Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Social Influence 3: Obedience to Authority 20 May 2004.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Social Influence 3: Obedience to Authority 20 May 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Influence 3: Obedience to Authority 20 May 2004

2 Stanley Milgram: Obedience to Authority

3 Reasons for the Experiments

4 Milgram’s Obedience Studies: The Basics Predictions Experts thought only 1-3% would keep going Psychopaths Also thought that they themselves would never obey Results 65% obeyed to the end (450 v.) Males and females obeyed More or less the same across cultures 100% obey up to 100 v.

5 Learner’s Schedule of Protests 1 120: “ugh! Hey, this really hurts.” 150: “ugh!!! Experimenter! That’s all. Get me out of here. I told you I had heart trouble. My heart’s starting to bother me now. Get me out of here, please. My heart’s starting to bother me. I refuse to go on. Let me out.” 195: similar to : “Ugh!! Experimenter! Get me out of here. I’ve had enough. I won’t be in the experiment any more.” 270: (agonized scream) “Let me out of here (x6)” 285: (agonized scream)

6 Learner’s Schedule of Protests 2 300: (agonized scream) “I absolutely refuse to answer any more. Get me out of here. You can’t hold me here…” 315: (intensely agonized scream) “I told you I refuse to answer. I’m no longer part of this experiment.” 330: (intense and prolonged agonized scream) “Let me out of here (x2). My heart’s bothering me …. (hysterically) Let me out of here (x2). You have no right to hold me here. Let me out! (x6).” After 330: silence, refuses to answer word-pair questions

7 Experimenter’s Schedule of Prods Prod 1: “Please continue” or “Please go on” Prod 2: “The experiment requires that you continue” Prod 3: “It is absolutely essential that you continue” Prod 4: “You have no other choice, you must go on”

8 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

9 Proximity to the Victim 1: Percent Obedience No Voice Cues Voice Cues Same Room Touch

10 Proximity to the Victim 2: Mean Maximum Shock Level No Voice Cues Voice Cues Same Room Touch

11 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

12 Proximity of the Experimenter BLPhone Percent Obedient Mean Max Shock BLPhone

13 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

14 Authority 1: Who Gives the Commands? experimenter learnerconfederate Percent Obedient experimenter learnerconfederate Mean Max Shock

15 Authority 2: Undermining Authority authority as victim two authorities: contradictory commands two authorities: one as victim Percent Obedient authority as victim two authorities: contradictory commands two authorities: one as victim Mean Max Shock

16 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

17 Group Effects BL Two Peers Rebel Peer Gives Shock Percent Obedient BL Two Peers Rebel Peer Gives Shock Mean Max Shock

18 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

19 Legitimacy of the Experiment BL Bridgeport Percent Obedient Bridgeport BL Mean Max Shock

20 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

21 Fairness BLPrior Conditions Percent Obedient BLPrior Conditions Mean Max Shock

22 Why did they obey? Reasons with merit: – Slippery slope – Proximity to the victim – Proximity to the experimenter – Authority – Group Effects/Conformity Reasons without merit: – Legitimacy of the experiment – Fairness of the experiment – Aggression

23 Aggression BL Ss choose shock levels Percent Obedient BL Ss choose shock levels Mean Max Shock

24 Concluding Thoughts With numbing regularity good people were seen to knuckle under the demands of authority and perform actions that were callous and severe. Men who are in everyday life responsible and decent were seduced by the trappings of authority, by the control of their perceptions, and by the uncritical acceptance of the experimenter's definition of the situation, into performing harsh acts. … A substantial proportion of people do what they are told to do, irrespective of the content of the act and without limitations of conscience, so long as they perceive that the command comes from a legitimate authority. ~Stanley Milgram, 1965

25 Concluding Thoughts Obedience, as determinant of behavior, is of particular relevance to our time. It has been reliably established that from millions of innocent persons were systematically slaughtered on command. Gas chambers were built, death camps were guarded, daily quotas of corpses were produced with the same efficiency as the manufacture of appliances. These inhumane policies may have originated in the mind of a single person, but they could only be carried out on a massive scale if a very large number of persons obeyed orders. ~ Stanley Milgram, In the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67,


Download ppt "Social Influence 3: Obedience to Authority 20 May 2004."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google