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER LEGITIMACYThe Politburo of the Communist party remains the legitimate source of power in China.Criticized in recent years because of corruption.Communist leaders do not appear to be loosening its hold on the government and economy.Central Military Commission – military representation in the government. Role in policymaking.
14SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER HISTORICAL TRADITIONSDynastic influences on modern political system include 5 elements.1. Authoritarian Power – Emperors had to face challenges just as the politburo faces decentralization.2. Confucianism – Important since 6th century. Democratic Centralism is the communist belief in a small group of leaders who rule for the good of the people.
15SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER HISTORICAL TRADITIONSBureaucratic Hierarchy Based on Scholarship.Highly organized bureaucracies of elites educated in Confucian scholarship.Candidates subjected to an examination system that was knowledge based in Confucian philosophy.Major separation in Ancient China was between a large peasant population and the bureaucratic elite.
16SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER HISTORICAL TRADITIONS4. The “Middle Kingdom” (zhong-guo)Center of CivilizationForeigners seen as barbariansOther civilizations inferior to ChinaNo one else has much to offer ChinaIdeology has been challenged but not destroyed.
17SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER HISTORICAL TRADITIONS5. Communist IdeologiesDeng Xiaoping TheoryLate 20th Century influencePractical mix of authoritarian political control and economic privatization.
18SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER POLITICAL CULTUREGeographic Influences (isolationism)Access to oceans/ice free portsMany large and navigable rivers (high population areas)Major geographical/climate splits between the north and south. (has created a cultural split between north and south)Geographic isolation of the western part of the countryMountain ranges, deserts, and oceans that separate China from other countries.
19SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER POLITICAL CULTUREHistorical Eras1. Dynastic Rule – Confucian values of order, harmony, and hierarchy (superior and subservient positions. Created ethnocentrism (Middle Kingdom)2. Resistance to Imperialism – Nationalism has resisted imperialism by European Nations and Japan. Hatred of “Foreign Devils” has created cautious dealings with capitalist countries today.
20SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER POLITICAL CULTUREHistorical Eras3. Maoism – Mao resisted the inequality implied by Leninism. Mao believed in strength of the peasant and centered his philosophy on 5 central values:1. Collectivism – The good of the Community over the individual.2. Struggle and Activism – pursue values of socialism.3. Mass Line – Communication between party leaders and the people.4. Egalitarianism5. Self Reliance – Rely on own talents to contribute to community.
21SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER Historical Eras4. Deng Xiaoping TheoryDeng Xaioping ruled fromDon’t worry about whether a policy of capitalist or socialist as long as it improved the economy.Combination of socialist planning and the capitalist free market.The party should supervise allNo allowances made for individual freedoms and/or democracy“It doesn’t matter whether a cat is black or white, as long as it catches mice.”
22SOVEREIGNTY, AUTHORITY AND POWER Historical ErasImportance of Informal Relationships“who has connections to whom” is more important than position.Based on the Long March ( ) – Mao Zedong is chased by Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist army.Important to study the current leader’s relationship with leaders of the past.
24POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Long and stable political history until 20th century upheavals created regime change.Regional hegemony (control of surrounding countries) emerged early making China one of the most influential political systems in the world for many centuries.Dynastic cycles (seizure of control, strong growth and then decline) lasted until early 20th century.20th century change was radical, violent, and chaotic leading to communism.
25POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Change before 1949Two disruptive influences threatened stability and challenged modern China:1. Control by Imperialistic NationsQuing Dynasty fell to imperialism from England, Germany, France and Japan.Carved China into “spheres of influence” creating a hatred for the “foreign devils” and eventually rebellion against them.
26POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Change before 19492. Revolutionary UpheavalsRevolutions in 1911 and 1949Three themes dominated the revolutionary era:1. Nationalism – Reclaim strength and power lost during imperialist era Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen successfully reestablished China as an independent country.2. Establishing a New Political Community – Chiang Kai-Shek founded the Nationalist party (Guomindang) and Mao Zedong created the Chinese Communist Party
27POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Change before 1949Three themes dominated the revolutionary era:3. Socioeconomic DevelopmentChallenge was to recover from years of ImperialismSoviet Union served as a model for policymakingNationalists broke with them in 1928Chiang Kai-Shek became president of ChinaMao Zedong and communist party were defeated
28POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE The Legend of the Long March ( )Resulted in strength for Mao and the Communist Party.Chiang and the Socialists pursued Mao and the Communists throughout China to defeat them.Chiang’s attention turned when Japan invaded China.Mao became a hero to the people and in 1949, he and his loyal friends on the March created the People’s Republic of ChinaChiang and the Socialists retreated to Taiwan.
29POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Founding of the People’s Republic of ChinaAfter WWII, civil war broke out between the forces of Mao against the forces of Chiang.Mao prevailed in 1949; Chiang retreats to Taiwan (Formosa).Mao establishes the People’s Republic of China and Chiang claimed his was the true government from Taiwan.This created the “Two Chinas”PRC was not recognized by the UN until 1972.
30POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Two Phases of PRC Political Development1. The Soviet Model ( )Mao was supported by USSR since the 1920’sUSSR poured money and expertise into PRC.Mao and CCP turned attention to three areas:1. Land Reform – Redistribution of property2. Civil Reform – Elimination of opium addiction; womens rights.3. Five Year Plans ( ) nationalization of industry and collectivization of agriculture.
31POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Two Phases of PRC Political Development2. The Great Leap Forward (Unsuccessful)Nationalism and inequality are driving forcesAttempt to transform to egalitarian societyEmphasis mainly economic based on four principles:1. All Around Development – Industry AND Agriculture2. Mass Mobilization- Work harder, less unemployment3. Political Unanimity and zeal- emphasis on party workers running gov. CADRES – low level party workers spurred people to work as hard as they could4. Decentralization – Less central control
32POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE The Cultural Revolution ( )Political, social, and economic change.Goal was to purify the party and country through radical transformation.Five Principles:1. Ethic of Struggle2. Mass Line3. Collectivism4. Egalitarianism5. Unstinting Service to Society
33POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE The Cultural Revolution ( )Primary goal was to remove all vestiges of old China and its hierarchical bureaucracy and emphasis on inequality.Universities and libraries destroyedEmphasis on elementary education (reading and writing)Education that created inequality was targeted for destruction.
34POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Mao died in 1976 dividing his followers into three factions:1. Radicals – Led by Jiang Qing (Mrs. Mao) supporting the Cultural Revolution.2. Military – Led by Bin Biao, traditional policymaking body.3. Moderates – Led by Zhou Enlai – Economic modernization and limited contact with other countries. Nixon 1972 visit.
35POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE Deng Xiaoping’s Modernizations ( )Zhou Enlai’s Moderates gained control.1978, Deng Xiaoping emerged as leader.“Four Modernizations” encouraged were industry, agriculture, science, and the military.New Direction includes:1. “Open Door” trade policy- Trade with everyone2. Reforms in Education- Higher standards; higher education3. Institutionalization of the Revolution- restoring the legal system and bureaucracy of old China, decentralizing the government, modifying elections and infusion of capitalism.
36CITIZENS, SOCIETY, AND THE STATE With transition to a market based economy, transformations are happening in the citizen- state relationship.Most no longer see Communism as central to their lives.Patriotism and traditional pride are encouraged by the Communist Party.
37CITIZENS, SOCIETY, AND THE STATE Ethnic CleavagesHan Chinese – primary ethnic populationPRC population is about 8% minority.Autonomous Areas (such as Tibet and Xinjiang) make up 60% of China’s territory with long resistance to the Chinese government.55 recognized minority groupsMost minorities live along borders with other countries.Chinese worry that they will demand independence such as Tibet.Uighurs- Muslim group who want to create a separate Islamic state. Will resort to violence.
