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The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)

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Presentation on theme: "The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)

3 Key Players at Vienna The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)

4 Key Principles Established at Vienna VBalance of Power VLegitimacy VCompensation VBalance of Power VLegitimacy VCompensation eCoalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. eFrance would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs. eCoalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. eFrance would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.

5 EEnsure France would not become an aggressor RRestore the “balance of power” TThe principle of compensation TThe principle of legitimacy VVictors expected to be rewarded

6 Main Objectives eIt’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done: VReduce France to its old boundaries  her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level. VRestore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era. eSupported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict. eIt’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done: VReduce France to its old boundaries  her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level. VRestore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era. eSupported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict.

7  The Principle of Legitimacy  Bourbon French Throne  Bourbon Spanish Throne  Legitimate princely rulers – Italy  German Confederation – 39 German States  Compromised over Territorial Settlement

8 Polish Territory Retained Finland

9 2/5 of Saxony Swedish Pomerania Territory in the Rhineland in Western Germany

10 Austrian Netherlands (BELGIUM)

11 Lost Belgium Gained Lombardy and Venetia Relatives of Austrian emperor ruled Parma, Modena, and Tuscany Dominated German Confederation

12 The Germanic Confederation, 1815

13 Colonial Possessions From Dutch Cape of Good Hope Island of Ceylon From French Trinidad and Tobago Helgoland Malta

14 France reduced to the borders of 1790 French had to pay 700 million francs to the allies Allied military occupation of 17 French forts for 5 years

15 RUSSIA PRUSSIA AUSTRIA

16 GREAT BRITAIN RUSSIA AUSTRIA PRUSSIA

17 Goal was to maintain Balance of Power The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle The Congresses of Troppau and Laibach The Congress of Verona Opposition to Monroe Doctrine

18 Europe After the Congress of Vienna

19 LLouis XVIII (r – 1824) CConstitutional Monarchy CCharter of 1814 AAssembly CChamber of Deputies (elected) CChamber of Peers (appointed) RRealized Old Regime could not be restored GGranted some personal liberties

20 Did not accept the settlements of Louis XVIII The “White Terror” – supported the Bourbon flag Lead by Count of Artois the King’s Brother 1820 – They were elected into the Chamber of Deputies Placed restrictions on civil liberties

21 Louis XVIII dies in 1824 Count of Artois, Charles X takes the Throne “had learned nothing and forgotten nothing” Wanted to restore Old Regime Took away civil liberties

22 Liberals Merchants and manufacturers Napoleonic Soldiers Those who romanticized Napoleon’s Memory Romantic Writers – Victor Hugo

23 July 26, 1830 – Charles X passes 4 Ordinances 1.Dissolved Chamber of Deputies 2.Revoked the vote from ¾ of the electorate 3.Called for new elections 4.Muzzled the Press ABANDONED THE PRINCIPLES OF THE CHARTER OF 1814

24 July 27-29, 1830 Demonstrations against Charles X Artisans Trades people August 2, 1830 Charles abdicates

25 JULY MONARCHYJULY MONARCHY Tri-color replaced the white flag of the BourbonsTri-color replaced the white flag of the Bourbons Accepted a revised version of the Charter of 1814Accepted a revised version of the Charter of 1814 Roman Catholicism was no longer the state religionRoman Catholicism was no longer the state religion High tariffsHigh tariffs Past Present Future, 1834 Daumier

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27 FEBRUARY 22, 1848 FEBRUARY 22, 1848 A Banquet, organized in opposition to: Louis-Phillipe Francois Guizot (chief minister) Riots broke out 40 people were killed Guizot is dismissed Louis-Phillipe abdicates

28 Universal Manhood Suffrage Abolished slavery in French Colonies Attempted to placate all political groups Moderate Republicans Legitimists Louis Napoleon Socialists

29 1.Raised direct taxes 45% 2.“National Workshops”

30 Conservative Majority takes control of National Assembly A Republic in the hands of an assembly dominated by Conservatives DECEMBER 1848 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte – elected President GOAL = to establish a dictatorship


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