2 (“NS” – New slide) Intro All people, even well-intentioned people have biases.We’ll discuss various biases.We’ll explore what social-psychology has taught us.Need to recognize our unconscious biases, so we can implement UNbiased behavior
3 Fair and Impartial Police Officers are more likely to Be effective at solving crimes and handling disorder problemsStay safe and go home at the end of the shiftEnhance/promote trust on the part of the people they serve
4 Goals of the Training Recognize our own human biases Understand how implicit biases can affect your perceptions and behaviorUnderstand how biased policing impacts officers, community members, and the departmentDevelop skills and tactics to reduce the influence of bias on police practice and allow you to be effective and safe police professionalsNOTES:
5 During this training…Leave your preconceived notions about “bias” training at the door—our approach is different from traditional training….
6 During this training…Think about what it means to be an effective officer.
7 During this training…Share your expertise…you bring rich experiences and expertise to the discussions.
8 This training…..Requires active participation in all of the discussions, case studies and exercises.
11 Fundamental Concepts of Human Bias Bias is a normal human attribute—even well-intentioned people have biasesBiases are often unconscious or “implicit”Implicit biases are sometimes incompatible with our conscious attitudesImplicit biases can influence our actionsUnderstanding how implicit bias can affect our perceptions and behavior is the first step to “override” implicit bias
12 To Understand Implicit Bias, We Need to Understand…. Whom we are most likely to pre-judgeWhat determines the characteristics we assign to themWhether we know when we are prejudging people
13 To understand implicit bias: Whom do we pre judge?We prejudge people on sightWe prejudge “ambiguous stimuli”We “fill in” …What determines the characteristics we attribute to them?Group stereotypes/biasesStereotypes: organize info, based in part on facts
17 To understand implicit bias: Whom do we pre judge?We prejudge “ambiguous stimuli”What determines the characteristics we attribute to them?Group stereotypes/biasesDo we know when we are doing this?Not always.
18 Policing – focus on racial/ethnic biases What are other bases on which people may be stereotyped (and treated differentially)?IncomeEnglish language abilitiesGenderAgeReligious affiliationProfessionSexual orientation, identityetc.
19 Woman/Man with a Gun Role Play Anna: How to set up (See “resource materials”)Implement, hold discussion (SB)See page 2 of resource handoutDiscussion: 2 versionsSide bar: Stay away from “tactics” discussionEnd discussion with key point of role play…
20 Policing based on stereotypes is unsafe. Key Point of Role PlayPolicing based on stereotypes is unsafe.Questions/Comments
21 Key Points of the “Blink” Response Recognize the “blink” response”Snap judgments, “thinking without thinking”Can be helpful, but can be fallibleReplace “blink response” with objective (bias free) judgments
22 “Money Train” Woody Harrelson is an undercover officer. Note: The use of the copyrighted material falls under fair use laws with no intended copyright violation.
23 Stereotyping and Human Bias When we don’t know an individual, we assign a group characteristic to themOften we do not know when we are impacted by biases (they can be unconscious or “implicit” biases)Recognizing our biases allows us to override them—to engage in unbiased behavior.
24 Law enforcement officers deal with a variety of community members……
29 The “Bump” StudyStudy: Experiencing an ambiguous “bump” from a strangerHow did people interpret the bump by African Americans versus the bump by Whites?Result: The “bump” was perceived as more threatening when performed by an African American.Replicated to show this was true for both White and non-White “victims”/subjects.
30 The Visual Perception Study Subjects were primed with Black male faces, White male faces, or no facesCompleted object recognition taskEberhardt, Goff, Purdie, & Davies (2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
35 HypothesesIf the Black-crime association impacts our visual perception, then:Participants primed with Black male faces should be faster to identify crime-relevant objects than those primed with White male faces.There should be no effect of prime for crime-irrelevant objects.
37 Visual Perception Study: Conclusions Exposure to Black male faces facilitated the identification of crime-relevant objects.Exposure to White male faces inhibited the identification of crime-relevant objects.
38 Be a research participant! We will see slides of backgrounds and then a person will appear—very quickly—with something in his hands.Shout “Threat” if you see a threat[Silent if no threat]
59 Correll Results: Race Made a Difference Speed: Participants shot a White armed man slower than a Black armed man Errors: Participants were more likely to shoot an unarmed Black man than an unarmed White man
60 The Turban Effect Study Research volunteers played a computer game that showed apartment balconies on which different figures appeared, some wearing Muslim-style turbans or hijabs and others bare-headed.They were told to shoot at the targets carrying guns and spare those who were unarmed.
