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Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln Celebrating 150 Years Ways forward for practice and pedagogy in initial teacher training. Learning from research into preparing effective teachers of Literacy and early reading. Helen Hendry Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln
Becoming effective teachers of reading How do trainee teachers construct their identity as teachers of early reading and what influence does this have on their practice? Which aspects of teaching early reading cause trainee teachers concern or difficulty and why? How do trainee teachers combine pedagogical content knowledge with interaction to respond flexibly to the needs of their pupils? What changes happen to teaching in practice and perceptions about the effective teaching of early reading as trainees become NQTs?
Context is everything Current context in ITT and Primary education inevitably influences the teachers, students and teacher educators. At policy level the Systematic Synthetic Phonic agenda has replaced a deeper knowledge and understanding of the nature of learning to read And the nature of effective teaching and learning Experiences in America suggest that focusing on one model for reading without looking at teaching more holistically may do nothing to raise standards (Moss et al. 2008, Dillon et al. 2011) The focus on accountability in ITT may mean a shift back to a list of what needs to be covered rather than considering the complex nature of teaching
What do we know about effective teachers of Literacy? Include explicit phonics teaching in a broad and rich language curriculum with clear opportunities for practise/purposeful and motivating application Use varied resources and a Literate learning environment Give direct instruction and modelling/ ensure clarity of learning objectives and success criteria Build positive relationships Use AFL and differentiate creatively and rigorously Used engaging and targeted teaching approaches and resources Spontaneously intervene and feedback/adapt teaching Enable children to self-correct and take responsibility/motivate as learners Have solid foundations of PCK Maintain appropriate pace (Hattie 2009, Mohan et.al.2008, Pressley 2006, Louden et al. 2005, Hay Mcber 2000, Wray et al 2000, Riley 1996)
Trainee views of effective teachers Personalised learning Differentiation knowledge of different learning styles Organisation Planning Knowledge Subject knowledge Progressionrapport Relationships Behaviour management EngagingPersistent Teacher characteristics flexible
What is needed to be an effective teacher of early reading? Articulation Subject knowledge and model Other strategies for children who cant use phonics Pace Variety of approaches
What do we know about what trainees find difficult? Enough opportunities for children to practise/make links across the English curriculum (Phonics agenda likely to make this worse) Flexibility to respond to misconceptions or encourage children to apply the skills they had. Insufficient modelling or opportunities for children to interact Confidence with SK-terms and skills e.g demonstrating segmenting and blending. Maintaining focus on learning objective and success criteria Building in assessment-and acting on this quickly-see above Planning for extension and differentiated questioning Balancing pace and engagement with questioning and involvement!
Difficulties exceptions to rules applying knowledge outside of phonics regional accents using Phonics to spell explaining split digraphs children who struggle to blend children with a different strategies pace
The role of pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman 1986, 1987) Excellent teachers of literacy provide skills and strategies instruction Model decoding and comprehension Intervene and scaffold to support Link reading skills to purposeful and engaging contexts (Riley 1996, Wray et al 2000, Fisher 2001, Pressley 2006, Mohan 2008). Parallels with areas of Maths knowledge identified by Rowland et al.(2009): Foundation- own knowledge of maths Transformation- ability to communicate it to others Connection- making links between areas of maths/concepts Contingency- ability to respond flexibly
When interviewed, early years teachers highlighted that their teaching decisions about reading took several factors into account simultaneously: the organisational needs of the class, the social needs of individuals, as well as the next steps needed to advance their cognitive development for early reading (Fisher 2001). In order to become effective teachers of reading trainee teachers need to combine, pedagogical content knowledge and the ability to reflect upon and adapt practice to meet the needs of pupils during and after teaching. (Moon, 2005, Hagger and McIntyre 2006, Loughran 2006, Rowland et al. 2009).
Questions How do I focus points for guided reading what sort of questions should I use? What should I do about the child who rarely contributes during guided reading discussion How can I revisit independent tasks in guided reading when time is so short? How do you differntiate in such a short session? Dont children get left behind? Should a child have completed AF 1,2,3 etc before you can award a secure level? How do you ensure learning is fully embedded and not just rote memorised?
