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Comp Exam Study Guide. Table of Contents History o (Classical, Neoclassical, Modern, New Public Mgmt) Theories ◦ (Political Control, Reputation, Decision-Making,

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Presentation on theme: "Comp Exam Study Guide. Table of Contents History o (Classical, Neoclassical, Modern, New Public Mgmt) Theories ◦ (Political Control, Reputation, Decision-Making,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Comp Exam Study Guide

2 Table of Contents History o (Classical, Neoclassical, Modern, New Public Mgmt) Theories ◦ (Political Control, Reputation, Decision-Making, etc) Reform ◦ (Scientific Mgmt, War on Waste, Watchful Eye, and Liberation Mgmt) Performance Management ◦ (National Performance Review, Managing for Results, Accountable Government Initiative) Budgeting ◦ (Planning, programming and budgeting, Zero-based, Performance- based, Incremental) Methodologies ◦ (Quantitative and qualitative tools)

3 HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

4 Positivism/ Scientific Management (1890 – 1920s) ◦ Woodrow Wilson (1887) “Study of Administration”  Progressivism: Pendelton Act of 1883 ◦ Frank Goodnow (1900) “Politics and Administration”  Field’s legitimacy lies in administrative law ◦ Frederick W. Taylor (1911) “Scientific Management”  One best way to accomplish tasks and manage workers ◦ Henri Fayol (1916) “General Theory of Management”  Universal approach to administrative management

5 Principles of Public Administration (1920s – 1950s) ◦ Mary Parker Follett (1918) “The New State”  Contradicted Scientific Management, only later accepted  Offered the first feminist perspective, web approach, network ◦ Chester Barnard (1938) “Functions of the Executive”  Influence of values on decision-making, power of persuasion  Reconcile top down goals with bottom up compliance ◦ Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (1937) “Papers on the Science of Administration”  Principles of P.A. – POSDCORB (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting)

6 Public Administration as Political Science (1940s – 1970s) ◦ Herbert A. Simon (1946) “Proverbs of P.A.”  Attacked Wilson’s P.A. Dichotomy as contradictory  P.A. should be based on study of human behavior  Humans are not rational and should not be perceived as such ◦ Robert Dahl (1947) “Science of P.A.: 3 Problems”  Bureaucratic Efficiency vs. Democratic Values  Rethink normative assumptions about sharp dichotomy  Expand “rational” man to include human behavior  Embrace historical, economic and social conditions and impacts ◦ Dwight Waldo (1948) “The Administrative State”  Administration is inherently political, Reject dichotomy

7 Human Relations/ Social Sciences(1930s – 1950s) ◦ Robert K Merton (1940) “Bureaucratic Structure and Personality”  Argued that Scientific Mgmt is inhumane and undemocratic, called for development of a theoretic basic social science, focus groups  Weber’s bureaucracy has characteristics that lead to inefficiency ◦ Herbert A. Simon (1950) “Administrative Behavior”  Bounded Rationality and the concept of satisficing ◦ Marshall Dimmock (1951) “Free Enterprise and the Administrative State”  Business uses economic power for profitability rather than to promote the national interest  Administration is law in action ◦ Charles Lindblom (1959) “Science of Muddling Through”  Political process lead to an incremental approach to policy

8 “Modern” / New Public Administration(1930s – 1950s) ◦ Minnowbrook Conference (1968)  Hosted by Waldo; Add equity as a social value  P.A. underwent an identify crisis as it tried to redefine itself ◦ Aaron Wildavsky (1964) “Politics of the Budgetary Process”  Applied Lindblom’s incremental theory to budgeting ◦ Ted Lowi (1969) “End of Liberalism”  Govt expands relentlessly to meet special interest demands ◦ Graham Allison (1971) “Essence of Decision”  Cuban Missile Crisis: 3 Paradigms - Rational Actor, Organizational Process and Political Process Models ◦ Vincent Ostrom (1973) “Intellectual Crisis in American Public Administration”  P.A. lacks the cumulative and empirical strength of other sciences

9 Minnowbrook Conference (1968) P.A. can be neither neutral nor objective Technology can be dehumanizing Hierarchy can be an ineffective organizational strategy Bureaucracies tend toward agency survival Cooperation and consensus are more effective than exercise of authority Modern P.A. built on post-behaviorist and post-positivist logic