61 The Turban Effect Results People were much more likely to shoot Muslim-looking characters even if they were carrying an “innocent item” instead of a weapon.They also found a gender effect: Subjects were more likely to shoot men than women (even when harmless). Unkelbach, Forgas & Denson (2008). J. of Experimental Social Psychology.
62 [NS] Implications for LE Officers may see danger when none there (over-vigilent)May overlook danger (under-viligent)($ Train)
63 Implicit bias linked to officer safety and effectiveness; Officers may: Increase their scrutiny of people of colorInterpret ambiguous behavior on the part of people of color as more aggressiveRespond to people of color more aggressively (e.g., as criminals)Under-respond to Whites, Asians, etc.etc.
65 One example pertains to race and crime Criminologists have shown that people of color are disproportionately involved in street crimes.
66 Economic Status, Race and Crime A = Lower income people are more likely to commit street crimesB = People of color are disproportionately represented in lower income levelsA+B=C People of color are disproportionately represented among people who commit street crimes
67 [NS] But, that stereotypes are sometimes based in part on fact…. Does not justify your making policing decisions based on those stereotypes.Such decisions can be unsafe, ineffective or unjust.
68 Crash Scene: The Streets of Los Angeles Usage of the copyrighted material falls under fair use laws with no intended copyright violation.
69 Policing based on biases is unsafe, ineffective, and unjust Key PointPolicing based on biases is unsafe, ineffective, and unjust
70 Implicit Bias Manifests in Non-Prejudiced People
71 [NS] Implicit bias manifests even in non-prejudiced people Exists even in individuals who consciously hold non-prejudice ideals/attitudesEX: Many minorities have a race-crime/danger implicit bias (Bump Study)….
72 [NS] Some think: Biased policing is “someone else’s issue” Often think that because of their progressive attitudes towards other groups, they must be bias freeQuite likely: They are wrong.
74 [NS] Two remedies for our implicit bias “affliction” Reducing our implicit biasesRecognizing our biases and thwart their impact on behavior.
75 Reducing Implicit Bias: Contact Theory Positive contact between members of groups improves inter-group attitudes and reduces both explicit and implicit biases.POSITIVE (e.g., people’s experiences with police)Examples?
76 Personal Contacts and Implicit Biases in Officers Peruche and Plant (2005) Measured implicit bias on the part of officersShoot/don’t shoot simulator to measure implicit biasSurveys tooPolice, too, manifest implicit racial biasBut implicit racial/ethnic bias is weaker in officers who report positive interpersonal contacts with racial/ethnic minorities
77 [NS] Reducing implicit biases by “Unlinking Stereotypes” Difficult to undo our implicit biases….took lifetimeBUT police firearms training seems to help us unlink the stereotypes we associate with groups (e.g., minorities and danger)How might this work?Repeatedly exposed to random pairing of threat and race (and other demographics)
78 Simulator training can help us unlink: Correll Study Number 2 Methods: Both civilians and cops, shoot don’t shoot simulatorSpeed: Both police and civilians exhibited robust racial biasErrors: Bias was less likely to manifest itself in the decisions by police.Bottom Line: Police made the correct decisions…..
79 Interpretation:High quality, role play use-of-force training helps police “unlink” race & crime for split-second use-of-force decisions.
80 [Remedy #1: Reduce implicit biases] [NS] Remedy #2: Recognize our biases and thwart their impact
81 Implementing “Controlled (unbiased) Behavior” If we recognize our biases, we can implement “controlled behaviors” that override our (natural) implicit biases.Examples?In fact, science: People who recognize their biases and are motivated (well-meaning) can override.
82 Fundamental Concepts of Human Bias, In Summary Bias is a normal human attribute—even well-intentioned people have biasesBiases are often unconscious or “implicit”Implicit biases sometimes conflict with our conscious attitudesImplicit biases can influence our actionsUnderstanding how implicit bias can affect our behavior is the first step to “override” implicit bias
83 The Impact of Biased Policing on Community Members and the Department Module 2 [LAF Intro]
84 Previous module Science of implicit bias – perceptions and behaviors Forms of implicit bias with policing relevance (including race-crime)Biased policing is ineffective, unsafe, unjust
85 This Module: Biased Actions Impact Community membersYour law enforcement agency
86 Impact of biased policing on individuals Testimonial: Captain Will HillRI State Police
87 Fair and Impartial Policing Engenders Community Respect and Cooperation
88 How do you and your agency benefit when the community trusts and respects you?
89 Research Demonstrates Police cannot be effective without support/cooperation of the communityCommunity members who perceive the police as being fair see them as a legitimate authorityExamples of support/cooperation due to trust, perceptions of legitimacy?
