2Presentation Outline Sovereignty, Authority, and Power state, regimes, and nationssovereigntysources of legitimacypolitical culture
3I. a) state, regimes, and nations Review: What is the difference between state, regime, and nation?The Chinese state has been around in one form or another for well over three thousand yearsIt is one of the oldest continuous states in the world
4Territorial Evolution of the Chinese state Ming DynastyCirca 1415Song DynastyCirca 960Qing Dynasty Circa 1820China since 1949
5Regimes There are three distinct regime periods in Chinese history: Dynastic rule (*each dynasty itself was a new regime), 1000 C.ERepublican rule,Communist rule, 1949-presentFor furthering reading into Chinese dynasties and regimes see:
6The People’s Republic of China Current Features of the Regime:AuthoritarianOne-Party state (Communist Party)Limited political reforms/major economic reforms(we will discuss these later)Left: Mao Zedong formally announces the establishment of the People’s Republic of China
7NationsChina has 56 officially recognized nations The dominant nation is the Han which compromises over 90% of the population. Most political scientists would consider China a nation (Han)-state Breakdown: Han: 91.9% Minorities: 8.1%Uyghur, Tibetan, Hui, Zhuang, Mongolian, Korean, Miao...Source: CIA Factbook (2012)
8What connection can you make between China’s population density and the location of its ethnic minorities?
9I. b) SovereigntySovereignty has long been an important concept and theme in Chinese politics and historyThe current regime can boast that it is the only one in the last several hundred years which has held full sovereignty over the mainland Chinese territory/stateBefore the establishment of the People’s Republic of China many foreign states had carved out spheres of influence in China thereby challenging the sovereignty of the Qing and Republican regimes
10China is a unitary state with no devolved powers to the regions. China has 33 provinces/administrative/autonomous regionsEach province/administrative region has a Communist Party, local government, and reports directly to BeijingChina also has five autonomous regions. These are regions where a substantial proportion of the population consists of a particular minority nation such as the Tibetans. Autonomous regions are nominally autonomous, have limited legislative powers , but do have some latitude in minority language education rights.
11Chinese provinces and administrative cities/regions
13Hong Kong and MacauHong Kong (British) and Macau (Portuguese) were former European colonies that were returned to China near the end of the twentieth century.They are both considered special administrative zones. They have a great deal of autonomy under the One Country Two Systems policy. They still exist at the will of the mainland.The mainland only controls defence and foreign affairs.Macau and Hong Kong have their own monetary, legal, and government systems, and control over their own immigration
14China is a strong stateThe activities of NGOs and supranational organizations are circumscribed (limited) by the Chinese governmentNevertheless, China has joined the WTO (2001) and thus must comply with WTO trade regulationsChina has also been under pressure to revalue and appreciate its Yuan currencyHow is China similar to Russia in this regard of being a strong state?
15Chinese influence China has tremendous influence on the world stage. Like Russia and the United Kingdom, it is a permanent member of the U.N. Security CouncilChina has the second largest economy in the world and is a major trading partner with many states. China has used its economic influence for political/diplomatic purposes by forcing its trading partners to accept the One China policy, further marginalizing Taiwan
16China’s Claim over Taiwan Is Taiwan a state?The official stance of the government of the People’s Republic of China is that there is only one Chinese state and that Taiwan is a province of China, and does NOT constitute a separate state. There are two rival theories on the definition of statehood which are worth considering:Constitutive TheoryDeclarative Theory-developed in the 19th centuryA state is only sovereign when it is recognized by other sovereign statesBeing admitted to the United Nations would constitute recognitionDeveloped in the 2oth centuryTo be considered a state the following requirements must be met:a) a defined territoryb) a permanent populationc) a political authoritySource:
17I. c) Sources of Legitimacy Traditional: dynastic ruleCharismatic: Mao Zedong’s period,Legitimacy Today:attempts at rational-legal legitimacyeconomic stability and prosperity
18Traditional Legitimacy How would you define traditional legitimacy?Based on the mandate of Heaven, the emperor was said to have the divine right of kings.He was considered the Son of Heaven.The emperor was to be obeyed because his authority, it was believed, came from Heaven.
19Charismatic legitimacy How would you define charismatic legitimacy?Mao Zedong created a cult of personality and huge following among the Chinese peasantry, from the Long March through the Cultural Revolution.Cultural Revolution, 1966Long March, 1934
20Legitimacy Today Attempts at rational-legal legitimacy 1982 Basic Law (Constitution)1979 Legal Codesemi-competitive village electionsVillagers vote for members to the Local People’s Congress
21Legitimacy Today Economic Stability and Prosperity Since Deng Xiaoping’s economic reforms in the early 1980s China’s GDP and living standards have increased at an exponential rate. The regime is quick to credit itself for China’s recent economic success.
23I. d) Political Culture Confucianism Guanxi Restricted but active civil society
24ConfucianismDeeply rooted philosophical tradition of respect for authority, within the family, within a company, and within the state.Confucianism does not mean blind obedience, but rather a reverence and respect for authority and authority figures.Authority figures, in turn, should act with honour, virtue, and compassionRegimes throughout Chinese history have used or manipulated Confucianism to ensure compliance and deter criticismsChinese Philosopher Confucius: B.C.EJapan and South Korea were also influenced by Confucian values. Yet these two states developed democracies. Does Confucianism encourage or hinder democratization?
25GuanxiGuanxi has no direct English translation. The best definition which approximates the concept is relations or connectionsGuanxi centers around building a network of relationships which will bring economic, political, and status “face” gains.This has also created a patron-client system in China and fostered corruption.The more a patron helps a client, the more the client is expected to provide and vice versaGuanxi may also be considered a form of social capitalThe more guanxi one has obtained, the more opportunities one will have in China
26Zoning permit granted to build large apartment complexes Guanxi explained:Typical Example:The Patron and Client now have guanxi with each other.10,000 Yuan bribe or “gift”Communist Party Official“Patron”Chinese businessman and citizen“Client”Zoning permit granted to build large apartment complexes
27Restricted but active civil society The Chinese are not apathetic.They have organized religious, cultural, anti-government, and environmental groups.They are also known for spontaneous uprisings to make their voices heard.Their actions, however, are heavily restricted by the Communist PartyChina has on average 500 protests a day, most in the countryside, and most on a small scale.Source:
28Tiananmen Square Student Demonstrations, 1989 10,000 Falun Gong practitioners in Beijing, 1999Wukan villagers protest corruption in Southern China, 2011Protestors demanding the release of democracy activist Liu Xiaobo in Beijing, 2010Sad and angry mothers mourn the loss of their children and demand that officials be held accountable for faulty construction in the wake of the Sichuan earthquake, 2008Young residents in Dalian protest a chemical leak from a factory and demand that the government take action, 2011
29Discussion QuestionsChina and the U.K. Are both unitary states. In which ways are they similar and different with respect to state power?Why has the concept of sovereignty been central to the Chinese political discourse?China is attempting rational-legal legitimacy. To what extent have these attempts been successful?Compare and Contrast Chinese and Russian political culture. Would Democracy work in China? How would it look, function?