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2 OVERVIEW What it is actually Motivation Cycle of events Techniques used Biases and its types Preventive measures Conclusion

3 WHAT IS IT ACTUALLY ? A means to violate a computer system Social engineering, in the context of security, is understood to mean the art of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information It is typically trickery or deception for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or computer system access wherein most cases the attacker never comes face-to-face with the victims

4 MOTIVATION There are variety of motivations exists which includes,  Financial Gain  Self-Interest  Revenge  External Pressure

5 TECHNIQUES USED All social engineering techniques are based on specific attributes of human decision-making known as cognitive biases. The Information gathering technique that could be used are, Surfing Checking the Rubbish Mail-outs Forensic analysis

6 CYCLE OF EVENTS It consist of 4 phases: Information Gathering Developing Relationship Execution Exploitation

7 CYCLE.. (CONTD) Information Gathering:  A Variety of techniques can be used by an aggressor to gather information about the target(s). Once gathered, this information can then be used to build a relationship with either the target or someone important to the success of the attack.  Information that might be gathered includes, but is not limited to: a phone list; birth dates; an organization’s organizational chart.

8 CYCLE.. (CONTD) Developing Relationship:  an aggressor may freely exploit the willingness of a target to be trusting in order to develop rapport with them. While developing this relationship, the aggressor will position himself into a position of trust which he will then exploit. Exploitation:  the target may then be manipulated by the ‘trusted’ aggressor to reveal information (e.g. passwords) or perform an action (e.g. creating an account or reversing telephone charges) that would not normally occur. This action could be the end of the attack or the beginning of the next stage.

9 CYCLE.. (CONTD) Execution:  once the target has completed the task requested by the aggressor, the cycle is complete.

10 BIASES Biases are nothing but the deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgments There are many types of biasing, but these 7 are the important ones: Pretexting Diversion theft Phishing IVR or Phone Phishing Baiting Quid Pro Quo Tailgating

11 PRETEXTING Pretexting, is the act of creating and using an invented scenario to engage a targeted victim in a manner that increases the chance the victim will divulge information or perform actions that would be unlikely in ordinary circumstances This technique can be used to fool a business into disclosing customer information as well as by private investigators to obtain telephone records, utility records, banking records and other information directly from company service representatives The information can then be used to establish even greater legitimacy under tougher questioning with a manager, e.g., to make account changes, get specific balances, etc.

12 DIVERSION THEFT Diversion theft, also known as the "Corner Game” or “Round the Corner Game", originated in the East End of London diversion theft is a "con" exercised by professional thieves, normally against a transport or courier company The objective is to persuade the persons responsible for a legitimate delivery that the consignment is requested elsewhere — hence, "round the corner"

13 PHISHING Phishing is a technique of fraudulently obtaining private information the phisher sends an e-mail that appears to come from a legitimate business—a bank, or credit card company—requesting "verification" of information and warning of some dire consequence if it is not provided The e-mail usually contains a link to a fraudulent web page that seems legitimate—with company logos and content— and has a form requesting everything from a home address to an ATM card's PIN

14 IVR OR PHONE PHISHING This technique uses a rogue interactive voice response (IVR) system to recreate a legitimate-sounding copy of a bank or other institution's IVR system The victim is prompted (typically via a phishing e-mail) to call in to the "bank" via a (ideally toll free) number provided in order to "verify" information Phone phishing is also called vishing.

15 BAITING Baiting is like the real-world Trojan Horse that uses physical media and relies on the curiosity or greed of the victim In this attack, the attacker leaves a malware infected floppy disk, CD ROM, or USB flash drive in a location sure to be found (bathroom, elevator, sidewalk, parking lot), gives it a legitimate looking and curiosity-piquing label, and simply waits for the victim to use the device

16 QUID PRO QUO Quid pro quo means something for something An attacker calls random numbers at a company claiming to be calling back from technical support. Eventually they will hit someone with a legitimate problem, grateful that someone is calling back to help them. The attacker will "help" solve the problem and in the process have the user type commands that give the attacker access or launch malware.

17 TAILGATING An attacker, seeking entry to a restricted area secured by unattended, electronic access control, e.g. by RFID card, simply walks in behind a person who has legitimate access Following common courtesy, the legitimate person will usually hold the door open for the attacker. The legitimate person may fail to ask for identification for any of several reasons, or may accept an assertion that the attacker has forgotten or lost the appropriate identity token. The attacker may also fake the action of presenting an identity token.

18 PREVENTIVE MEASURES Organizations must, on an employee/personnel level, establish frameworks of trust. (i.e., When/Where/Why/How should sensitive information be handled?) Organizations must identify which information is sensitive and question its integrity in all forms. (i.e., Social Engineering, Building Security, Computer Security, etc.) Organizations must establish security protocols for the people who handle sensitive information. (i.e., Paper-Trails for information disclosure and/or forensic crumbs) An Organization's framework must be tested periodically, and these tests must be unannounced.



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