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Ch 11 Sec 3.  Born 1769 ◦ Island of Corsica  Sent to military school at age 9 ◦ Graduated at 16 ◦ Became lieutenant.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 11 Sec 3.  Born 1769 ◦ Island of Corsica  Sent to military school at age 9 ◦ Graduated at 16 ◦ Became lieutenant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 11 Sec 3

2  Born 1769 ◦ Island of Corsica  Sent to military school at age 9 ◦ Graduated at 16 ◦ Became lieutenant

3  Hero of the Hour ◦ Oct  Defended Nat’l Convention from royalist rebels  Savior of French Republic

4 ◦ Directory appoints to lead French Army against Austria  Crushed Austrian threat to France  Went to Egypt but was defeated by British navy  Kept reports out of press

5  Coup d’Etat – sudden seize of power ◦ 1799 – Directory lost control of political situation in France  Lost confidence of French people

6  Nov. 9, 1799 – Napoleon put in charge of army ◦ Troops drove out members of Nat’l Assembly ◦ Legislature dissolves Directory ◦ Creates three consuls– Napoleon is one ◦ Assumes dictatorial power as first consul

7  1800 – plebiscite approves new constitution ◦ Vote of the people ◦ Constitution gives all power to Napoleon

8  Concordat w/Pope Pius VII (agreement) ◦ Gov’t recognized influence of church on society ◦ Rejected church control in nat’l affairs ◦ People that had bought Church lands got to keep them

9  Napoleonic Code (Civil Code) ◦ Uniform set of laws ◦ Eliminated injustice  Equality of all citizens before the law  Right of individual to choose a profession  Religious toleration  Abolition of serfdom

10  Good ◦ Equality before the law ◦ Gov’t careers open to anyone  Bad ◦ Limited liberty ◦ Promoted order and authority over individual rights ◦ Restricted freedom of speech and press  gov’t inspected all manuscripts and mail

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12  Napoleon establishes order and stability ◦ Supports strong central gov’t, stable economy, and equality in taxation  Didn’t care about rank in society or birth ◦ Set up tax-collecting system and national bank  Promoted sound financial management  Better control of gov’t

13  Created a new aristocracy ◦ Based on meritorious service to the nation ◦ – created 3200 nobles  60% were military officers  40% civil service or state and local officials

14  Reduced gov’t corruption ◦ Dismissed corrupt officials ◦ Established lycees – gov’t-run public schools  Open to male students of all backgrounds  Jobs given based on merit, not family connections

15  Does the image portray Napoleon as a positive or negative person?  How can you tell? What images/colors/symbols lead you to believe this?  Was this created by a person inside or outside of France?

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17  Napoleon Crowned as Emperor ◦ 1804 – declared himself emperor  Supported by French voters  Crowned himself, instead of pope

18  1799 – France at war w/ Russia, GB and Austria ◦ Began signing peace treaties in 1802  GB, Russia, Austria and Sweden form coalition against France  Takes army against coalition ◦ Crushes opposition ◦ Unpredictable ◦ Rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia sign treaties

19  Napoleon is master of Europe  Three major parts of Grand Empire ◦ French Empire ◦ Dependent states ◦ Allied states  French Empire ◦ Enlarged France extending to Rhine River ◦ Also included parts of northern Italy

20  Dependent states ◦ Areas ruled by Napoleon’s relatives ◦ Spain, Holland, Italy, Swiss Republic, Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Confederation of the Rhine  Allied states ◦ Defeated by Napoleon and forced to join fight against GB ◦ Prussia, Austria

21  French Empire ◦ 1812 – few countries free of Napoleon’s control  GB, Ottoman Empire, Sweden, Portugal, Russia ◦ Conquered people feel loyalty to homeland ◦ Huge and unstable empire

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23  French ideals spread throughout Grand Empire ◦ Legal equality ◦ Religious toleration ◦ Economic freedom  Destroy old order in inner core and dependent states ◦ Nobility and clergy lose power and privileges

24  Napoleon sells Louisiana ◦ United States buys in $15 million ◦ $236 million as of 2013  $.42/acre ◦ Gained $ and punished British enemies

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26  Battle of Trafalgar ◦ Only battle lost by Napoleon to Coalition  Major naval defeat – British Admiral Horatio Nelson ◦ French fleet destroyed  Assured supremacy of GB on the seas  Forced Napoleon to give up plans of invading GB