10 Research Strands Reinventors: ◦ Osborne and Gaebler - Entrepreneurial Spirit Communitarians: ◦ Etzioni, Galston, Chrislip, Selznick - Rebuilding community and citizenship Refounders: ◦ Goodsell, Rohr, Stivers – Philosophical, institutional, and theoretical redefinition of P.A. Interpretivists: ◦ White, Stivers, Spicer, Box – Values and ideas concerning the very nature of human existence New Bureaucratic Analysts: ◦ Light, Selden, Behn, Cooper – Reevaluate the relationship between politics and administration From Management to Governance: ◦ Kettl, Moore, Lynn, Rainey – Best practices, steering and networks

11 New Public Management

12 Governance Orthodoxy ◦ David Osborne and Ted Gaebler (1992) “Reinventing Government”  Shift toward privatization and decentralization. Governments should: 1)Steer, not row 2)Empower communities to solve own problems 3)Encourage competition 4)Be driven by missions, rather than rules 5)Meet needs of customer, not bureaucracy 6)Concentrate on earning money, rather than spending it 7)Invest in preventing problems, instead of curing crises 8)Decentralize authority 9)Influence market forces rather than create public programs Tenets of NPM ◦ 1) Productivity, 2) Marketization, 3) Service Orientation, 4) Decentralization, 5) Policy and 6) Accountability

13 New Public Management ◦ Donald F. Kettl (2000) “Global Public Management Revolution”  Describes Westminster Reforms in NZ and UK ◦ Milward, Provan and Else (2000) “Governing the Hollow State”  Concerns of accountability and oversight in contracting ◦ Robert and Janet Denhardt (2007) “New Public Service: Serving, not Steering”  Oppose Osborne and Gaebler: Serve citizens not just customers 1)Serve citizens, not customers 2)Seek the public interest 3)Value citizenship over entrepreneurship 4)Think strategically, act democratically 5)Recognize that accountability is not simple 6)Serve rather than steer 7)Value people, not just productivity

14 Early America

15 Founding Father’s Views Alexander Hamilton: ◦ With James Madison and John Jay, Challenged Jefferson in Federalist Papers, favored elites ◦ Strong national government and executive Thomas Jefferson: ◦ Weak executive, bottoms up approach ◦ Bureaucracy’s accountability to the public James Madison: ◦ Mixed government balanced by opposing interest groups/ pluralism

16 Time Periods in P.A. Rohr’s three periods of political foundings: ◦ Founding of the Republic ( ) ◦ Founding of PA ( ) ◦ Founding of the Administrative State ( ) Skrownek’s building of a new American State ◦ Patchwork ( ) ◦ Reconstruction ( ) Stillman’s four eras of U.S. PA Thought ◦ POSDCORB Orthodoxy ( ) ◦ Social Science Heterodoxy ( ) ◦ Reassertion of Democratic Idealism ( ) ◦ Refounding Movement (1989-Present)

17 Reform

18 Reform Movements Civil Service Reform, circa 1877 – 1883 ◦ Pendelton Act of 1883: Introduced merit/professionalism to civil service Progressive Reform, circa 1879 – 1920 ◦ New York Bureau of Municipal Research (1906): First council-manager form of government in Stanton, VA (1908) ◦ Interstate Commerce Commission (1920): Established federal regulation Scientific Management, circa 1910 – 1970 ◦ Preferred by Presidents and popularized by POSDCORB Watchful Eye, circa 1970s ◦ Favored by Congress, response to Watergate and Vietnam New Public Management Reform, circa 1979 ◦ Shift towards business and general management practices War on Waste, circa 1980s ◦ Favored by Congress, welfare fraud trials Liberation Management, circa early 1990s ◦ Favored by Presidents, let managers and workers find creative solutions

19 Theories of Public Administration

20 Political Control of Bureaucracy Agency Theory: Bureaucracies are out of control or at the least difficult to control ◦ Rosemary O’Leary, “The Nevada Four” – go native Principal-Agent Theory: Legislature (principal) relies on bureaucrats (agents) due to complexity of problems ◦ Balla (1998) – Congress relied on HCFA due to Medicare’s complex fee schedules Capture Theory: Agencies are heavily influenced by elites or constituents, Iron Triangle dominated by business interests ◦ Evan Ringquist, “Political Control and Policy Impact at EPA” – Public participation is low, but businesses don’t control policy Client Responsiveness Theory: Respond to constituents’ needs, Street level bureaucrats ◦ Michael Lipsky, “Street level bureaucrats” – Teachers, cops