91 [NS]Your daily interactions can influence community support of the departmentSome cops think – no one sees/caresYOUR actions determine whether the community thinks agency is legitimateOne aspect: Ensuring your actions are fair and impartial.AND ensuring that community SEES/PERCEIVES fair and impartial policing.
92 Police Legitimacy Impacts the Public’s Willingness To: Obey societal lawsCooperate with the policeAssist with crime prevention effortsAssist with valuable information during criminal investigationsSupport criminal prosecutions
93 Police Legitimacy Also Impacts on the Public’s…. Trust and confidence in the police.
94 SUMMARY: Fair and Impartial Policing Results In…. Community trust and cooperationLegitimacy of police among community membersSafe policingEffective policing“Good” policing
95 Skills for Producing Fair, Impartial and Effective Policing Recruit Module 3
96 Goals of the Training Recognize your own human biases Understand how implicit biases can affect our perceptions and behaviorUnderstand how biased policing impacts community members and the departmentDevelop skills and tactics to reduce the influence of bias on police practice and allow us to be effective and safe police professionalsNOTES:
97 Fundamental Concepts of Human Bias Bias is a normal human attribute—even well-intentioned people have biasesBiases are often unconscious or “implicit”Implicit biases are sometimes incompatible with our conscious attitudesImplicit biases can influence our actionsUnderstanding implicit bias or is the first step to “override” implicit bias
98 [NS] Two ways we can impact on our biases ReduceRecognize
99 [NS] This session: Learn/apply skills to promote FIP Good for anyone…. But especially police.
100 Fair and Impartial Police Officers are more likely to Be effective at solving crimes and handling disorder problemsStay safe and go home at the end of the shiftEnhance/promote trust on the part of the people they serve
104 [NS] DV DebriefWhom did the responding team initially think was the abuser?On what did they base that assumption?What skills do officers need to ID the correct offender?
105 Side BarDiscussion can take one of two directions depending on team performance:Team went for the guyTeam correctly ID’d female abuserReinforce this correct response: How? Did they “Correct” for their initial responses? Focused on behavior not biases?How might other officers have incorrectly gone for the guy.
106 [NS] Both exercises related to our first skill Recognize your implicit biases[pantomime, DV]…..
107 [NS] Difficult to rid ourselves of biases We can make sure our biases don’t impact behaviorRecognizeOverride
108 [NS] Examples Taylor: Runs tags only on young Hispanics males What’s wrong with this?How might he correct this?[relevant research…]
109 Meehan and Ponder (2002)Found that police were more likely to run warrant checks on African Americans than Whites in white neighborhoods….but less likely to find warrants on the African Americans compared to the Whites.
110 [NS] Other examples:Becker: At crash scenes, always approaches driver of nice car firstOfficer Michaels: Recognizes that, on minor traffic violations, he only writes citations for men (gives women warnings).
111 Lessons from role plays and Taylor, Becker, Michaels: Recognize your implicit biases, challenge what you think you seeImplement controlled responsesTest yourself: “Would I be proceeding this way, but for the fact that this person is………”
112 Beware: “Gut reactions” might be based on your (implicit) biases……
113 [NS: Instead of gut reactions] Rely on facts, intelligence, other valid informationFocus on facts at handGather additional informationUse critical judgmentDo not let gender, race, age, etc. inappropriately impact assumptionsDon’t be “Susan Boyled”
114 [Restate] Skill #1: Recognize your implicit biases and implement “controlled (unbiased) responses” …
115 [Other] Skills to Produce Fair, Impartial and Effective Policing Avoid “profiling by proxy”Analyze options with a fair and impartial policing lensReduce ambiguity: slow it downReduce ambiguity: engage with the community.
