Presentation on theme: "Capacity Development for Education Systems in Fragile Contexts Lynn Davies Centre for International Education and Research, University of Birmingham in."— Presentation transcript:
Capacity Development for Education Systems in Fragile Contexts Lynn Davies Centre for International Education and Research, University of Birmingham in collaboration with the European Training Foundation (ETF) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)
Outline The fragility debate Education issues in fragile contexts Dimensions of CD improvement Choices in state-building Roles and positioning of donors Ways forward at country, regional and global level
CategoryScenario Declining Arrested development Prolonged crisis or impasse; stagnation with low levels of effectiveness and legitimacy Deterioration Declining levels of governance effectiveness leading to lower legitimacy, rising risk of violence or collapse Stabilising Post-conflict transition Low levels of effectiveness, transitory legitimacy, recent violence, humanitarian crisis Early recovery Gradual improvement; rising levels of effectiveness and legitimacy, declining aid needs, emergence from conflict or other crises
Features of fragility Deficits in governance Inability to maintain security Inability to meet essential needs Polarisation of identities Opaque decision making Erosion of people’s trust in government and its institutions
Two key gaps in fragile contexts Lack of capacity (territorial control and presence; competence in economic and administrative management) Lack of political will to perform key functions for human welfare NB: Capacity development is about both of these
Education issues in fragile contexts Legitimacy of the state and state institutions – competing goals for education Extremes of inequality and inequity Education governance, corruption Conflict and security: the contribution of education to both
Dimensions of CD ‘improvement’
Which dimension to tackle? Organisational change (regulation, efficiency, budgeting, hiring of staff, job descriptions, decentralisation) Institutional change (hidden cultures of work and relationships, deference/authority patterns, nepotism, ‘allowance cultures’) Dis/enabling environment (political will, ethnic/religious tensions, community contestation, corruption)
State-building Increasing difficulty as move from individual CD to political CD, but crucial that ‘outer layer’ is not ignored State building has to be the major task CD is thus about delicate choices and combinations of dimension CD choices are also about which sector to focus on Building of social capital equally important to human/economic capital
STATE ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEMSEDUCATION INSTITUTIONS Aim: Ministry of Education efficiency and transparency Aim: Locality efficiency and transparency Aim: Trust and participation in government; social capital Aim: Building human capital Regulation Accountability Planning and policy making Financial management Information flows Market analysis Monitoring and evaluation Local planning Regulation Citizen or community participation and ownership of education Accountability Innovation Political literacy Citizenship education Legal education Media education Human rights education Corruption education Non-violence Empowerment of females Literacy Generic technical skills Professionalism Problem-solving Entrepreneurship Health education Specific vocational training
Administrative sites for CD Planning realistic national policies Drawing up workable regulatory and legal frameworks for schools Mechanisms for accountability, information flows Independent Service Authorities? Building local capacity and leadership, child-friendly schools/community initiatives
Educational sites for CD Teacher professional development (pedagogy, professionalism, non- violence, incentives) Curriculum development (Disaster Risk Reduction, history, citizenship, rights, entrepreneurship) Skills and capital (youth, vocational education, women, adult literacy)
Roles and positioning of donors 1. Methodological responses: Principles; processes; levels; entry points; assessment tools Building back better, spaces for intervention
2. Choices around donor alignment Systems and policy alignment Systems alignment (where governments lack legitimacy) Policy alignment (where institutions have disintegrated, but government have embarked on reforms) Shadow alignment (institutional and political breakdown advanced)
3. Working with non-state actors ‘Representatives’ of civil society, change agents, unions, scholars, journalists, NGOs But may be conflict between stakeholders; religion versus secular forces; capital versus rural areas; legitimacy of NGOs CD for opposition groups?
Ways forward 1: Country level Analysis, identifying fragile characteristics and how education intervention and education CD might tackle them Standards, indicators and monitoring, for example of safe schools, non-violence, peace- building, vocational education
Issue based CD across levels Fragile feature Central level CD Local level CDTeacher CD e.g.Inter -group conflict Creating education policy for ethnic and religious harmony Conflict analysis Monitoring and evaluation of peace education Civic education in schools and HE Child-friendly schools Training of disadvantaged or minority groups in school governance Civic education Teaching controversial issues Conflict resolution Inclusive education
Issue based CD across levels Fragile feature Central level CD Local level CDTeacher CD Lack of govern- ment legitimacy and public disengage -ment Understanding of democratic governance Realistic target setting Equitable financing formulae Demands for, and use of information flows Citizen feedback Voter education Education for democracy Media education
Ways forward 2: Regional level CD in dealing with refugees, cross- border movements, ex-combatants, labour migration, accreditation Establishing and supporting regional networks Regional initiatives can address national issues in a less politically sensitive way
Ways forward 3: Global level Global networks Minimum Standards Cluster approaches CD in working with international organisations Networks of ‘experts’ in CD? FTI, global conditionalities?
Conclusions Principles: More sustainable CD needs: 1. Honest analyses of fragility across all dimensions – and existing capacity 2. Initiatives linked to target of breaking cycles and amplifications of fragility and restoring core state functions; coherence 3. Recognition that CD is social- psychological, not just systems, about behaviour, status and survival, agendas 4. Targeting people who can effect change 5. Having indicators of success, m&e, linked to wider state-building indicators; research.
Areas for action Tackling regulation, but also workplace culture CD for those in youth employment, women’s groups etc, but also labour market analysis CD for teachers must include how to promote political literacy, media analysis and dealing with controversial issues
Areas for reflection: 1 1. Which dimensions, focus points, stakeholders, methodological responses? 2. How to put into place a research programme? 3. How can regulation of educational institutions be improved? Should there be new regulatory bodies?
Areas for reflection: 2 4. What are long and short term indicators of success in CD for state-building? 5. Could cross-sectoral CD be more effective than just education? 6. How can incentives be assured for recipients of CD – people and governments? 7. Should FTI be extended to fragile states? Who owns CD?