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T he C ombating T errorism C enter a t W est P oint 13 th Annual International Development Conference, 20 April 2007 James J.F. Forest Director of Terrorism.

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Presentation on theme: "T he C ombating T errorism C enter a t W est P oint 13 th Annual International Development Conference, 20 April 2007 James J.F. Forest Director of Terrorism."— Presentation transcript:

1 T he C ombating T errorism C enter a t W est P oint 13 th Annual International Development Conference, 20 April 2007 James J.F. Forest Director of Terrorism Studies legitimacy and peace Linking U.S. Strategic Objectives with the African Union and Darfur

2 The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not purport to reflect the position of the United States Military Academy, the Department of the Army, or the Department of Defense.

3 Local Challenges Areas of deep community divisions, animosity towards a “them” Regions of financial/economic desperation Lack of transparency in private and public sector finance Significant levels of corruption, bribery Weak civil society / Low level of rule of law Immature democratic institutions and culture Lots of “on-the-job” training among government leaders Tremendous lack of resources to fund anti-terrorism and counterterrorism efforts

4 Local and Cross-Border Challenges Conflict zones (& former conflict zones flush with weapons) Zones of competing governance/ungoverned spaces Refugees / Spillover effects of “Bad Neighbors” Porous borders, poorly equipped, underpaid border guards Criminal activity: drugs trafficking and use; small arms/light weapons; money laundering; piracy; human trafficking Foreign interests (state and non-state) in precious resources

5 Implications These challenges can inhibit the advancement of human rights, democracy, security and liberty in Africa They can also offer an enabling environment for transnational terrorist organizations The “Big Question” – Do U.S. foreign policies and efforts help mitigate these challenges or make things worse? Trust and legitimacy are key to governance and human security Are we doing enough to help African states and regional organizations in this area?

6 African Union African solutions to Africa’s problems AU members need: Agreement on how to respond to threats Ability to communicate across borders, share information Ability and will to conduct joint exercises Regional early warning centers Logistical depots & transportation/force projection capabilities Professional militaries and police forces Accountability among decision-makers Also need to develop a perception of power and capability

7 African Union Positive Developments Convention on the Prevention and Combating of Terrorism, adopted July 1999 in Algiers Continent-wide agreement to build institutional capacity and strengthen operational capabilities of member States combat terrorism “particularly in the areas of police and border control, legislative and judicial measures, suppression of the financing of terrorism, exchange of information, and coordination at the regional, continental and international levels.” African Centre for the Study and Research on Terrorism

8 Legitimacy and Capacity The AU faces a crisis of legitimacy The AU is being judged on whether it can and will respond effectively to situations of armed conflict –“The right of the Union to intervene in a Member State pursuant to a decision of the Assembly in respect of grave circumstances, namely war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity.” - Article 4(h), AU Constitutive Act. It is also being judged on whether the presence of AU or regional peacekeeping forces can resolve complex peace support or enforcement operations If the AU aspires to become the leading enabler of peace and security on the continent, it must be seen as capable of responding to all kinds of humanitarian crises

9 Global Peace Operations Initiative Anti-Terrorism Assistance Program Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership East Africa Counterterrorism Initiative African Coastal Security Program Foreign Military Financing African Union Standby Force Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center African Contingency Operations Training & Assistance International Military Education Training Military Personnel Exchange Program Regional Defense CT Fellowship Program National Guard Bureau State Partnership Program initiatives

10 USAID joint strategy with Department of State Global Development Alliances Foreign Aid Millennium Challenge Accounts Africa Education Initiative Initiative to End Hunger in Africa Trade for African Development and Enterprise program President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief African Growth and Opportunity Act Debt Relief (G-8, other programs) Educational exchanges, fellowships, etc. Help create an environment that will enable AU success initiatives

11 Conclusion Inadequate response to a crisis in Africa can undermine the future of the AU The U.S. and the international community must do all we can to enable the success of the African Union AFRICOM is a reflection of the continent’s strategic importance to the U.S. –Recognition of non-military challenges and needs –Will have deputy commander from D/State A strong African Union is a vital partner in the GWOT

12 q uestions


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