21 Representative Bureaucracy Organizations perform better when they mirror the demographics of clients John Rohr (1986) argues that bureaucracy cures constitutional defect of adequate representation Selden, Brudney and Kellough (1998) studied active representation among minorities in the FmHA and found a difference between active and inactive representation

22 Bureaucratic Politics Revolve around questions of political power in the key organizational dimensions of: ◦ Bureaucratic Behavior ◦ Institutional Structure ◦ Distribution of Power Game Theory: Highly formulized and mathematical approach to explaining behavior and choices Graham Allison (1971) “Essence of Decisions” ◦ Examined executive decision-making during the Cuban Missile Crisis  Rational Actor Model  Organizational Processes Model  Political Processes Model

23 Bureaucratic Reputation Theory Agency autonomy is based on organizational capacity and political affiliations Daniel Carpenter (2001) “The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy” ◦ Post Office under Anthony Comstock assumed moral guardianship against porno and gambling

24 Max Weber’s Bureaucracy Hierarchy of authority Impersonality Written rules of conduct Promotion based on merit Specialized division of labor Efficiency

25 Program Roots Evolved and borrowed from Political Science, Business, Economics, Sociology, Management and Law P.A. is both an art and a science, academics and practitioners ASPA is a pan-generalist organization Academic programs generally fall under ◦ Political Science ◦ Business/ Management ◦ Policy and Public Affairs

26 Trends Transforming Bureaucracy 1. America as the last global superpower 2. Populations shifts and immigration 3. Reliance of foreign markets 4. Growth of info and service industries 5. New technologies and complexity 6. Hostile opposition to government 7. Smaller and less self-sufficient households 8. Widening young/old and poverty gaps 9. Shifting fundamental values

27 Market Failures Weimer and Vining (2003): ◦ Public Goods: Federal Highway Administration ◦ Externalities: Environmental Protection Agency ◦ Information Asymmetry: Food and Drug Administration ◦ Monopolies and Oligarchies: Federal Communications Commission “Greatest Good” Principle: ◦ Allocation of goods to maximize the social welfare functions form theories of Rawlsianism and Utilitarianism

28 Public Policy

29 Public Policy Models Thomas R. Dye ◦ Institutional model  Emphasizes formal and legal aspects of government ◦ Process model  Political Systems Theory: Political response to demands ◦ Rational model  Based on Public Choice, motivations of individual actors ◦ Incremental model  Builds on past decisions and grows slowly and steadily ◦ Group model  Pluralism: Diverse and competing interests for an equilibrium ◦ Elite model  Wealthy and policy-planning insiders influence values and preferences ◦ Public choice model  Bureaucrats, politicians and citizens all act in their own best interests ◦ Game theory model  Statistical approach to behavior and decision making

30 Policy Analysis Tools Extrapolation: ◦ Estimated Population = Pop. In a base year + (Avg. Growth Increment X Time Periods) Forecasting: ◦ Assuming that past trends/ events will continue Criteria Alternatives Matrix: ◦ Evaluating, rating and comparing different alternatives on multiple criteria Discounting: ◦ Net Present Value = Discounted Benefits-Discounted Costs ◦ Present Value = Future Value X Discount Factor Benefit Cost Ratio: ◦ BCR = Discounted Benefits/ Discounted Costs (Greater than 1) Deflating Money ◦ Current Dollar Value = (Current dollars X Base Year Implicit Price Deflator)/ Current Year IPD Cost Benefit Analysis ◦ Monetary value is assigned to inputs and outcomes of a processs

31 Classics of Organizational Theory

32 Classical Organization Theory ◦ Adam Smith (1776) “Wealth of Nations”  Division and specialization of labor in a pin factory ◦ Henri Fayol (1916) “General Principles of Management”  Universal approach to administrative management ◦ Max Weber, I922 (1946) “Nature of Social Action”  Modern concept of bureaucracy with strict hierarchical structure, set rules and regulations, professionalism and merit ◦ Luther Gulick (1937) “Notes on the Theory of Organization”  Principles of P.A. – POSDCORB (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting and Budgeting)