27  The Continental System ◦ Nov – Napoleon orders blockade of GB  Prevent all trade and communication w/other countries ◦ Continental system  Make continental Europe more self- sufficient  Intended to destroy economy of GB

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29  Blockade unsuccessful ◦ Smugglers bring cargo from Britain to Europe ◦ Allies disregarded his orders ◦ New markets in Middle East and Latin America  Britain Blockades France ◦ Stopped neutral ships bound for Europe  Hurts Napoleon more than GB

30  Sense of a unique identity of a group of people  As Napoleon conquered, people became united in their hatred of him  Increased their sense of national identity ◦ Gave them more power

31  1812 – thirst for power leads to disastrous mistake ◦ Alexander I, czar of Russia, refuses to stop selling grain to GB ◦ Napoleon and Alexander suspect each other of having plans for Poland ◦ Napoleon decides to invade Russia

32  Jun 1812 – Napoleon leads Grand Army into Russia ◦ Many troops were not French ◦ Feel little loyalty  Scorched-Earth Policy ◦ Russian army retreats toward Moscow ◦ Burn crops and land so French cannot live off land ◦ Soldiers desert French army

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34 ◦ Sept. 7, 1812 – Battle of Borodino  Battle swings between both sides  Russia eventually retreats and Napoleon takes Moscow  Alexander torches Moscow so Napoleon couldn’t have it  Napoleon stays for 5 weeks

35 ◦ October – Napoleon orders return to France  Begins the retreat with 100,000  Snow fall begins in November and soldiers freeze  Napoleon returns to France in January 1813 w/40,000 troops

36  Coalition Defeats Napoleon ◦ Fights Coalition of GB, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden ◦ Napoleon raises another army in a few months  Untrained soldiers  Battle of Lepzig – Oct – army severely beaten ◦ Empire Crumbles  Jan 1814 – Prussians, Russians, and Austrians march on Paris  March – Czar Alexander I and Frederick William III of Prussia march through Paris

37  April 1814 – Napoleon gives up throne ◦ Exiled to Elba – island off coast of Italy

38  The Hundred Days ◦ Louis XVIII takes throne  Brother of Louis XVI  Unpopular among peasants  Suspected of wanting to undo reforms of revolution ◦ Napoleon escapes from Elba  Thousands welcome him in Paris  Volunteers join his army  Napoleon regains position as emperor

39  Battle of Waterloo – June 18, 1815 ◦ British army defeats Napoleon  Prussian army helped

40  Ends Hundred Days ◦ Napoleon’s second reign as Emperor ◦ Napoleon exiled to St. Helena  island in Atlantic Ocean ◦ Dies after 6 years ◦ 1821 at age of 53

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42 Ch. 12 Sec 2

43  After defeat of Napoleon ◦ Goal of new European order  Collective security and stability for entire continent ◦ Congress of Vienna  Series of meetings in Vienna to set up policies to achieve this goal

44  “ Five Great Powers” ◦ Prussia, Russia, Austria  represented by rulers ◦ GB, France  represented by foreign ministers ◦ Klemens von Metternich  Foreign minister of Austria

45 ◦ Three Goals of Metternich  Prevent future French aggression by surrounding France with strong countries  Restore balance of power so that no country would be threat  Restore Europe’s royal families to thrones held before Napoleon – legitimacy

46  Containment of France ◦ Congress makes weak countries around France stronger ◦ Allow countries of Europe to contain France

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48  Balance of Power ◦ Leaders of Europe don’t want to go too far  Too severe – France may take revenge  Break up France – another country might become too strong ◦ Easy on French  Give up all territories Napoleon took  France remains intact  Keeps overseas possessions, army, and independent gov’t

49  Based on tradition and belief in value of social stability  Obedience to public authority  Relied heavily on influence of religion  Hated revolutions  Unwilling to accept demands of people ◦ Want individual rights or representative government

50  Great powers of Europe had right to send armies into other countries ◦ Restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones  GB refuses this ◦ Doesn’t think great powers should interfere in other nations internal affairs

51  Legitimacy ◦ Powers affirm principle of legitimacy  Agreement that as many as possible of the rulers Napoleon had driven out be restored  France – Louis XVIII given throne  Bourbon rulers of Spain and Kingdom of Two Sicilies  Former rulers of the German States

52  Congress of Vienna is political triumph ◦ Fair decisions = no grudges ◦ Nations of entire continent were cooperating ◦ Peace lasts from


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