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Government and political systems. This week  Government and civil society  Political systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Government and political systems. This week  Government and civil society  Political systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Government and political systems

2 This week  Government and civil society  Political systems

3 Government and civil society

4 “Government” or “state”?  “State” is the better word  5 Characteristics 1. Institutions 2. Rules a territory 3. Rules a population 4. Monopoly of the legitimate use of force internally and externally 5. Diplomatic recognition from other states

5 The philosophical origin of the modern state: The social contract  An intellectual justification for the state  From the state* of nature to the social contract  The need for public order & laws  protection of life  protection of property Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, * Meaning the situation, the condition

6 The real, historical origin of the sate  Wars, civil wars & conquest  National independences  achieved by force  achieved by referendum  The state as a “protection racket” (Charles Tilly) English Civil War Voters in the South Sudan independence referendum, 2011

7 The constitution  Writing the state into existence  The basic law of the state  determines the institutions  basis for all other laws  constrains the leaders, too  Changing the basic law: amending the constitution

8 The state and civil society  The influence of liberalism  Separate…  …yet mutually dependent Civil society State Country XYZ Individuals Interest groups Social movements (Business) Criminal organizations Family

9 The function of the state  State-civil society relations  The systemic model Individual 3 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group n Individual 1 Individual 2 Individual n State (political system) Inputs: demands & supports Outputs: Rewards & deprivations Feedback David Easton 1917— Country XYZ

10 POLITICAL SYSTEMS

11 The question of legitimacy  Legitimate rulers & legitimate institutions  who has the right to make decisions?  according to what process?  Preventing the concentration of political power (in democracy)

12 The division of powers inside the state  Origins in Roman Republic (508BC to 27BC)  Modern version, a gradual process  Strict division vs. flexible division of powers Monocameral (1 chamber or house) Bicameral (2 chambers or houses) 1 upper house 1 lower house Monocephalous (1 head) Bicephalous (2 heads) Legislativepower(parliament)Executivepower(government) Judicialpower(courts/judiciary) Judges

13 Parliamentary system (Canada) Canada Judicialpower Executivepower Legislativepower Flexible division of powers Canadian constitution

14 Parliamentary system: legislative power legislative powerlegislative power  One seat = one riding  Members elected by direct suffrage, 4- year terms  Proposes, debates, amends, passes laws  Holds the government to account (Question Period 1, 2)12  Party discipline  Majority party forms the government*  Moderated by the Speaker (neutral despite belonging to a party)  Number of seats varies by province  Appointed by Governor General on recommendation of Prime Minister  Proposes, debates, amends, passes laws  Party discipline  Retirement at age 75  Moderated by Speaker (neutral despite belonging to a party)  Controversies: not elected, low attendance by some, expenses claims House of Commons308 Senate105 Parliament of Canada Current seats Current senators by party, by provincepartyprovince

15 Where the real work is done: Parliamentary committees  Members can’t read all bills  Party leaders appoint members to committees  committee composition reflects composition of House  committees can be high-profile or low-profile  Where most of the work is done  issue-based committees  in-depth examination of bills  hearings from civil society  drafting of reports based on hearings  amendment to the bills  Bills go back to the full parliament for vote Committees of the Parliament of Canada - House of Commons committees - House of Commons committeesHouse of CommonsHouse of Commons - Senate committees - Senate committeesSenate - Joint committees - Joint committees Hearings sometimes fairly dry, sometimes controversial (1, 2) fairly dry12fairly dry12 A committee roomcommittee room

16 Parliamentary system: executive power executive powerexecutive power  Bicephalous  Cabinet comes from House of Commons Cabinet  Cabinet needs support of the House of Commons  The Prime Minister: only a tradition  Queen Elizabeth II appoints GG on advice of Prime Minister  Prime minister can prorogue parliament (suspend work)  Prime minister can ask the GG to dissolve the House (i.e., call an election)  GG gives Royal Assent to bills, which then become law Cabinet (including PM) (including PM) Governor General Head of state Head of government Government of Canada Current Governor General David L. Johnson, since 2010

17 Parliamentary system: judicial power judicial powerjudicial power  Highest court in the land, hence Supreme Court  9 judges  Appointed by Queen in Council (GG) on advice of Prime Minister  Judges the constitutionality of government decisions  Controversies:  interpreting vs. making law  judges’ bilingualism: compulsory or not Judicialpower Back Row: The Honourable Madam Justice Andromache Karakatsanis, the Honourable Mr. Justice Thomas A. Cromwell, the Honourable Mr. Justice Michael J. Moldaver, and the Honourable Mr. Justice Richard Wagner. Front Row: The Honourable Madam Justice Rosalie Silberman Abella, the Honourable Mr. Justice Louis LeBel, the Right Honourable Beverley McLachlin, P.C. Chief Justice of Canada, the Honourable Mr. Justice Morris J. Fish, and the Honourable Mr. Justice Marshall Rothstein. A random case from March 2012: John Virgil Punko vs. Her Majesty the Queen John Virgil Punko vs. Her Majesty the Queen

18 Presidential system (US) US Legislativepower(Congress) Executivepower Judicialpower Strict separation of powers United States constitution

