What two factors caused the Soviet Union’s collapse? Internal problemsInternal problems External pressuresExternal pressures
What internal problems contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union?
Increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United StatesIncreasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United States Rising nationalism in the Soviet republicsRising nationalism in the Soviet republics Fast-paced reforms, like the shift to a market economyFast-paced reforms, like the shift to a market economy Economic inefficiencyEconomic inefficiency Gorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroikaGorbachev’s policies of glasnost and perestroika
What Republican became president in 1981? Ronald ReaganRonald Reagan
What American president called the Soviet Union “an evil empire”? Ronald ReaganRonald Reagan
What president challenged the moral legitimacy (authority) of the Soviet Union? President Ronald ReaganPresident Ronald Reagan
What was the basis of President Reagan’s defense policy? A massive military buildupA massive military buildup
What was the effect of President Reagan’s military buildup on American relations with the Soviet Union? It increased tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.It increased tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.
What action did President Reagan take in Western Europe during his first term? Reagan placed new nuclear missiles in Western Europe.Reagan placed new nuclear missiles in Western Europe.
How did the renewal of the arms race with the United States affect the Soviet Union during President Reagan’s presidency?
It forced the Soviet Union to increase its military budget to keep up with the United States.It forced the Soviet Union to increase its military budget to keep up with the United States.
What was the state of the communist economy in the Soviet Union during the early 1980s? InefficientInefficient
Who became the leader of the Soviet Union in 1985? This leader was known for the policies of “Glasnost” and “Perestroika.” Mikhail GorbachevMikhail Gorbachev
What was the two-fold purpose of Gorbachev’s new policies? 1) Revive the Soviet economy1) Revive the Soviet economy 2) Reform the Soviet system2) Reform the Soviet system
What is the Russian word for openness? GlasnostGlasnost
Name Gorbachev’s policy of encouraging freedom of expression in the Soviet Union. GlasnostGlasnost
What Russian word referred to restructuring Soviet society? PerestroikaPerestroika
What types of economic and political changes did Gorbachev want to occur in Soviet society?
1) Less government control over the economy1) Less government control over the economy 2) Some private enterprise2) Some private enterprise 3) Steps toward democracy3) Steps toward democracy
What type of restructuring did Perestroika do? Economic restructuringEconomic restructuring
What expectations did Gorbachev’s new policies raise among the Soviet people? 1) Higher standard of living1) Higher standard of living 2) Increased freedom 2) Increased freedom
How did Gorbachev’s reforms affect the Soviet system? They placed more internal pressure on communism.They placed more internal pressure on communism.
With what movement did Gorbachev have to deal inside the Soviet Union? Nationalism in the Soviet republicsNationalism in the Soviet republics
What were the two sources of external pressure on the Soviet government under Gorbachev? 1) East European satellites1) East European satellites 2) President Reagan 2) President Reagan
What kind of pressure on the Soviet Union did President Reagan increase? Military pressureMilitary pressure Economic pressureEconomic pressure
What countries were Soviet satellites after World War II? The countries of Eastern EuropeThe countries of Eastern Europe
What does one call a nation that is formally independent, but dominated by another power? A satelliteA satellite
What was the name of the revolutionary labor movement in Poland during the 1980s? The Solidarity movementThe Solidarity movement
Who said, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall”? President Ronald ReaganPresident Ronald Reagan
What structure divided East Berlin from West Berlin during the Cold War? The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
What was the best known symbol of the Cold War? The Berlin WallThe Berlin Wall
What was the communist part of Berlin during the Cold War? East BerlinEast Berlin
What was the democratic part of Berlin during the Cold War? West BerlinWest Berlin
What government built the Berlin Wall? East GermanyEast Germany
Why was the Berlin Wall built? To prevent people from escaping from communist East Berlin to democratic West BerlinTo prevent people from escaping from communist East Berlin to democratic West Berlin
What happened to the Berlin Wall in 1989? It was torn down.It was torn down.
What happened in Germany in 1990? East Germany and West Germany reunited under the democratic West German government.East Germany and West Germany reunited under the democratic West German government.
What happened to the Soviet Union in 1991? It fell apart or collapsed.It fell apart or collapsed.
What were the three Baltic republics? EstoniaEstonia Latvia Latvia LithuaniaLithuania
What action did the Baltic republics take in 1991? They declared their independence from the Soviet Union.They declared their independence from the Soviet Union.
What precedent did the Baltic republics set in 1991? Other Soviet republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union.Other Soviet republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union.
What political party was dismantled in the Soviet Union in 1991? The Soviet communist partyThe Soviet communist party
What action did Gorbachev take on Christmas Day, 1991? He resigned and declared the Soviet Union had ended.He resigned and declared the Soviet Union had ended.
What war, which began in 1945, ended by the end of 1991? The Cold WarThe Cold War