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Timbuktu (the city of Mali)

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1 Timbuktu (the city of Mali) w=1141&sz=145&hl=ko&itbs=1&tbnid=iowWPLpgTx9ozM:&tbnh=114&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtimbuktu%2Bmap%26hl%3Dko%26newwindow%3D1%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&newwindow=1&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&start =2#tbnid=iowWPLpgTx9ozM&start=6 &itbs=1&tbnid=iowWPLpgTx9ozM:&tbnh=114&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtimbuktu%2Bmap%26hl%3Dko%26newwindow%3D1%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Disch:1&newwindow=1&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&start=2#tbnid=NlErjNkNJ93iDM&start=7

2 GROWTH Mansa Musa’s Support By Traders –Muhammad Askia (Spodek p.366) –Sub-Saharan, Caravans, Berber, Arab traders –Good Trade Relations Intellectual Exploration –Religious Studies –Literature prosperity –Education Organizations

3 Role Trade Center –Gold, ivory, salt, animal skin, and slaves (Barron’s AP World History 3 rd Edition, p.138) Studying Center –Islamic scholars –Oral storytelling and song making

4 Chang’an

5 - Acted as an one end of the Silk Road  Major trading center  cosmopolitan - The capital of Sui, Tang Dynasty  One of the biggest cities - Biggest city in China since Han dynasty - Cultural influence to near regions  Kyoto - Political significance: legitimacy, much is lost since the 5 Dynasties & 10 Kingdoms period

6 - The recession of Chang’an  Rebellions -- An Shi Rebellion -- Huang Chao rebellion - Not selected to become a capital of any countries. -- Corresponds to the decline of the Silk Roads

7 Venice Venice: An island city, the greatest seaport in late medieval Europe and its commercial and cultural link with Asia, Venice is unique environmentally, architecturally, and historically.

8 Venice Significance Cultural -Venice was influenced by many regions -”Myth of Venice” -Influence from other regions *Palace, Church Significance Political -Political structure – patriciate governs -The commune: Republic “Immensely wealthy Italian city-state of the Medival period”

9 Venice Significance Economical -Maritime trade: the major hub of Mediterranean trade -End of 10 th century, Venice : most economically developed city in Italy. -Trade conflicts -14 th and 15 th, Venice : Golden age (influenced by Crusades) Decline of Venice -Under Francesco Foscari *Crusade: A series of Christian holy wars conducted against infidels. Relationship between Byzantine Empire (330–1453)

10 Rome: Before Avignon Papacy golden age of church 7 th century~ early 9 th century : Grew dramatically -Charlemagne -Vigorous buildings Late 9 th ~mid 11 th : uneasy peace between papacy and Nobility  dispute 11 th ~12 th C : golden age -rule state throughout Europe -many pilgrims  gifts… flow money Conflicts btw nobility and pope Conflicts Republican constitution survived both papal and imperial rule  pope large cash payment to senators pope Innocent tried to secure pope’s position  conflict with Orsini. Innocent cherish to Roman. Roman supports for a while Tax problem: resurgence, more, severe Collapse Lost reforming zeal from people Royal power grew France tries to arrests the pope  pope dies

11 Rome: Avignon Papacy Avignon Papacy cardinal divided: pro, anti-Bonifacian -elect archbishop, they made pope more vulnerable make pope refuge -Establish papal curia in Avignon -Establish loyal faction Controlled by France –France appoint pope and clergies -Pope followed what France says Try to Go Back After one of effective (clement) archbishop dies: cardinals deeply divided - go back to Rome or not Pope John XXII : forceful – feud stops for a while - tried to go back Italy sent subordinates -Emperor of Italy against Failed -France and archbishops didn’t agree -John’s death: pope decline -Hundred Years’ War

12 Rome: After Avignon Papacy Great Schism Pope Gregory returns from Avignon (1377) France oppose: elect new one  two groups meet and elect new pope: 3 popes  schism Popes abdicate (1415~1417) elect new (1417) :schism ended but pope’s power hit the floor In This Period spread of heresy collapse of priests Black Death: corrupted church Influences: secular government grow people started to refuse the religion  climate of Protestant Reformation

