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States and Nations SO408 AP CompGOPO Mr. Currie
Read “’Nations” or ‘States’ an Attempt at Definition” 1. In your notes, write out the “attributes” of nationhood. How is Rasmussen similar to or different from Powell’s explanation? 2. In your notes, write out the “attributes” of a state. How is Rasmussen similar to or different from Powell’s explanation? 3. How does Rasmussen explain the concept of the “nation-state”? Why does he state that “the nationalist ideal of a world of nation-states is unworkable”?
Read “Iraq is a state but not a nation; Kurdistan is the opposite” 1. What evidence is presented that “Iraq is not a nation”? 2. What evidence is presented to support the idea that Kurdistan is a nation? 3. How well does Iraq meet Rasmussen’s “attributes” for a state? Explain. 4. How well does Kurdistan meet Rasmussen’s “attributes” for a nation? Explain. 5. How does this article support or refute the information/ideas in the Rasmussen article?
A “Nation” A common “blood” relationship ◦ Usually mythical A shared cultural heritage ◦ Cultural artifacts (history) ◦ Institutions Linguistic coherence ◦ One or more languages connected to national identity
A “Nation” Sense of identification by members with the nation ◦ Psychological concept ◦ An “imagined community” Often includes the idea of the “homeland” 8,000 + nationalities (actual or potential) on the face of the earth ◦ A large group bound together culturally and linguistically
A “Nation” The state is a “political unit” The Nation-state is a congruence between a nation and a state.
The Modern State The Modern State A set of ongoing institutions that develops and administers laws and generates and implements public policies in a specific territory.
Questions about the modern state From Rasmussen’s attributes or characteristics What are bureaucracies and why are they important components (parts) of a modern state? Why is sovereignty important to a modern state? How is external sovereignty different from internal sovereignty?
Characteristics of the Modern State (Rasmussen expanded) Monopoly on the exercise of force (Weber) Legitimacy ◦ The recognized right to rule Institutional structures established to handle governmental tasks, including, but not limited to, the exercise of force ◦ Requires some sort of Bureaucracy ◦ A large set of appointed officials whose function is to implement the laws of the state, as directed by the executive
Characteristics of the Modern State (Rasmussen expanded) Legitimacy ◦ Means of enforcing sovereignty more fully ◦ Traditional The right to rule based on a society’s long-standing patterns and practices ◦ Charismatic Right to rule based on personal virtue, heroism, sanctity, or other extraordinary characteristics ◦ Rational-legal Right of leaders to rule based on their selection according to an accepted set of laws, standards, or procedures
Characteristics of the Modern State (Rasmussen expanded) Territory – absolute or partial control Sovereignty ◦ Quality of a state in which it is legally recognized by the family of states as the sole legitimate governing authority within its territory and as the legal equal of other states
Characteristics of the Modern State (Rasmussen expanded) Sovereignty External sovereignty – sovereignty relative to outside powers that is legally recognized in international law Internal sovereignty – the sole authority within a territory capable of making and enforcing laws and policies ◦ Case study - Somaliland
Factors Affecting the Development of States How has imperialism affected the development of states? How has Globalization and the End of the Cold War affected the development of states? How has the process of state and nation- building affected the development of states?
Factors Affecting the Development of States INTERNATIONALDOMESTIC HistoricalImperialismState & nation-building ContemporaryGlobalization & the end of the Cold War Pressures from below
The modern state analyzed, Part 1 Why can we say that “States are temporary and somewhat arbitrary”? What is “diplomatic recognition” and why is it important? What factors determine why some parts of the earth become states and others don’t?
The modern state analyzed States are temporary and somewhat arbitrary ◦ UN vs IOC ◦ Boundaries change War, negotiation, sale ◦ “Diplomatic recognition” confers legitimacy on a new state Who gets a state, and why? What about the “stateless”?
The modern state analyzed, Part 2 What are “pressures from below” and how do they affect modern states? ◦ How do the forces of “nationalism” work to both strengthen and weaken the modern state? What are “pressures from above” and how do they affect modern states? One way of analyzing the modern state leads to the conclusion that China is a “strong” state, but the USA is a “weak” state.” How can that be?