33 Neoclassical Organization Theory ◦ Chester Barnard (1938) “Economy of Incentives”  Power of persuasion to motivate and induce workers ◦ Herbert Simon (1946) “Proverbs of Administration”  Attacked Wilson’s P.A. Dichotomy as contradictory, e.g. division based on purpose, place, process or clientele? ◦ Phillip Selznick (1948) “Foundations of the Theory of Organization”  Individuals may have different goals than the organization  Cooptation is a way of managing opposition and so preserving stability and the organization ◦ Cyert and March (1959) “Behavioral Theory of Organizational Objectives”  How decisions are taken within a firm, Compromise between different individuals and groups within an organization that have their own aspirations and conflicting interests

34 Behavior/ Human Resources ◦ Mary Parker Follett (1926) “Giving of Orders”  Web of Inclusion, better to work with employees rather than just give orders, encourage participation ◦ Abraham Maslow (1943) “Theory of Human Motivation”  Pyramid- from the bottom-up: 1) Physiological, 2) Safety, 3) Love/Belonging, 4) Psychological Needs/ Esteem, 5) Self- Actualization ◦ Douglas MacGregor (1957) “Human Side of Enterprise”  Theory X and Y: Different views on human motivation tactics, Can become a self-fulfilling prophecy ◦ Irving Janis (1971) “Groupthink”  Desperate drive for consensus at any cost

35 “Modern” Structural Organizations ◦ Burns and Stalker (1961) “Mechanistic and Organic Systems”  Mechanistic: Stable, hierarchic, precise roles and rules, Organic: Changing, networks, innovation, community ◦ Blau and Scott (1962) “Concept of Formal Organization”  Collective Actors, Formal Organization: fixed set of rules, Informal Organization: interlocking social structure ◦ Henry Mintzberg (1979) “Five Basic Parts of the Organization”  1) Strategic Apex, 2) Middle line, 3) Operating core, 4) Technostructure, 5) Support Staff

36 Power and Politics French and Raven (1959) “Five bases of Social Power” 1) Referent, 2) Expert, 3) Reward, 4) Coercive, and 5) Legitimate Cohen and March (1974) “Leadership in an Organized Anarchy” ◦ Garbage can theory: decision making is neither consequential nor sequential Henry Mintzberg (1983) “Power Game and the Players” Resources, Technical Skills, Body of Knowledge, Formal Power, and Access to Power Internal Coalitions: CEO, Operators, Line Managers, Analysts, Support Staff and Ideology External Coalitions: Owner, Associates, Employee Associations, Publics, Directors

37 Culture and Change/ Environment Edgar Schein (2004) “Concept of Organizational Culture” ◦ Set of shared beliefs and expectations based on societal norms Katz and Kahn (1966) “Systems Concept” ◦ Open systems, seek optimal solutions, not just “one best way” Bolman and Deal (2003) “Reframing Organizations” ◦ Structural = Factories ◦ Human Resources = Families ◦ Political = Jungles ◦ Symbolic = Temples

38 Performance Management

39 Presidential Trends ◦ Clinton: National Performance Review  Office of Reinventing Government  it’s Best – Work better and cost less ◦ Bush: Managing for Results  PART (Program Assessment Rating Tool)  Traffic Light Signal with executive discretion ◦ Obama: Accountable Government Initiative  Reform contracting, Promote accountability, Close IT gap, Recruit top talent and Cut waste,

40 Performance Management Tools S.M.A.R.T.: David Ammons (2000) ◦ Specific ◦ Measureable ◦ Attainable ◦ Results-Oriented ◦ Time-Bound Balanced Scorecard: Kaplan and Norton (1993) 1.Financials 2.Customers 3.Internal Processes 4.Innovation and Learning

41 Research Methodology

42 Governance

43 A New Model of Governance Milward, Provan and Else (1993) “Hollow State” – Metaphor for public service provision outsourced to may providers and reducing direct provision Lynn, Heinrich and Hill (2000) “Governance and Performance” – How can public-sector regimes, agencies, programs and activities be organized to achieve public purposes?

44 Theory-Building Research 1. Atheoretical – Builds on theory through descriptions 2. Disciplined Configurative – Use theories to explain a case 3. Heuristic – Identify new variables, hypotheses and causes 4. Theory Testing – Assesses validity and scope of a theory 5. Plausibility Probes – Preliminary studies on untested theories 6. Building Blocks – Identifying common patterns

45 Qualitative Methods Case Studies ◦ In-Depth Review can include Interviews, Archival Documents, Observations, and Artifacts Path Dependency ◦ How the set of decisions one faces for any circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past Process Tracing ◦ Tracing the causal process from the independent variable of interest to the dependent variable Congruence Method ◦ To fully understand an organization’s performance, must understand the organization as a system that consists of some basic elements Temporality ◦ Time Bound, related specifically to the past, present or future Critical Junctures ◦ David (1985) QWERTY keyboards vs Dvorak Counterfactual Analysis ◦ “If A had not occurred, C would not have occurred”.