The school culture and ‘tethered learning’ ‘future teachers do learn what they are taught’ (Noe 1994 in Dillon et al ) Although trainees want a supportive comfortable mentoring relationship where they receive feedback, mentees expect that mentor teachers will provide opportunities for learning and that they themselves will make use of these opportunities (Ambrosetti 2010) Trainees need opportunities to feel ‘legitimate’ and move beyond mentor’s practice ( Rajuuan et al. 2010,Cuenca 2011) Mixed profiles of mentor and trainee might be most useful for learning (Rajuuan et al )
Trainee dispositions change little during training and influence their journey enormously (Mutton et. al. 2010, Ripski et. al 2011) Learning by experience very different depending on individual students Knowing oneself is key (Loughran 2006)
Early reading Effective literacy teaching Effective teaching Individual barriers
Individual Partnership Course
Next steps Video observe and discuss reading lessons with trainees Track changes in trainee beliefs about effective teaching Track trainee difficulties and how these change in different schools Consider PCK and how it is manifested through planned and spontaneous AFL and questioning
References Ambrosseti, A Mentoring and learning to teach: what do pre-service teachers expect to learn from their mentor teachers? The international journal of learning. 17.(9). pp Cuenca, A., The role of legitimacy in student teaching: learning to ‘feel’ like a teacher. Teacher Education Quarterly, Spring DfE Research into Teacher Effectiveness: A model of teacher effectiveness. Report by Hay McBer. Dillon, Deborah, R. ; O’Brien, David, G.; Sato, Mistilina.; Kelly, Catherine, M Professional development and teacher education for reading instruction in : Kamil et al. Handbook of reading research volume 4. Fisher, R., Analysing the role of the teacher in early reading: a lesson for researchers. Teachers and Teaching, 7 (3), pp Hagger, H. and McIntyre, D., Learning teaching from teachers: realizing the potential of school-based teacher education. Maidenhead: OUP. Hattie, J Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Abingdon: Routledge Louden,W., Rohl,M., Barratt Pugh,C., Brown,C. Cairney, T. Elderfield,J., House,H., Meiers,M., Rivalland,J., and Rowe, K In Teachers' Hands : Effective Literacy Teaching Practices in the Early Years of Schooling. Available at: Loughran, J., Developing a pedagogy of teacher education: understanding teaching and leaning about teaching. London:Routledge.
Moon, J.A., We seek it here...a new perspective on the elusive activity of critical thinking: a theoretical and practical approach. Bristol: Higher Education Academy. Moss, M., Rulf Fountain, A., Boulay, B., Horst, M., Rodger, C.,and Brown-Lyons, M Reading First Implementation Evaluation Final Report. Washington DC: US Department of education. Office of planning evaluation and policy development, policy and program studies service. Available from: [Accessed 29 th February 2012] Mohan. L, Ludeberg, M.A, Reffitt, K Studying teachers and schools: Michael Pressley’s legacy and directions for future research. Educational Psychologist 43(2). pp Mutton, T. Burn,K. and Hagger, H Making sense of learning to teach: learners in context. Research Papers in Education Vol (1). pp73-91 Pressley, M Reading instruction that works. The case for balanced teaching. New York: Guilford Press. Rajuan,M., Beijaard, D. and Verlop, N The match and mismatch between expectations of student teachers and cooperating teachers: exploring the different opportunities for learning to teach in the mentor relationship. Research papers in education. 25, (2).pp Riley, J The teaching of reading: the development of literacy in the early years of school. London: PCP. Ripski, M.B, LoCasale-Crouch, J. and Decker, L Pre-service teachers: dispositional traits, emotional states, and quality of student teacher interactions. Teacher Education Quarterly. Spring pp Rowland, T, Turner, F., Thwaites, A. and Huckstep, P Developing primary mathematics teaching London: Sage. Shulman, L., Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher. 15.(2)pp4-14. Shulman, L., Knowledge and Teaching: foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), pp Wray, D., Medwell, J., Fox, R. and Poulson, L., The teaching practices of effective teachers of literacy. Educational Review, 52 (1), pp