13 Ka’aba in Mecca

14 Islamic trade center Silk Road Economic benefits to Quraysh tribes

15 Muhammad’s return to Mecca Muhammad’s power Legitimacy

16 Location of Medina

17 History of Medina Sahifa al-Medina : Constitution of Medina Migrated to Medina in 622 C.E Diverse than Mecca : Jews, Muslims, idolaters. Prophet’s Mosque

18 Significance of Medina Not an obligatory part of t he pilgrimage Visit purpose of ziyara, pi ous visit. capture the early history of the prayer ritual, also st rengthen the believer’s re solve and commitment to these practice. Political leadership

19 Karakorum … 1. Location + Geographical Significance + Before Mongol Rule

20 Karakorum … 2. As the Capital of Mongol Empire Ogedei Khan erects permanent political structures Has temples of all the major religions … (Primary document by William of Rubruck) Housed workmen from around the empire (French Goldsmith) In 1220, Genghis Khan moves capital from Avarga to Karakorum Mongol Empire’s political, cultural, economic capital for 40 years After abandon by Kublai Khan ( 1266 ), destroyed by vengeful Manchurian soldiers in 1388

21 Karakorum … 3. Factors for Growth Over Time Mongol Conquest  More buildings, religious centers Exploration  Spread of knowledge, though slow Slave Trade (13C, slaves sold at Karakorum)  Ethnic diversity, larger workforce Commercial Trade  Trade w. China, Southeast Asia, Middle East increases Greater Diversity Increased Trade Population Growth Urbanization

22 Samarkand

23 Growth during 600 – 1450 Before this time period: already developed; had been capital of kingdom, influenced by Alexander the Great etc. 8th C: Arab 9th-10th C: Samanids of Iran 11th-13th C: various Turkic ppl Early 13th C: annexed by Khwarexm- Shah 1220: destroyed by Genghis Khan 1365: capital of Timur Empire Samarkand

24 Samarkand: Significance Culture – reflects multi-ethnicity: Turks, Persians, Arabs, Mongols – Architecture – Garden Making – Samarkand Rug Center of Islamic learning – Patronized Turkish as a literary language – Poetry, literature – Scholars Al Samarkandi – medicine, astronomy, philosophy, theology, logic Uluh Beg – astronomy, math Samarkand Mongol Persian + Turkic Islam/ Arabic

25 Constantinople

26

27 Where is Baghdad???

28 What was the role of Baghdad? Capital city of the Abbasid dynasty –Architecture –Arts –Cultures –Finance –Markets/Trades –Education –Science/technology Religious center Military character Commercial activities Abbasid Palace(late 12 th /early 13 th C)

29 Growth Founded in 762 as the capital of the Abbasid dynasty –Most significant cultural centre of Arab and Islamic civilization –Symbol of Muslim culture and achievement Economically developed metropolis –Juncture of the land and water trade routes Mongol invasion in 1258 C.E Became local center of the Mongol Empire

30 Damascus: Location It is now the capital of Syria. It was the capital of the Islamic Caliphate. Known as the oldest inhabited city.

31 Growth Cultural Growth -The Great Mosque -Easy communication Economic growth -Trade

32 Role of this city Capital of Umayyad - Centre of Culture and Trade Crusade

33 Development and decline of Kiev Slavs established their own settlement on a hill and was named for Kiy. Kiev was not based on agriculture. Therefore, trade was occurred along the Dniper river. Trade also went to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia Kiev established diplomatic relations with Byzantium, England, France, Sweden, and other countries. Decline: in late 12 th century, the power of the city had declined. In 1238, Genghis Khan invaded Rus and conquered the towns of central Russia. Much of the city was destroyed and the most of its population killed

34 Religious development The introduction of Christianity to Kiev enhanced its significance as the spiritual center of Russia. The city’s wealth and religious importance was attested to by its more than 400 churches. In 957, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byz. Christianity Her grandson(valdimir) 980CE convert to orthodoxy Artistic tradition of icon painting, Byzantine style architecture, monasticism religious education, legal principles and other patterns of thought The Cathedral of St. Sophia

