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The Coming of Mass Politics: Industrialization, Emancipation and Instability, 1870-1914 The West CHAPTER 22.

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Presentation on theme: "The Coming of Mass Politics: Industrialization, Emancipation and Instability, 1870-1914 The West CHAPTER 22."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Coming of Mass Politics: Industrialization, Emancipation and Instability, 1870-1914 The West CHAPTER 22

2 Economic Depression and Industrial Expansion European economy declined, after 1873, and remained depressed into the 1890s The very success of industrialization resulted in production exceeding demand Breakdown of the cultural and social isolation of rural and non-industrial regions of Europe Dramatic expansion of railroads linked all of Europe into an industrial economy

3 The Second Industrial Revolution Increased mechanization and technological specialization Cheap and efficient production of steel Transformation of construction and architecture Development of electrical power Increasing state regulation and intervention Growth in the size and complexity of business organizations Development of department stores and the advertising industry

4 On the Move: Emigration and Urbanization Dramatic growth in the size of European cities, after 1870 Economic depression and industrial expansion fueled migration within Europe, and between Europe and the rest of the Western world Creation of an international, industrial workforce

5 Growing Social Unrest Rapid economic change, accelerated urbanization, and immigration heightened social tensions Increasing hostility between middle and working classes, and between industrial and non-industrial workers Urbanization and immigration heightened ethnic tensions in industrial cities

6 Making Nations Pressing need to create a national identity to overcome regional, social and political differences Use of education to instill a sense of a national community Observation and invention of nationalistic rituals and traditions

7 Russia: Revolution and Reaction Repression of political dissent, and social and economic anxiety, fueled revolutionary discontent Tsarist autocracy survived the 1905 revolution intact, so discontent persisted The absence of strong ties between the régime and the broad mass of society prevented the growth of a national identity

8 Germany: Identifying the Enemy Bismarck attempted to enforce national unity through the politics of exclusion First targeted Catholics, and, later, socialists, to achieve a political majority Kaiser William II (r. 1888-1918) sought, instead, to unify all Germans, by aggressive militarization and imperial expansion

9 Italy: The Illusion of Transformation Papal hostility to Italian unification undermined the state’s legitimacy Profound economic inequality between north and south inhibited the creation of a national community Political system based upon coalitions and patronage stifled any real social transformation

10 France: A Crisis of Legitimacy The Third Republic confronted an array of opposition from the left and the right The Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906) revealed the strength of anti-republican sentiment Republican government attempted to separate French citizenship from religious affiliation and social rank Slow pace of social reforms fueled working class violence and radicalism

11 Britain: Nation, Class, and Religion Profound religious and economic divide fueled Irish nationalism British nation did incorporate most English, Scottish and Welsh men, by universal male suffrage, 1884, and by the foundation of the welfare state, 1906-1912 Emergence of the Labour Party as an independent, working-class political voice

12 The Politics of the Working Class Development of a sharply defined working- class identity, culture and community The emergence and success of socialist political parties strengthened parliamentary systems Rejection of parliamentary politics in favor of violence by anarchist and syndicalist movements

13 Nationalist Mass Politics Emergence of right-wing, racist political parties that favored symbolism and emotional appeals over reason and debate Significant rise in anti-Semitic politics, across Europe Growth of Zionism in response to heightened anti- Semitism Development of legal, racial segregation in the southern United States

14 Changes in the Position of Middle-Class Women New public role as consumers in the retail revolution Decrease in family size freed women, from child- rearing, for other activities Expansion of state responsibilities and commercial organizations provided new jobs for women Emergence of an international women’s movement to challenge gender discrimination

15 The Feminist Campaign Fought for improvement of women’s legal rights, especially those of married women Sought to widen educational and employment opportunities to women Attempted to end sexual and moral double standards Fought for female suffrage Achieved limited success in the first two goals

16 The West in an Age of Mass Politics Struggles for access to political power prompted questions about the definition of the West Confrontations over whether Western identity was based upon gender and race, or upon democratic government Rise of a new style of emotive, irrational politics undermined faith in reason

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