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孫 國 洋 ( Didier Sun ) 苗 栗 人 東海大學 統計學系 走跳、喇滴賽、吃早餐 1.

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Presentation on theme: "孫 國 洋 ( Didier Sun ) 苗 栗 人 東海大學 統計學系 走跳、喇滴賽、吃早餐 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 孫 國 洋 ( Didier Sun ) 苗 栗 人 東海大學 統計學系 走跳、喇滴賽、吃早餐 1

2 CHAPTER 4 O RGANIZATIONAL R ELATIONSHIPS 任課老師:任維廉 老師 報 告 人:孫國洋 日 期: Nov.22.2012 2

3 OUTLINE 1. Organizational Ecosystems 2. Resource Dependence 3. Collaborative Networks 4. Population Ecology 5. Institutionalism 6. Design Essentials 7. Discussion 3

4 1. O RGANIZATIONAL E COSYSTEMS Organizational Ecosystems The systems formed by the interaction of a community of organizations and their environment. Interorganizational Relationships Defined as the relatively enduring resource transactions, flows, and linkages that occur among two or more organizations. 4

5 1. O RGANIZATIONAL E COSYSTEMS Is competition dead ? Organizations are involved in complex networks, the number of corporate alliances are increasing. Traditional competition no longer exists. Companies find that they must co-evolve with others in the ecosystem. In an organizational ecosystem, conflict and cooperation exist at the same time. 5

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7 1. O RGANIZATIONAL E COSYSTEMS Interorganizational Framework From top-down management to horizontal management. Relationships among organizations can be characterized by whether the organizations are similar or dissimilar, and whether the relationships are competitive or cooperative. 7

8 1. O RGANIZATIONAL E COSYSTEMS 8 Resource Dependence Institutionalism Collaborative Networks Population Ecology SimilarDissimilar Competitive Cooperative ORGANIZATIONS TYPE OrganizationsRelationships Framework for Interorganizational Relationships

9 2. R ESOURCE D EPENDENCE Minimize the dependence on other organizations for important resources. Influence the environment to make resources available. Develop strategies to reduce dependence on the environment, and learn how to use their power differences. 9

10 2. R ESOURCE D EPENDENCE Strategies Supply Chain Relationships Power Implications 10


12 3. C OLLABORATIVE N ETWORKS Companies join together to become more competitive and to share scarce resources. Why Collaboration? A major avenue for entering global markets. Involved in each other’s product design and production, and invest for the long term. 12

13 4. P OPULATION E COLOGY Organization Form and Niche Form is an organization’s specific technology, structure, products, goals and personnel. Each organization attempts to find a niche. Process of Ecological Change 13

14 4. P OPULATION E COLOGY Strategies for Survival Competitive struggle for resources – struggle for existence The breadth of the generalist’s domain serves to protect it somewhat from environmental changes A company that provides a narrow range of goods or services or that serves a narrower market is a specialist 14

15 5. I NSTITUTIONALISM Institutional Perspective Manage survival Balance expectations of environment Institutional Environment Norms and values of stakeholders Adopt structures and processes to please outsiders Legitimacy An organization’s actions are desirable, proper and appropriate 15

16 5. I NSTITUTIONALISM Technical dimension Work technology and operating requirements which is governed by norms of rationality and efficiency Institutional structure Organization most visible to the outside public which is governed by expectations from the external environment 16

17 5. I NSTITUTIONALISM Emergence of common structure and approach among like organizations. Mimetic Forces The pressure to copy or model other organizations Coercive Forces Pressures for organization to adopt structures, techniques or behaviors similar to other organizations. Normative Forces Pressure to adopt standards and techniques of professional community. 17

18 6. D ESIGN E SSENTIALS Four perspectives have been developed to explain relationships among organizations. The 2. collaborative-network perspective is an emerging alternative to 1. resource dependence. The 3. population-ecology perspective explains why organizational diversity continuously increases with the appearance of new organizations filling niches left open by established companies. The 4. institutional perspective argues that inter organizational relationships are shaped as much by a company’s need for legitimacy as by the need for providing products and services. 18

19 7. D ISCUSSION 四個觀點通用於所有關係? 如何選擇結盟對象與結盟企業? 19

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