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A2 Historical enquiry: India and the British Empire, 1757-1947.

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Presentation on theme: "A2 Historical enquiry: India and the British Empire, 1757-1947."— Presentation transcript:

1 A2 Historical enquiry: India and the British Empire,

2 British policy towards India: Government of India act, Rowlatt Act and Amritsar L.O. Know why Britain’s policy in : a). undermined Britain’s legitimacy b). inflamed Indian nationalism

3 How would you answer this question? “If one incident could be said to have doomed British rule in India, then the Amritsar Massacre was it.” In the context of , how convincing is the view that the Amritsar Massacre of 1919 marks the turning point in India’s struggle for independence? (Depth study of effects of Amritsar on nationalism, British governmental and popular attitudes and international opinion, by comparison to periods before and after Amritsar)

4 Pre Ist World War nationalism A minority movement Upper-class educated Indians in the Indian National Congress Two threads: radicals under Tilak and moderates under Gokhale; moderates triumphed in 1907 Moderate Muslim League founded 1906 to ensure that Muslims gained fair representation in any future self-rule

5 What changed this? Indians’ experience of fighting in WW1 Montagu Declaration 1917 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points Emergence of Gandhi The Rowlatt Act 1919 Protests against the Rowlatt Act – Gandhi’s hartal (refusal to work) Government of India Act The Amritsar Massacre Gandhi launched non-co-operation movement All classes, all regions, all faiths

6 Amritsar massacre Many historians see this as a pivotal moment for British rule Undermined legitimacy in India, Britain and in world opinion

7 Quotations “1919 was a turning point in the history of India and Amritsar was the pivot.” James (BE p.417) “India was Ireland but on a vast scale; and Amritsar was India’s Easter Rising, creating nationalist martyrs on one side and a crisis of confidence on the other.” Ferguson (E. p. 333) “Its horror obscures its singularity: it was not representative of the official imperial response to disorder, but an aberration that had a devastating effect on the Government of India’s claim to operate under the rule of law.” (French, L. or D. p.31) “.. A government so hopelessly indifferent to the welfare of its charge..(Gandhi Doc 19 in Copland)

8 British policy towards India 1.Read the Rees hand out 2.Answer the questions on your sheet (double sided) using the information from the hand out


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