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Internationalizing Higher Education: Rhetoric and Reality Madeleine F. Green York University March 3, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Internationalizing Higher Education: Rhetoric and Reality Madeleine F. Green York University March 3, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internationalizing Higher Education: Rhetoric and Reality Madeleine F. Green York University March 3, 2006

2 Topics for Today Watch your language: terms and definitions The gap between dreams, aspirations, attitudes, and institutional practice Making internationalization a reality

3 Terms and Definitions

4 Globalization Flow of goods, ideas Diminishing importance of boundaries of time and space Diminishing importance of nation-state Connections, interdependence Often not a neutral term

5 Definitions: Flows “…the closer integration of the countries and people of the world, which has been brought about by the enormous reduction in the costs of transportation and communication, and the breakdown of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and (to a lesser extent) people across borders.” (Steiglitz, 2003)

6 Definitions: Interdependence “...bringing all of humanity into a single ecosystem of embedded, overlapping networks. Borders, boundaries, delineations, and walls of any kind are slowly giving way to the compelling force of integration and interdependence.” (Garrison, 2004)

7 Definitions: Neo-liberalism “We use the term globalization to represent neo-liberal economic ideology and its material strategies that aim to increase profits and power for transnational corporations, and similar strategies enabling government agencies to gain economic advantages and be competitive.” (Currie et al, 2003)

8 Internationalization “The process of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimension into the purpose, function, or delivery of postsecondary education.” (Knight 2003)

9 Internationalization “...the complex of processes whose combined effect, whether planned or not, is to enhance the international dimension of the experience of higher education in universities and similar educational institutions.” (OECD)

10 Internationalization Is an ongoing process Is intentional (if it is to have a lasting effect) Affects the way we construct knowledge Is systemic

11 International Education Usually an aggregation of programs, activities: › International students › Study abroad › Courses › Co-curriculum › International cooperation

12 Multicultural/Intercultural In the U.S. context, multicultural is generally used to refer to domestic ethnic and racial diversity Intercultural generally refers to the encounter between people of different nation-states or diaspora cultures Overlap between two terms

13 Issues Is learning about/encountering another culture “at home” the same as doing so in a different linguistic and cultural context? Points of synergy and tension between internationalization and multiculturalism

14 Aspirations and Ambitions

15 ACE Research Public opinion surveys, 2000-2002 studentPOLL data on high school students, 2000 Status Report, 2000 Mapping Internationalization, 2003 Student attitudes and experiences in “high activity” institutions

16 Student Interest in International Education

17 International Experience of High School Seniors

18 Students Planning to Participate in International Courses and Programs

19 Faculty Attitudes 67% agreed that it is the responsibility of ALL faculty to provide undergraduates with an awareness of other countries and cultures 64% agreed that most undergraduate students graduate with this awareness

20 Public Support for International Education

21 ACE 2001 Survey: Dimensions of Internationalization Articulated commitment Academic requirements Organizational structure Funding Communication structure Faculty opportunities Student opportunities

22 Institutional Commitment to International Education

23 International Course Requirements 41% of institutions have an international course requirement Of those with a requirement, over 60% require one course, 21% require two courses, and 19% require three or more courses Of those with a requirement, 62% require students to take a course that primarily features perspectives, issues, or events from non- western countries or areas

24 Supporting Structures 23% have no office 49% have no full-time non-student support staff where there is one office 55% have no full-time non-student support staff where there are multiple offices

25 External Funding for International Education

26 Developing an Internationalization Strategy

27 Multiple Rationales for Internationalization Academic excellence Job preparation Global citizenship Competition and positioning Institutional revenue

28 Two Complementary Strategies Institutional goals and strategies (inputs) Student learning goals and outcomes (outputs/outcomes)

29 Elements of Internationalization (inputs) Campus culture Academic opportunities Co-curriculum International partnerships Funding Supporting structures and policies International Students Synergy among the elements

30 Internationalization is marginal International programs, activities are fragmented Emphasis on inputs not outcomes Faculty interest and capacity Reward system Study abroad is a major strategy, but not the only one Lack of institutional strategy Challenges

31 Using a Student Learning Outcomes Approach

32 Why Articulate Student Learning Goals? Presents an opportunity for a shift away from an ad hoc approach to internationalization Offers a “guiding star” approach to align curriculum with desired outcomes Can help others to understand impact Good educational practice -- outcomes/assessment offers a road map for improvement Quality control -- accrediting agencies mandate

33 The Fundamental Questions about Student Learning What do we want our students to know? To be able to do? What attitudes are we trying to foster? Where would students at our institutions actually acquire these knowledge, skills, attitudes? (mapping exercise)

34 Fundamental Questions (cont’d) What is our evidence that students are achieving these outcomes? (assessment)

35 Challenges of Developing and Assessing Outcomes Difficulty of agreeing on outcomes Coordinating levels: institution, college, department We still don’t have a culture of assessment in higher education Assessment is too infrequently looped back into improvement

36 Challenges (continued) Faculty workload issues How to integrate—use “regular” student work as artifacts for assessment

37 But There are Rewards… Closing the gap between rhetoric and reality Quality improvement Students can articulate their learning for themselves and others

38 Reviewing Internationalization Strategies and Activities

39 Getting There Catalog the state of campus internationalization Clarify goals (institutional and student learning goals) Identify challenges/obstacles Develop or revise internationalization plan Assign responsibility and monitor progress

40 The Process Develop a leadership team › Size › Legitimacy › Leadership Set a schedule Plan communications and involvement

41 Elements of the Review Articulated commitment Academic offerings and requirements Student opportunities Faculty opportunities Funding Communication structure Supporting structures and policies Campus culture

42 Framing a New Conversation on Internationalization Create multiple campus conversations Create conversations in the disciplines Benefit from outsiders and their ideas Use cross-departmental work-groups Create supporting structures

43 What is the Outcome? Map what is going on Identify gaps Identify possibilities for synergy Develop a plan based on solid information The process is also the product—create a campus conversation

44 Conclusion Comprehensiveness Integration Intentionality Leadership

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