35 All about Moscow -Capital city of the Russian Federation - important center in 14 th century Oblast, western Russia -South : Oka River, Moskva River -Southeast: plain drops to the Meshchera Lowland -Northern Edge: Central Russoan Upland

36 Moscow in Christianity 15 th century After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks (1453),  regarded as the “Third Rome” Integrating modern technology, eagle symbols, the work of going back to Rome

37 Mongols… - after Chinggis’s death Four sons continued their expansions -Along the lands, they entered Russia, and took Moscow  Kiev Russia began to take its modern form - After Ivan III (r )

38 Cairo - Geography Located along the Nile The Largest City of Africa

39 Growth The Most Important Religious Icons of Cairo (640CE, Amr ibn al-A) Mosque of Ibn Tulun Reaching its zenith under Mamluk’s control in 14 th C Economy started to decline since 15 th C King of Kanem converted to Islam constructed a religious school in Cairo. –Expansion of Fatimid Rulers to begin their administration in Fustat. –Economic Inflation – Mansa Musa Role –one of the world’s great trade centers –sheltered a very significant Jewish community –Created a religiously important societies in N. Africa Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World I (Pg. 115~116) Spodek: World History, 3 rd Edition

40 [Northern India] Climate/Region  Dryness, Hot summer/Hillside sissoo neem Wild boar Monkey-> -Fruit (neem, jaman, sissoo)  increase of population -Increase of pop  urbanization  Market -animals (wild boar, & monkey)  increase of pop Interaction of SR & IOR -Indo-Muslim  role of spreading Muslim? (REL) -Important city for other markets (ECON) -Pashtun style ( ) e.x) Quwat-ul-Islam mosque The Qutb Mibnar Tomb of Iltutmish Alai Gate Qutb Mibnar

41 Politics 1. Tomar dynasty (736) – Lal Kot -inscribed on Iron Pillar of Delhi -given by Vibudh Shridhar -learning eloquent language 2.Lal kot’s  Qila Rai Pithora (Chauhan King of Ajmer conquer 1180) 3. Delhi Sultanate (1206) (Under the Slave Dyansty) 1 st Sultan  Qutb-ud-din Aybak (former slave  become a general 4. Helding power (After SLAVE DYNASTY) Khilji dynasty  Tughluq dynasty  Sayyid dynasty  Lodi dynasty 5. Timur Lenk (1398) invade (too tolerant of their Hindu)

42 Food, jewelry mainly traded Significant amount of trade->network, transportation Used canoes and boats for transportation A lot of merchants but under strict control Merchant trade: pochta Trade The Center of Aztec Life: Tenochtitlan

43 Religious: a lot of sacrifice needed A lot of temples, rituals Military: main purpose->gain slaves for sacrifice Soldiers had a lot of decoration Peasants were in companion in battles Religion, military…

44 Cuzco City in S-eastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes Mountain range-capital of the Cusco Region In the time per. of , history of growth and role of Cuzco starts from 1200 as a capital of Inca Empire.

45 Growth Architecture Machu Picchu Sacsayhuaman Fortress with precise stone tech Extensive Conquest and Ruling Techniques -Starts to form a form of a nations and kingdoms with a variety of cultures -Conquered the whole Southern America -Unites the whole continent. -Integration of Religious and Forceful Authority with Political Control = Using three ways to rule Religious growth -Emergence of Sun Temples -integrates religion into a way of ruling Infrastructural Growth -Unification of roads and bridges -Public Temples and Fortresses

46 Role 1.Central Force and Authority 2. Firmly sets religious principles that are built on people’s mind 3. Infrastructure However, b/c of extensive conquest and warfare, Cuzco takes a role of a division of power between the Cuzcos and Kitos (each powers)

47 Jenne-Jeno Upper inland Niger Delta of the middle Niger Groups from the Serer, Soninke of Mali, moved to Jenne-Jeno Flood plain suited for rice, sorghum, and millet

48 Important city for trans-Saharan trade Reached the peak between CE. (maximum area of 100 acres in 850 CE) Islamic influences as the climate became dryer Decline CE -ghost town by 1400CE


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