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NS310 Evolution of Warfare Major Carlos Rascon NS310 Evolution of Warfare.

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Presentation on theme: "NS310 Evolution of Warfare Major Carlos Rascon NS310 Evolution of Warfare."— Presentation transcript:


2 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Major Carlos Rascon

3 NS310 Evolution of Warfare

4 SOURCES Dupuy and Dupuy, “Understanding War from Historical Perspective”, Marine Corps Gazette, June 1985, pp. 53-58 American National Security, “Terrorism”, September 11, 2002 RADM Zelibor, “The Warfighter’s Perspective”

5 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Learning Objectives Comprehend the proliferation of terrorism and its use as a political and military method of warfare Comprehend the acts against the U.S. on Sept. 11, 2001 and explain the U.S.’s response towards Afghanistan in Operation Enduring Freedom

6 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Terrorism is a Political Act A weapon of psychological purposes Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnation or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience

7 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Terrorism is a Political Act Creates extreme fear and anxiety in a target group larger than immediate victims “Extra-normal violence in a symbolic act” Specific victims have no particular significance to terrorist

8 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Terrorism is Not Irrational Terrorist use logic that links Goals Objectives Strategy

9 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Political Goals of Terrorism Create sense of vulnerability in larger target population To publicize terrorists’ plight (gain recognition) To embolden their allies and supporters Provoke violent reaction

10 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Political Goals of Terrorism Force policy change by adversary through public pressure Turn public against authorities Push adversary into self-constraining acts Martial law

11 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Terrorism in Historical Perspective Acts of terrorism recorded over 2000 years ago in Middle East Term “terrorism” coined during the French Revolution (1790’s)

12 NS310 Evolution of Warfare “Traditional” Terrorism Terrorists’ Concern for legitimacy Moderated strategy of violence Violence calibrated in relation to political objectives Leaves future possibility for negotiation and political settlement Excessive violence reduces legitimacy and claims for support PLO & Israel (until 2001) Terrorists always claimed credit for their acts

13 NS310 Evolution of Warfare “Traditional” Terrorism 10% Terrorists caught or killed 50% caught went to jail Therefore low personal risk Origins and Actions Nation- Based

14 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Recent Terrorists Acts against the U.S. 1983- U.S. Embassy & Marine Corps Barracks, Lebanon 1989- Lockerbe PA103 bombing 1993- World Trade Center 1996- Oklahoma City 1998- East Africa Embassy Bombings 2000- USS Cole, Yemen 2001- WTC & Pentagon

15 NS310 Evolution of Warfare States Sponsoring Terrorism Today Iran Iraq Syria Sudan Libya North Korea Cuba

16 NS310 Evolution of Warfare The “New” Terrorism Religion based Self legitimacy – no need for restraint Sense of superiority- no need for restraint Personal risk is unimportant; sacred misson Greater Violence – Greater “Good” Death of victims reduces number of non- beleivers

17 NS310 Evolution of Warfare The “New” Terrorism 1995: 25% of terrorist attacks religion- based Claiming credit for specific acts less important Political message is vulnerability and destruction of adversary

18 NS310 Evolution of Warfare The “New” Terrorism Transitional Better technology and means for terror effects Communications Financial Weaponry and explosives Greater Vulnerability of Modern Urban Technological Societies Fragile complex systems Energy Transport

19 NS310 Evolution of Warfare September 11, 2001

20 NS310 Evolution of Warfare

21 Operation Enduring Freedom United States response to September 11 Afghanistan harbored terrorists War against Taliban, not all of Afghanistan

22 NS310 Evolution of Warfare

23 Operation Enduring Freedom Different than Desert Storm Extended ranges Targets intermingled with non-targets Few fixed targets Non-traditional targets

24 NS310 Evolution of Warfare

25 Tactics 92% LGB’s 85% Non-Fixed After day 12, 93% of targets not ID’d to pilot until after launch

26 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Non-Standard Targeting Emphasis on: Positive ID Precision Targeting Blue/White Force Deconfliction SOF control direct to cockpit Minimal collateral damage

27 NS310 Evolution of Warfare

28 Operation Enduring Freedom Leaflets were dropped on sites before bombing Both in English and the native languages in which they were dropped. Quite a variety “OSAMA BIN LADEN THE MURDERER AND COWARD HAS ABANDONED AL QAIDA. HE HAS ABANDONED YOU AND RUN AWAY. GIVE YOURSELF UP AND DO NOT DIE NEEDLESSLY. YOU MEAN NOTHING TO HIM. SAVE YOUR FAMILIES THE GRIEF AND PAIN OF YOUR DEATH.”

29 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Al- Qaida Caves in Tora Bora

30 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Leadership Interception Operations After Taliban Fell, Navy was tasked with ensuring no Taliban or Al-Qaida members fled by sea

31 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Large Naval Contingent of Coalition Partners 100+ Ships from 12 nations

32 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Targets and Tactics

33 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Summary To counteract terrorism the U.S. has aggressively encouraged countries to stop harboring terrorists. The U.S. is working on Homeland Defense to enhance the response capabilities of military, federal, state, and local emergency responders to terrorist incidents and incidents involving weapons of mass destruction War on Terrorism

34 NS310 Evolution of Warfare Questions?

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