The modern state analyzed Pressures from below ◦ Devolution ◦ Separatist claims and pressures from ethnic groups, religious groups, demographics (esp. young and old) Political: e.g., Scotland and Catalonia (Spain) Violent: e.g., Boko Haram and IS ◦ Privatization ◦ Downsizing ◦ Economics Read: “The other caliphate” ◦ Why is this an example of “pressures from below”?
The modern state analyzed Pressures from above ◦ Loss of sovereignty to “supra-national organizations EU, NATO, NAFTA, WTO, World Bank, IMF, etc. MNCs – Multi-national Corporations Read: “Taming the beast” ◦ Is this an example of “pressures from above”? Why or why not?
Read “Identity, not ideology, is moving the world” Answer the following questions for HW (to be collected) 1. Summarize the main idea(s) found in Zakaria’s article. 2. What evidence does he present to support his claims? 3. Zakaria uses the word “nationalism” several times throughout the article. What does the word mean to Zakaria in the context of this article?
The modern state analyzed, Part 3 What distinguishes a “sustainable” state from a “stable” state or a “fragile” state or a “hollow” state or a “failed” state?
The modern state analyzed Fund For Peace Fragile State Index Analyze 12 “indicators” and assign scores Focus is on “State Fragility” ◦ The loss of physical control of its territory or a monopoly on the legitimate use of force; ◦ The erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions; ◦ An inability to provide reasonable public services; ◦ The inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community.
Fund For Peace
The modern state analyzed Countries are then placed into categories ◦ “Very High Alert” – “failed state” ◦ “High Alert” ◦ “Alert” ◦ “Very High Warning” ◦ “High Warning” ◦ “Warning” ◦ “Less Stable” ◦ “Stable” ◦ “Very Stable” ◦ “Sustainable” ◦ “Very Sustainable”
FFP Fragile State Index 2014 “The king is dead; long-live the king!” ◦ “top ten” ◦ “bottom ten” ◦ “most improved” ◦ “who lost ground?”
The modern state analyzed Fund For Peace categories “Very Sustainable,”, “Sustainable,” “Very Stable” & “Stable” ◦ Complete external & internal sovereignty ◦ Absolute legitimacy and a monopoly on the use of force ◦ A completely effective & efficient set of state institutions ◦ Provide “political goods” to their population Security; the rule of law; a functioning legal system; and infrastructure such as roads, public education, and health care What do these countries seem to have in common?
The modern state analyzed Weak (FFP “Very High Warning,” “High Warning” & “Warning”) ◦ A state that cannot provide adequate political goods to its population Failed (FFP “Very High Alert” & “High Alert”) ◦ A state that is so weak that it loses effective sovereignty over part or all of its territory ◦ South Sudan, Somalia, Iraq, Congo, Libya, Afghanistan …. Hollow & Collapsed (a different way to label a “failed” state) ◦ Quasi-states: states that have legal sovereignty and international recognition but lack almost all the domestic attributes of a functioning modern state ◦ Sierra Leone, Liberia and the “resource curse” What do countries in these categories have in common?
Homework Go to the Fund for Peace website Find the country you have been researching How does it rank on the various criteria? What is its overall classification? Go to the “country-by-country trend analysis” and summarize its progress (or decline) over the last several years. What is the explanation for these changes? Include FFP data and analysis in your report
Resource Curses & Rentier States Adapted from the 2010 AP Comp Gov Exam (Question #4; 8-10 minutes to respond) Define a rentier (rent-seeking) state. Identify one rentier state among the six AP Comparative Politics and Government countries. Describe a problem that a rentier state typically faces that has an impact on economic development. Describe a problem that a rentier state typically faces that has an impact on political development.