38CITIZENS, SOCIETY, AND THE STATE Ethnic Cleavages100 million in minority groups.LanguageCommunist regime has tried to make Mandarin the official language of government and education.Dialects remain in Chinese society; centralized state has a hard time imposing its will on huge territorial spaces.
39CITIZENS, SOCIETY, AND THE STATE Rural – Urban CleavagesMassive economic growth in cities.Increased gap in incomes has between rural and urban areas.Some call the divide between rural and urban areas as the new “two Chinas”Increased protesting in rural areas; gov’t is not looking out for rural areas2006- PM Wen Jiabao announced new emphasis on “a new socialist countryside” to lift the lagging rural economy.
40POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Pre-1949 citizens were seen as subjects of the government; not participants in a political systemCommunists created a relationship between the CCP and the citizens.Old traditions of personal ties and relationships still mold the political processes and influence actions and beliefs of elites and citizens.Recently, social movements supporting democracy, religion, and community ties over nationalism has influenced Chinese politics and has defined relationships with other countries.
41POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Party and ParticipationChinese Communist Party (CCP) Largest political party in the world. (58 million +)Small minority of the total populationOnly 8% of population are members.CCP’s Youth League is increasing party membership numbers. By 2005, 70 million are members of the Youth League.
42POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Party and ParticipationDeng’s reforms have replaced the old Cadres with technocrats (technical training, high ranking members in party bureaucracy) who are increasingly leading the party.Less than 40% of membership is from peasantry.Officials, intellectuals, technicians, and professionals are the fastest growing membership category.Women make up 20% of the membership.Capitalists can now become members (since 2001)
43POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Growth of Civil SocietyCivil Society is increasing in part because the party cannot control modern communications systems (cell phones, fax, tv satellite dishes, and internet)Civil Society – private organizations that may or may not directly challenge the authority of the state. They focus on social problems (AIDS, environment, legal reform)
44POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Growth of Civil SocietyNon-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are now allowed to register with the government.Thousands of NGOs are now registered.Increasing tolerance of religion has led to rebounding Christianity and Buddhism.– Evidence of increased government crackdown on religion found in suppression of religious movement Falon Gong.
45POLITICAL PARTICIPATION ProtestsTiananmen Square Massacre (1989)Limits to protest in ChinaMessage by the government is that democratic movements that defy party leadership will not be tolerated.Protests have been increasing in China that may pose serious threats to the CCP in the near futureEND OF 1ST HALF - CHINA
46POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Authoritarian – Decisions are made by political elites chosen from the CCP.Decentralization – Devolution of power to subnational governments. Expansive land.CCP controls government structures.Military is important in political hierarchy.
47POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS CHINESE COMMUNIST PARTY (CCP)Legitimacy from historical best interests of all people.Organization of CCPHierarchy at all levels (village/township, county, province and nation.Leader is called General SecretaryParty has separate constitution than government.
48POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Organization of CCPCentral Party Congress2000 membersMeets every 5 yearsRubber stamps party leader decisionsLittle policymaking ability
49POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Organization of CCPCentral Committee340 membersMeet annually for one weekCarries on business of the National Party Congress between meetingsLimited policymaking powersMeetings are called PLENUMSMembers of the politburo are chosen from this group.
50POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Organization of CCPPolitburo/Standing CommitteeTop of CCP structureChosen by the Central CommitteeDecisions dictate government policy24 membersStanding Committee has 7 membersSecret meetings
51POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS NON COMMUNIST PARTIESCCP allows 8 “democratic parties½ million membershipControlled by CCP and they do not challenge CCP candidates.Advisors to party leaders.Independent party organization not allowed by CCP
52POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS ELECTIONSCCP controls electionsDirect elections only at local levelPeople’s Congresses at higher levels chosen by lower level Congresses.Local level elections moving toward democratic elections.
53POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS THE POLITICAL ELITEPersonal connections or GUANXI holds Chinese politics together.Nomenklatura – system of choosing cadreas from lower levels for advancement based on loyalty and contributions to the party.
54POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS FACTIONALISMFactions have split in three ways1. ConservativesStrong party powerNo democracy or independent organizations.Li Peng has been most prominent leaderSince 2003, leadership of this faction has been weak.
55POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS FACTIONALISMFactions have split in three ways2. Reformers/Open DoorSupports capitalist economy and open door trade, membership in WTO and trade with the US.Focus is economic growth and development, not democracy.Leaders include Jiang Zemin, Zhu Rongji.Current president Hu Jianto and PM Wen Jiabao are in this faction.
56POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS FACTIONALISMFactions have split in three ways3. LiberalsAccept political liberties and democratic movementsSupport economic and political reformFaction Leader Hu Youbang’s death in 1989 led to Tiananmen Square incident.Zhao Ziyang also a leader of this faction.No power since Tiananmen Square.Fang-shou – seen in all factions is a cycle of tightening up and loosening up.
57POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS CORRUPTIONCorruption in a major problem because of guanxi and economic boom.Corruption is a threat to the CCP.2007 – Tainted food, health products, and drugs on world market. Leader of regulating agency was arrested, convicted, and executed.
58POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS INTEREST GROUPSNot permitted to influence policymaking unless controlled by the CCP.CCP forms mass organizations around demographics like occupation or social categories.Danwei – social units based on place of work.More independent groups are forming.State Corporatism is seen in the state’s relationship with these organizations.
59POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENTParallel Hierarchies that are separate but interact with each other:Chinese Communist PartyThe State or GovernmentThe People’s Liberation ArmyDual Role – relationship between the party and the government. CCP uses vertical supervision.
60POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENTThe People’s CongressesTop level of governmentChooses the president and vice-president.Announces Politburo decisions at meetings.Introduces new leaders of China to the world.The Executive/BureaucracyPresident and VP serve 5 year terms, limited to two terms, must be 45 years old.Hu Jintao is president and general secretary of CCPPremier is head of government appointed by president.Wen Jiabao is currently premier. He directs the State CouncilBureaucracy is at all levels. Lower level positions held by cadres (officials and party members paid by gov’t.)
63POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENTThe JudiciaryFour tiered “People’s Court”People’s Procuratorate – nationwide organization that provides prosecutors and defenders to the courts.New law code introducedNo judicial reviewJudicial system is subservient to the CCP99% conviction rate with long prison terms and many executions.
64POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS INSTITUTIONS OF GOVERNMENTThe People’s Liberation Army (PLA)All ground, air, and naval armed services.3 million active and 12 million reserves.Important influence on politics and policy.CENTRAL MILITARY COMMISSION – representative group to the government led by many party leaders.
65POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES Since 1979 policymaking has been focused on reconciling centralized political authority with marketization and privatization of the economy.China appears to be creating a capitalistic system with authoritarianism.
66POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES POLICYMAKING PROCESS: FANG-SHOUFang-Shou – Letting go, tightening up cycle.Three types of actions/policiesEconomic Reform with demand for political reforms)Letting go (democratic movements and economic reform)Tightening up by the CCP with force.
67POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES POLICY ISSUES – THREE CATEGORIES1. Democracy and Human RightsSome input from the National People’s Congress is accepted by the Politburo.More emphasis on laws and legal procedures.Protestors in Tiananmen Square in 1989 demanded democratic reforms and criticized corruption.People’s Liberation Army sent to shut down the demonstration resulting in hundreds killed by the PLA.International human rights organizations has condemned China for the incident.
68POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES POLICY ISSUES – THREE CATEGORIES2. The Rule of LawCommunist point of view is that law is part of politics that the bourgeoisie used to suppress the proletariat.Communist leaders have never considered the rule of law a legitimate principle.Legal codes have begun to revive since 1978.Corruption has led to an advancement in criminal law.Procuratorates have grown.Chinese criminal justice is harsher than most other nations.
69POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES POLICY ISSUES – THREE CATEGORIES3. CIVIL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIESIt has been assumed that there would be an increase of individual civil rights and liberties.However, there are few signs of change in political policies increasing them.
70POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICY“Iron Rice Bowl” Mao called the policy of a command economy directed by democratic centralism.Deng Xiaoping initiated a series of economic reforms to make up the socialist market economy which is a gradual infusion of capitalism while still retaining state control.
71POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICYAgricultural PolicyThe People’s Communes- Collective farms of 250 families. During the Great Leap Forward, they were merged into People’s Communes of several thousand families. Failed due to poor management and lack of cooperation by the peasants.Household Responsibility System- Early 1989’s- Replaced the People’s Communes. Families take charge of growing and marketing crops. They pay government taxes and contract fees to villages. They can keep or sell what they produce. Has proven successful.
72POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICY“Private Business”Includes urban co-ops, service organizations, and rural industries under control of the CCP.Private business has been more profitable and successful than state-owned business.Township and Village Enterprises (rural factories and businesses run by local government and private entrepreneurs) has become the backbone of economic strength in the rural areas. Slowed migration of peasants to cities.
73POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICYEconomic Problems:1. Unemployment and Inequality.Marketization has brought high levels of unemployment.Hope is that a booming economy will take care of the unemployment problem.Some have grown very rich while others remain poor.A FLOATING POPULATION of rural immigrants seeking jobs in cities has grown. New migrants are blamed with problems in the cities.
74POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICYEconomic Problems:2. Inefficiency of the State SectorToday ¾ of industry is privately owned.Remaining large state sector is full of corruption, inefficiency, and excess workers.Government has supported the state sector with subsidies.
75POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICYEconomic Problems:3. PollutionAir and Water pollution has risen due to increased industrialization.China has surpassed the US in greenhouse gasses.Beijing and Shanghai have some of the most polluted air in the world.Acid Rain from emissions fall on South Korea and Japan.Target improvements have not been met.
76POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES ECONOMIC POLICYEconomic Problems:4. Product Safety2007- Chinese businesses were caught exporting faulty products (poisoned pharmaceuticals, dangerous toys, bad dog food, faulty tires, and unhealthy shellfish) to other nations.Central government has lost control of production.
77POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADEChina has integrated into the world community despite threats to invade Taiwan or improve human rights.Foreign Policy Under MaoSupport for third world revolutionary movements.China broke from USSR in late 1950’s from dependence to independence.
78POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADEUS/Chinese RelationsNo contact until the early 1970’sNew era with President Nixon’s visit to China inDeng Xiaoping’s leadership led to the “open door” policy for trade with the US.Today, the US imports more than it exports from China.
79POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADEInternational Trade and Business TodaySpecial Economic Zones (SEZs)- established in creates regions where foreign investors were given preferential tax rates and other incentives.Trade and Industry has expanded since 1978.Now a member of the WTO and has “most favored nation” status in trade with the US.Deng Xiaoping emphasized economic reform but retained command of the country.
80POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADEHong Kong1997- Great Britain returned control of Hong Kong to China.“One Country, Two Systems” agreement signed in Hong Kong under Chinese rule but would maintain capitalist and legal systems and way of life.Hong Kong has same civil liberties as under British rule.
81POLICYMAKING AND POLITICAL ISSUES FOREIGN POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TRADETaiwanDestination of Chiang Kai-Shek after the “Long March.”Claims status as a Republic of China free from rule of Communist China.China claims that Taiwan is historically and legitimately part of China. Taiwan disagrees.Divided ideas by Taiwan on how to deal with China. Some want defiance, others want compromise.THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION, YOU ARE NOW SCHOLARS IN CHINESE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.