117 [NS] Our message has been: “Recognize your OWN biases” This skill (Profiling by Proxy): Beware other people’s implicit biasesDon’t let THEIR biases impact YOUR behavior
118 “Birmingham cop” video: What would you do and why?Do you have to intervene?Do you really have to respond to every behavior the public finds offensive?Does a couple have the right to do what they are doing?Are they doing anything illegal?What’s the down side to intervening?
119 [NS] Lesson: Avoid Profiling by Proxy You do not have to intervene in all situations.You must use critical judgment.Throughout this training: You are learning to recognize/handle your OWN biases…Here we emphasize: Do not let others’ biases impact on your behavior.
120 Skill #3: Analyze Your Options with a “Fair and Impartial Policing” (FIP) Lens
121 ScenarioA woman in an all-White neighborhood calls to report a “suspicious man in a car” out in front of her house. It appears that the only thing that is “suspicious” is that the man is Black; she is unable to articulate or identify any behaviors that indicate criminal activity.In your teach-back groups: What are your options and the pros/cons of each?
122 Point of discussion Not one right answer Point (skill): Think about options with a “fair and impartial policing lens”Think about the perspective of the person in the car…
123 [NS] Revised scenarioSame circumstance, but this time the man fits the description of a person in a vehicle who committed a home burglary in the area.You approach and question.He convinces you he is not the burglarHe is angry and accuses you of biased policingHow might you respond?
124 [NS] Responses Key = Reduce frustration/anger Provide specific info on recent burglaryHow he matched BOLODemonstrate empathyApologize for inconvenienceTell him how to follow up
125 [NS] Yet another scenario You have made a legitimate traffic stop and the woman in that situation accuses you of stopping her because she is Hispanic.How do you respond?How do officers mess this up?[car door conversation….downhill]
126 [NS] Our suggested response “I am sorry that you feel that way, but I stopped you because…..”Acknowledges the person’s concernSteers conversation back to business.
127 [Summary of Skill #3] With Your FIP Lens… Challenge what you think you seeRecognize your own biasesRecognize others’ biasesConsider bias-free optionsConsider the viewpoint of people with whom you are interactingMinimize negative impacts (including potential perceptions of biased-policing) with strong communication skills
128 Skills #4 and #5: Reduce Ambiguity #4: When feasible, “slow it down”#5: Engage with community members
129 [NS] Why reduce ambiguity? In discussion of Susan Boyle:We prejudge people who are “ambiguous stimuli”Attribute group stereotypes to themDo not always know this is happening
130 [NS] #4: Reduce ambiguity, slow it down Man on a Porch exerciseSee your resource materials“Man on the Porch, Recruit Handout”
131 [NS] Key PointOfficers acted quickly and a tragic outcome was producedThey misread cues.Bias might have impacted their decisions.When you can, slow it down.Reduce ambiguityGather more information before you act (if you can)So you don’t act on your biases.
132 Skill #5: Reduce ambiguity, engage with community members Contact Theory: RevisitedPositive contact between members of groups improves inter-group attitudes and reduces both explicit and implicit biases.Positive contact reduces ambiguity about individuals and groupsGet to know your communities…
133 Think of youths, parents, other adults, business owners. Write down three very specific things you could do in a week’s time to engage with members of a community.Think of youths, parents, other adults, business owners.
134 [Summary] Skills #4 and #5: Reduce Ambiguity #4: When feasible, “slow it down”#5: Engage with community members
135 Summary of Key Points: Module 1 All people, even well-intentioned people have biasesThey can be “implicit” (unconscious)Susan Boyle:We prejudge,We fill them in,Often we don’t know
136 [Sum, Module 1 Cont.]Even though stereotypes might be based in part on fact (remember Sandra Bullock)…..Policing based on biases can be unsafe, ineffective and unjustShoot don’t shoot (not shooting white…..)$ TrainTreating homelessMan/woman with gun and DV role plays
137 Summary of Key Points: Module 2 Biased policing has negative consequences for community members and the departmentBiased policing erodes community trustCommunity trust is essential for cooperation and support of officers and the departmentCommunity trust is essential for police legitimacy
138 Module 3: To be a fair and impartial officer, you need to Recognize your implicit biases and implement “controlled (unbiased) responses”Avoid “profiling by proxy”Analyze options with a fair and impartial policing lensReduce ambiguity: (a) slow it down, and (b) engage with the community.
139 We hope this training… Better understanding science of human bias Renewed your appreciation of negative impactYou learned skills ….will serve you.Thank you!!