19 Presidential system: legislative power legislative powerlegislative power  Districts roughly proportionate to population  Elected by direct suffrage, 2-year terms  Proposes, debates, amends, passes bills  Negotiates bills with Senate  Moderated by majority leader (can change rules on partisan basis))  2 senators per state  Elected by direct suffrage, 6-year terms  Proposes, debates, amends, passes bills  Negotiates bills with House of Representatives  Approves appointment of ambassadors, Supreme Court judges; ratifies treaties  1/3 replaced every 2 years  Moderated by majority leader (can change rules on partisan basis) House of House of Representatives 435 Senate 100 Both chambers need to pass a bill and the president must sign the bill for it to become law. Congress overturn a presidential veto with a 2/3 majority in both chambers. Controls the budget. US Capitol

20 Presidential system: executive power executive powerexecutive power  Monocephalous: head of government + head of state  Elected by indirect suffrage for 4 years  Cannot be removed*  Cannot dissolve Congress  Chooses secretaries to head government departments  Can propose bills to Congress  Must sign bills from Congress or veto them within 10 days Executive Power: President US constitution

21 Presidential system: judicial power judicial powerjudicial power  Highest court in the land, hence Supreme Court  9 judges for life  Appointed by president  Confirmed by Senate  Judges the constitutionality of laws & government decisions  Controversies:  interpreting vs. making law  a very, very politicized appointment process Judicial power US Supreme Court building Current justicesCurrent justices: Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor (top row, from left), Associate Justice Stephen G. Breyer (Hon.’95), Associate Justice Samuel A. Alito, and Associate Justice Elena Kagan; Associate Justice Clarence Thomas (bottom row, from left), Associate Justice Antonin Scalia, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy, and Associate Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg

22 How to elect a US president step 1: Parties choose a presidential candidate  Party Primaries (Jan. before election year to summer of election year)  debates between candidates inside parties  party members in each state give support to a candidate  support takes the form of delegates  National Conventions held in summer of election year  delegates vote for the person they want run for president for their party  the person chosen is the party nominee & the presidential candidate for that party  The nominees choose a running-mate  presidential nominee + running-mate = presidential ticket  running-mate will be vice-president if ticket wins Democratic Party Republican Party

23 How to elect a US president step 2: The role of the Electoral College  Each state, plus the District of Columbia, is given Electors  Number based on seats in the House of Representatives  Itself based on population size  Electors pledge to vote based on popular vote Total = 538

24 How to elect a US president step 3: Election day  First Tuesday after the first Monday of November  Voters vote for the ticket of their choice  Voting methods & rules vary by state (computer, touch- screen, punch-card, paper ballot, bubble-filling, etc.)  On the same day: many more separate elections  Congressional elections (all House seats & 1/3 Senate seats)  governor of the state  legislature of the state  school board  police chief  ballot initiatives (referenda)  many other elective offices

25 How to elect a US president step 4: The Electoral College vote Obama McCain  First Monday after the second Wednesday of December  Ticket with most popular votes in a state gets all the Electors of that state ( except for Maine & Nebraska)  Electors cast their vote in secret  The ticket with the most Electoral College votes wins  270 College votes are needed

26 Conclusion  Different organization of the institutions  Different relations between the three powers  Different ways of translating people’s voice into state decisions

27 ANNEX 1 : Looking inside the state: public administration & state employees Roles  Planning  Advising  Implementing  Delivering services Status  Few political appointees  Professionals  Non-partisan  Job security for some  Accountable  auditor  ombudsperson The State

28 ANNEX 2 : Semi-presidential system This is for your personal interest There will be no exam question on this Not exam material

29 Semi-presidential / mixed system (France) France Legislativepower Executivepower Judicialpower President Government French constitution in English (Fifth Republic) Strict separation of powers Not exam material

30 Semi-presidential system: legislative power  Elected by direct suffrage  Proposes, debates, amends, passes bills  Can censure the government (prime minister & minister) who must resign  Elected by 150,000 “grands électeurs” for 9 years  1/3 replaced every 3 years  Proposes, debates, amends, passes bills Assemblée Nationale577 Sénat 331 Palais Bourbon Palais du Luxembourg Both chambers must approve the same bill for it to be law. The president must sign the bill for it to be law (promulgation). Not exam material

31 Semi-presidential system: executive power  Elected by direct suffrage for 5 years  Chooses prime minister  Can dissolve the Assembly  Presides Council of Ministers  Promulgates laws  May be removed by High Court  Prime minister chooses ministers from the National Assembly to form the government  Ministers resign from the Assembly  Government needs support of Assembly  Proposes bills  Falls if censured by Assembly Executive power President Government Palais de l’ÉlyséeHôtel de Matignon François Hollande President & head of state Jean-Marc Ayrault Prime minister & head of government Not exam material

32 Semi-presidential system: judicial  Dual role  consultative  judges public decisions  Citizens vs. the state  Four main chambers  Citizens vs. citizens  Breaks or affirms judgments of lower courts Judicial power 5, Quai de l’horloge Conseil d’État Cour de cassation Conseil constitutionnel Next slide Not exam material

33 Semi-presidential system: judicial  A third judicial body: the Conseil constitutionnel  9 judges for 9 years, non-renewable  3 appointed by the president  3 appointed by the speaker of the National Assembly  3 appointed by the speaker of the Senate  1/3 replaced every 3 years  Main roles  consultative: executive or legislative asks it to assess constitutionality of laws & policies  supervises presidential elections & proclaims results Not exam material


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