46 Quantitative Data and Methods Levels of Measurement: ◦ Nominal – Limited options, such as gender ◦ Ordinal – Order, such as grades ◦ Interval – Rank, such as temperature ◦ Ratio – Percentage with natural zero Intercept: Point where line crosses Y axis Slope: Expected change in Y for one unit change in X, holding others constant T-Test: Significance of each variable, if more than 2 reject null – there is a linear relation P-Value: If small than reject null hypothesis R-Squared: Goodness of fit, Proportion of variation in Dependent Variable explained by Independent Variables Skewness: Tilt of the bell curve Kurtosis: Peak of the bell curve

47 Quantitative Confidence Interval: Range where the true value lies for the population, a =.05, 95% certain to capture the true value Standard Deviation: Average distance each score is from the mean S = √ [ Σ (Xi – Mean) 2 ÷ (n – 1)] Standard Error: BLUE: Best Linear Unbiased Estimators Seven Assumptions of CLRM: ◦ Linear Relationship ◦ No Covariance ◦ Random distribution ◦ Homoscedasticity ◦ No Autocorrelation ◦ More observations than I.V. ◦ No outliers

48 Quantitative Terms Ordinary Least Squares (OLS): Method of finding the linear model which minimizes the sum of the squared errors Time Series: Follows one case over time Panel Data: More than one case over time Pooled Data: Different cases over time Weighted Average: Takes into account the number of cases in each category Index of Qualitative Variation: ◦ IQV = Observed Differences ÷ Max Possible Differences ◦ MPD = [(# of cases) 2 × (# of categories)] ÷ (2 × # of categories) Central Limit Theorem: ◦ If an infinite # of random samples of equal size selected, sampling distributions approach normality Coefficient of Relative Variation: ◦ Used to compare distribution with different units

49 Performance Management Tools Results Based Management: ◦ Ensuring all processes, products, and services contribute to the achievement of desired results Activity Based Costing: ◦ Assigns cost based on how much is actually used Competitive Benchmarking: ◦ Comparing and measuring against other organizations

50 Performance Management Government Performance and Reporting Act of 1993, strategic plans: ◦ Establish top-level agency goals, objectives and annual program goals ◦ Define how it intends to achieve these goals ◦ Demonstrate how it will measure agency and program performance in achieving goals

51 History of Budgeting Performance Budgeting: ◦ Proposed by the Hoover Commission of 1949 Program, Planning and Budgeting System (PPBS): ◦ President LBJ had Robert McNamara implement in the Pentagon during Vietnam War Zero-Based Budgeting: ◦ President Carter adopted during the 1970s

52 Sample Comp Questions

53 Comp Question: Overview Provide a general overview of the field in an essay with a comprehensive assessment of the field’s evolution, its status today as an academic discipline, and the direction of the field in the future.  Evolved from political science, business, law and sociology  Changes and grew to meet emerging societal demands  Future trends in Public Service, sustainability, information technology and disaster management ◦ Leading contributors  Wilson, Follett, Gulick, Waldo, Simon, Dahl, Osborne & Gaebler, Denhardts ◦ “Big questions” that define the field  What is P.A. and its role? What is the “good life”? ◦ Questions answered  Administration is political and constitutionally legitimate ◦ Questions remaining  Is governance more effective than the direct provision of government?  How much government is appropriate?  The scope of public administration varies with the people’s conception of good life, which changes with the times

54 Comp Question: Performance Critically assess the various approaches to agency performance developed by PA: ◦ What challenges do we face in measuring performance in the public sector?  Democratic values are at odds with bureaucracy  Motivation is not the same as business, e.g. equity ◦ What are some of the key propositions and findings about effective public organizations?  Culture must form from the top and include stakeholders ◦ Design a strategy to assess the effectiveness of the organization’s performance.  Regression model with business growth as dependent variable  Shift-share analysis to measure clusters and integration ◦ Identify and defend possible performance measures.  Change in number and composition of businesses  Reduction in local unemployment and poverty rates

