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Chapter 17 The Policy- Making Process. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHO GOVERNS? WHO GOVERNS? 1.Does some political elite dominate American politics? 2.Do.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 The Policy- Making Process. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHO GOVERNS? WHO GOVERNS? 1.Does some political elite dominate American politics? 2.Do."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 The Policy- Making Process

2 Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHO GOVERNS? WHO GOVERNS? 1.Does some political elite dominate American politics? 2.Do powerful interest groups decide what policies our government should adopt? TO WHAT ENDS? TO WHAT ENDS? 1.Why are Social Security payments popular but welfare payments to unwed mothers unpopular? 2.Why were government regulations on certain industries repealed over the objection of those industries?

3 Setting the Agenda The Legitimate Scope of Government Action The Legitimate Scope of Government Action GroupsGroups InstitutionsInstitutions MediaMedia Action by the States Action by the States Copyright © 2011 Cengage On May Day, 2006, immigrants demonstrated in Las Vegas and many other cities to show their importance in the American economy. p. 463 Ethan Miller/Getty Images

4 Copyright © 2011 Cengage Highway safety was always a problem, but it became a national issue after policy advocates, such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), emphasized it. p. 465 Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

5 Making a Decision Costs versus Benefits Costs versus Benefits Perception Perception Legitimacy Legitimacy Who will benefit or pay for a program? Who will benefit or pay for a program? Who ought to benefit or pay? Who ought to benefit or pay? Costs and Benefits may be Costs and Benefits may be Widely distributedWidely distributed Narrowly concentratedNarrowly concentrated Copyright © 2011 Cengage

6 Majoritarian Politics: Distributed Benefits, Distributed Costs Majoritarian politics – A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays Majoritarian politics – A policy in which almost everybody benefits and almost everybody pays Social SecuritySocial Security Military DefenseMilitary Defense Cancer researchCancer research Controversy usually over cost/ideology, not rival interest groups Controversy usually over cost/ideology, not rival interest groups Copyright © 2011 Cengage

7 Figure 17.1 The Politics of Different Policy Issues Copyright © 2011 Cengage

8 Interest Group Politics – Concentrated Benefits, Concentrated Costs Interest group politics – A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays Interest group politics – A policy in which one small group benefits and another small group pays Labor - BusinessLabor - Business TV Broadcasters – Cable CompaniesTV Broadcasters – Cable Companies Banks – Insurance CompaniesBanks – Insurance Companies Fought by organized interest groups Fought by organized interest groups Copyright © 2011 Cengage

9 During the Great Depression, depositors besiege a bank hoping to get their savings out. p. 468 Texas high school students protest against smoking during an event sponsored by Teens Against Tobacco Use, a peer- based tobacco use prevention program. p. 468 Topham/The Image Works Bob Daemmrich/The Image Works

10 Client Politics: Concentrated Benefits, Distributed Costs Client politics – A policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays Client politics – A policy in which one small group benefits and almost everybody pays FarmersFarmers AirlinesAirlines Pork-barrel legislation Pork-barrel legislation Logrolling Logrolling Legitimacy Legitimacy Copyright © 2011 Cengage

11 Entrepreneurial Politics: Distributed Benefits, Concentrated Costs Entrepreneurial Politics – A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost Entrepreneurial Politics – A policy in which almost everybody benefits and a small group pays the cost Auto safety/antipollutionAuto safety/antipollution Brady BillBrady Bill Policy entrepreneurs – activists who pull together a political majority on behalf of unorganized interests Policy entrepreneurs – activists who pull together a political majority on behalf of unorganized interests Copyright © 2011 Cengage

12 The Case of Business Regulation Majoritarian Politics Majoritarian Politics Interest Group Politics Interest Group Politics Client Politics Client Politics Entrepreneurial Politics Entrepreneurial Politics Copyright © 2011 Cengage The Grange sought to warn farmers of the dangers of a railroad monopoly. p. 472 The Granger Collection, New York

13 Copyright © 2011 Cengage Dairy farmers get government subsidies for their milk production. p. 474 Entrepreneurial politics: Upton Sinclair’s book The Jungle, published in 1906, shocked readers with its description of conditions in the meatpacking industry and helped bring about passage of the Meat Inspection Act of p. 476 Bob Mahoney/The Image Works Bettmann/Corbis

14 Perceptions, Beliefs, Interests and Values Perception of Costs and Benefits Perception of Costs and Benefits Deregulation Deregulation The power of ideas Process regulation Airlines Telephone Trucking The Limits of Ideas The Limits of Ideas Copyright © 2011 Cengage Though many economists question the value of the Small Business Administration, it remains popular because it loans money to a lot of voters. p. 477 Bill Aron/Photo Edit

15 M E M O R A N D U M To: J. Peter, assistant to the president From: Daniel Gilbert, special assistant to the president Subject: Department of Energy Nuclear Waste Plan The president must decide whether to sign the bill allowing the department to establish a safe repository for the nation’s nuclear waste beneath mountains in Nevada. The waste is produced mainly by 131 commercial nuclear reactors and by national defense weapons programs. It is presently stored at 126 sites in over three dozen states. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

16 Arguments for: 1. For over 50 years, radioactive waste that remains deadly to humans for 10,000 years has been accumulating in cities and towns throughout the country. 2. According to many experts, encasing the waste in well- engineered tunnels beneath mountains in remote locations is both safer and more cost-effective than such alternatives as storing it in ocean tunnels or propelling it into space. 3. The bill achieved a bipartisan majority. Polls find that most people know little about the problem but believe that something should be done to increase safety. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

17 Arguments against: 1. The department admits that transporting nuclear waste to the Nevada site through dozens of states on trucks, trains, and barges would take decades and pose safety risks. 2. Some experts argue that constructing a 100-mile network of tunnels that safely stores nuclear waste in disposal canisters for 10,000 years will prove technologically difficult and financially burdensome. 3. The plan is strongly opposed by many elected officials in Nevada and surrounding states, and a coalition of environmental groups is threatening to challenge it in court. Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?

18 Your decision: Advise president to sign? Advise president not to sign? Copyright © 2011 Cengage WHAT WOULD YOU DO?


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