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Categories of political actors

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Presentation on theme: "Categories of political actors"— Presentation transcript:

1 Transnational actors and International Organizations in Global Politics

2 Categories of political actors
Today 5 main categories of political actors can be defined: 1. Nearly 200 governments transnational companies Exxon Mobil, General Electric, HP, Microsoft .. Etc.. intergovernmental organizations UN, NATO, EU, international non-governmental organizations Baptist world alliance, International chamber of shipping 5. Around 9500 single-country NGO Population Concern, Sierra Club…

3 Problems with state centric approach
What is state centric approach?Pluralism? Main problems Ambiguity between different meanings of a ‘state’ State is easily confused with country, government, civil society The lack of similarity between countries They are all essentially the same type, when in fact they are not The problem of holism The state is seen as a holistic entity → it is considered to be a coherent unit, acting with common purpose and existing as something more than the sum of its parts, while both transnational and intergovernmental relations are underestimated. The difference between state and nation National loyalty is different from loyalty to country

4 Transnational companies as political actors
What is transnational company? Transnational companies and the weakened state sovereignty; Mechanisms of influence: - Unpredictable financial flows- impaired state control over the currency and foreign trade - Trade triangulation - Regulatory arbitrage - Extraterritoriality: clashes of sovereignty From domestic deregulation to global re-regulation

5 Non- legitimate groups and liberation movements as political actors
Transnational criminals and their political impact; sovereignty problems in tackling criminals: unpredictable financial flows; triangulation of criminal trade; regulatory arbitrage; and extraterritoriality with respect to jurisdiction over criminal behaviour Transnational guerilla groups: distinction between terrorists, guerilla and national liberation movements; ways to attain legitimacy by groups using violence Criminals and guerillas in global politics

6 NGO as political actors
Conditions for gaining recognition as NGOs by the UN: an NGO should support the aims and the work of the UN; an NGO should be a representative body; an NGO cannot be a profit-making body; an NGO cannot use or advocate violence; an NGO cannot be a political party; is not established by an intergovernmental agreement The effects of globalization on the expansion of NGOs: international regimes, communications; global media The movements of the NGOs from the local to the global

7 Issues and policy systems in global politics
The distinction between high politics and low politics; criteria: policy questions; decision-makers; involvement of non-state actors; type of situation; the relevance of the distinction The definition of issue in world politics The definition of policy domain in world politics

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