55 Article Review for Comp Exam Briefly summarize the main points of the article in terms of research questions, hypotheses, major findings and conclusion ◦ Provide a critical evaluation of the article, including:  Assumptions made to investigate the problem  Potential contributions of the research  Internal and external validity  Strengths and weakness of the data, methodology and overall research approach  Potential improvements you would suggest ◦ Provide an explanation of the implications of the research to the theory and practice of public administration, as well as discussions of the statistical and substantive significance of major findings

56 Comp Question: Theory Discuss the various theoretical and practical approaches aiming to reconcile bureaucratic government with democratic values and key finding of the research assessing them ◦ Political Control of Bureaucracy  Agency Theory: Hard to control bureaucrats  Principal-Agent: Legislature defers to agencies to deal with complex issues  Bureaucratic Capture: Ruled by policy elites  Client Responsiveness: Work for constituents ◦ Representative Bureaucracy  Cures constitutional defect and improves outcomes ◦ Bureaucratic Politics  “Who gets what when and how” – Harold Lasswell, 1936  Political Power – Waldo, Simon, Dahl and Allison

57 Timeline: Declaration of Independence 1787Federalist Papers, written by Hamilton, Madison and John Jay 1789Constitution (no mention of administration) Jefferson – decentralization, individual rights, representation Madison – separation and balance of power Jackson – strong executive, spoil system grows 1835Tocqueville – line between state and society is blurred 1850John S. Mill, wage incentives, span of control, unity of command 1881President James Garfield is shot by Charles Guiteau Pendelton Civil Service Act, Wilson’s essay 1887Interstate Commerce Act 1890:Progressive Era begins, Reform against corruption

58 1906 – 1940s 1906New York Bureau of Municipal Research 1908Staunton, VA appoints 1 st city manager, differs from existing local governments 1910Taylor – Scientific Management World War I 1922Max Weber, Bureaucratic form of organization 1924Maxwell School at Syracuse 1926White’s 1 st P.A. textbook 1927Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Experiments, Mary Parker Follett 1929Stock market crash Roosevelt - New Deal 1937Luther Gulick – POSDCORB 1938Chester Barnard – Functions of the Executive World War II, Robert K. Merton opposes Weber’s bureaucracy Neoclassical – Simon, Waldo, Dahl

59 1960s to 1980s Human Relations – Maslow, MacGregor, Janis 1959 Lindblom – Incremental Approach to policy making 1964Civil Rights Act of 1964, Great Society 1965Planning, Programming, Budgeting Systems 1968Minnowbrook Conference hosted by Waldo ushers in New Public Administration 1971Allison – Decision making paradigms 1976Peter Drucker points out problems with management by objectives, goals don’t always match 1978Civil Service Reform Act allowed non-postal federal workers the right to unionize 1979Mintzberg – Five basic parts of an organization, Modern Public Management Reform New Public Management imitates private sector, Westminster reforms in U.K. and New Zealand

60 Osborne and Gaebler - Reinventing Government, Steer, Don’t Row 1993Gore - National Performance Review 1998Light – Scientific Management, War on Waste, Watchful Eye, Liberation Management 2000Donald Kettl – Global Public Management Revolution, Milward, Provan and Else – Hollow State 2003Bolman and Deal – Organizational Frames: Structural, Human Resources, Political, Symbolic 2004Ammons – SMART performance measures 2007Denhardt and Denhardt – Serve, Not Steer 2008Barack Obama elected President, economic crisis, Larry Bartels, Unequal Democracy 2010EZ Program extended a year

61 Neshkova’s Class Justifications for Government Policy (Weimer and Vining, 2003) Government and Market in Theory (Lindblom, 1977) Politics and Market in Practice (Williams and Collins, 1998) Development of the American State (Rohr, 1986) Emergence of Bureaucracy – (Skowronek, 1984) (Carpenter, 2001) Theories of Bureaucracy (Frederickson & Smith, 2003) (Wilson, 1989)  Selden, Brudney and Kellough, 1998 (Representative Bureaucracy)  O’Leary, 1994 (Agent Theory)  Ringquest, 1995 (Capture Theory)  Balla 1998 (Principal-Agent Theory) Interest Groups and Bureaucracy (Lowi, Golden, Reforming American Public Sector (Light, 1997) Contemporary Forces (Kettl, 2005) Federalism and Empirical Issues (Peterson, 1996


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