Resource Curses & Rentier States A rentier state derives substantial portions of their income from external (foreign) rent ◦ “rent” is obtained from exporting a raw material or other natural resource Oil, natural gas, diamonds, etc. ◦ Which of our “case study” countries are rentier states? Effects on economic development ◦ Lack of diversification of the economy Decline in other parts of the economy ◦ Price fluctuations caused by dependence on world markets ◦ No incentive to industrialize/modernize economy ◦ Often makes income inequality worse
Resource Curses & Rentier States Effects on political development ◦ Often creates a “rentier class” Economic wealth is concentrated in the hands of a few Opportunities for corruption – “rent seeking” Proceeds are exploited for personal gain, not for the greater public good Those groups who are “left out” often resort to violence to get their “fair share” ◦ Rentier states do not need to seek legitimacy through democratic representation Since there is less need to tax citizens for revenue “No taxation without representation” becomes “No representation without taxation.” Little pressure from below to demand democratic rights ◦ Often associated with authoritarian regimes
Anatomy of a “Very High Alert” State: The Case of South Sudan One of the world’s newest states ◦ Former British colony ◦ Divided north & south along demographic and religious lines North: Arab & Muslim Political and administrative power here South: African & (mostly) Christian Resources (oil) here, but controlled by north Christians suffered discrimination from central government One of the least developed and most poverty-stricken regions in the world: 85% below poverty line (46% in north) In 2011 est. 24 miles of paved road in entire country
Anatomy of a “Very High Alert” State: The Case of South Sudan Fighting off and on from 1955 ◦ 2 nd civil war ( ) – est. 2 million died of war, famine & disease Began when the president declared that Sudan was to be an Islamic state Shari’a Law imposed Slavery was legal South revolted Independence supported by celebrities (George Clooney) & US government ◦ Comprehensive Peace Agreement 2004 Referendum to decide independence 98%+ voted for independence
Anatomy of a “Very High Alert” State: The Case of South Sudan Post-independence ◦ Supported by many humanitarian organizations ◦ Big UN presence ◦ Economy largely based on oil-exports Pipelines run through Sudan Northern neighbor is not helpful ◦ Cleavages between the leadership of south Personal & tribal ◦ Violence between factions breaks out South invades the north Civil war in south Economy severely damaged Institution and nation-building grind to a halt Humanitarian crises
Anatomy of a “Very High Alert” State: The Case of South Sudan Lessons learned Wishing for a country doesn’t make it so. ◦ Nation-building is not easy (see Iraq) A “pre-failed” state ◦ It takes a long time to create the institutions and political culture to sustain a functioning state. 20 years? Freedom means freedom to kill your political enemies “No good deed goes unpunished.” ( Claire Booth Luce’s law ) ◦ Western, humanitarian intervention isn’t enough It’s often unwanted; it also creates more opportunities for corruption Resources and mission are often mis-matched (UN) “Whatever can go wrong, will go wrong” (Murphy’s Law)
The modern state analyzed ? How easy or difficult is it for a state to make and enforce policies? Strong vs. weak – depends on capacity AND autonomy Capacity: ability of a state to use power in order to carry out the basic tasks of a state. ◦ High capacity – able to develop and enact fundamental policies to ensure stability, security, justice, political/civil rights, basic services, etc. Requires not just $; also organization, legitimacy & effective leadership Roads get built/maintained, regulations are created and followed, lawbreakers are punished ◦ Low capacity = ???
The modern state analyzed Autonomy: the ability of the state to use its power independently of the public or international actors ◦ Closely related to sovereignty ◦ It’s the informal, practical ability to act on its sovereignty ◦ High autonomy: If an autonomous state wished to carry out a policy or action, it can do so without having to consult the public or worry about strong public or international opposition that might force it to reverse its decision. China builds the Three Gorges Dam and the South- North Water Diversion Project
High AutonomyLow Autonomy High Capacity State is able to fulfill basic tasks with a minimum of public interference; power highly centralized, strong state State is able to fulfill basic tasks, but public plays a direct role in determining policy and is able to limit state power and scope of activity Danger: Too high a level of capacity and autonomy may prevent or undermine democracy Danger: State may be unable to develop new policies or respond to new challenges owing to the power of organized opposition Low Capacity State is able to function with a minimum of public interference or direct control, but its capacity to fulfill basic tasks is limited State lacks the ability to fulfill basic tasks and is subject to direct public control and interference; power highly decentralized among state and nonstate actors; weak state Danger: State is ineffectual, limiting development, and slow development may provoke public unrest Danger: Too low a level of capacity and autonomy may lead to internal state failure