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W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Chapter 7 Power and Politics In Schools
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Authority and Power Authority is power, but power is not necessarily authority. Power is the ability to get others to do what you want. Authority is legitimate power. Authority is not authoritarianism. Authority is not coercion. Authority has three properties: Willing compliance to directives Suspension of own decision-making criteria Legitimacy--power is legitimated by the norms of the group Key Question: What is your working definition of authority?
Weber ’ s Types of Authority W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Charismatic Authority: Power is legitimated by extraordinary personality. Traditional Authority: Power is legitimated by tradition. Legal or Bureaucratic Authority: Power is legitimated by system of laws (rules). Key Question: What is the best type of authority for schools? Types of Authority
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Other Types of Authority Blau and Scott Formal Authority Power is legitimated by the formal organization. Informal Authority Power is legitimated by the informal organization. Peabody Functional Authority Power is legitimated by competence. Key Question: What kind of authority does your principal have?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Types of Authority Positions Formal Authority YesNo Formal Leader Informal Leader Officer Follower Informal Authority Yes No
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Leaders and Authority How can leaders enhance their authority? Strategic Leniency Supportive Leadership Emotional Detachment Hierarchical Independence Hierarchical Influence Authenticity Key Question: What strategy is best for you to enhance your authority?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Sources of Power (French and Raven, 1968) 1.Reward Power Administrators reward desirable behavior. 2.Coercive Power Administrators punish undesirable behavior. 3.Legitimate Power Administrators have power of the organization. 4.Referent Power Administrators get power from identification. 5.Expert Power Administrators get power from knowledge and expertise. Key Points: Power from person characteristics is most advantageous. Expert power is most stable Referent power is strongest. Power Authority
Responses to Power W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Probable Responses to Power Types of Power Commitment Simple ComplianceResistance ReferentXXX XX X ExpertXXX XX X LegitimateXX XXX X RewardXX XX X CoerciveX XX XXX XXX=most likelyXX=less likely X=least likely
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Practical Suggestions 1.Avoid the use of coercive power: it alienates. 2.Use organizational power to develop personal power; personal power is more potent. 3.Use personal power to motivate and create loyalty and commitment to the organization. 4.Be careful when using reward power; it is easily confused coercive power. 5.Find ways to tap into informal power.
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Power vs. Empowerment Power often constrains the activities of subordinates. Whereas-- Empowerment typically enhances the power of subordinates as well as superiors. Empowerment is the process by which administrators share power and help others use it in constructive ways to make decisions affecting themselves and their work (Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn, 1994).
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Mintzberg on Power Four Systems or Sources of Power: System of Authority--Formal Power System of Ideology-- Informal Power System of Expertise--Knowledge System of Politics-- Informal, illegitimate Power
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Practical Suggestions To lead administrators must: Go beyond the system of authority; Formal power is not enough to lead. Tap into the informal authority; Expand your authority and influence. Tap into expertise of teachers; Empower teachers and empower yourself. Understand the system of politics; Limit politics--it is destructive.
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 *Can be legitimate, but almost never is. Sources of Power and Authority Source of Power Formal Organization Informal Organization Legitimacy Of Power Legitimate Illegitimate Formal Authority Informal Authority Coercive Power* Political Power*
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 A Critical View of Power Power blurs the distinction between rationality and rationalization; Rationality is the application of evidence and reason to make decision. Rationalization is an attempt to make a decision appear rational. Power has a way of defining reality--superiors define what counts. Principals spin the truth to defend their decisions. Power trumps knowledge because rationalization masquerades as truth. Truth is the first casualty in a power conflict. Knowledge is power, but Power is Knowledge. Power corrupts reality. Key Question: Does emphasis on democratic participation in schools make us more vulnerable to manipulation? Why or why not?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Politics is individual or group behavior that is informal, parochial, typically divisive, and above all illegitimate because decisions are made in the best interests of individuals or groups rather than the best interests of the organization (Mintzberg, 1983). Coalitions are groups of individuals who bargain in an effort to get resources distributed in their favor. Politics
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 External coalitions are groups outside the organization that try to influence the organization--for example, tax payers, teacher associations, and citizens. Three types of external coalitions: 1. Dominated external coalition--one powerful outside group dominates school policy, e. g. “ back to basics ” --promotes a powerful force that effects what happens internally. 2. Divided external coalition--a few groups (two or three) compete for influence-- influence is balanced but competition is there, e. g., Conservative vs Liberal-- power struggle spills over into the organization. 3. Passive external coalition--so many groups that power is dispersed--creates a relatively peaceful and stable environment. External Coalitions Key Question: What kind of external coalition is preferable?
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Consequences of External Coalitions: A dominated external coalitions weakens internal coalitions. A divided external coalition politicizes internal coalitions. A passive external coalitions strengthens internal coalitions, often at the level of central administration. External Coalitions
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Power Game Organizational Members Have Three Choices 1. Leave the organization-----Exit 2. Stay and be a player Voice 3. Stay and be a soldier Be Loyal Most members either stay and play or become loyal “ soldiers. ”
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Political Tactics Political Tactic Purpose 1.IngratiatingGain favors by doing favors 2.Networking InfluentialsGain influence by courting 3.Managing InformationManipulate information to your advantage 4.Managing ImpressionsCreate a positive imagine by appearance 5.Coalition BuildingBand together with others to achieve goals 6.ScapegoatingShift the blame to others for bad outcomes 7.Increasing IndispensabilityMake yourself indispensable 8.Spinning the TruthPut the best face on the facts 9. FlatteringPraising others 10. GASingGetting attention of others—standing out
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Political Tactics Spinning the Truth is adding the adding and subtracting and partial display and concealment of of information while communicating with others. Elements of Truth Spinning Reversing the TruthThe Lie DeceptionRevealing and Concealing Self-DeceptionSelective Perception CivilityShowing and Hiding Thoughts Creating the TruthPower and Reality Game PlayingManipulating
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Political Tactics Warning: The Line is Thin Dishonesty Deceit Misinformation All are difficult to justify on moral grounds.
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, Attractiveness: People like, are attracted to, and follow others that they believe are kindred spirits—Engage in acts of kindness. 2.Reciprocity: People feel obligated to return a good deed; individuals help those who help them--Help others solve a problem and you can depend on their help later. 3.Public Commitment: People are motivated to act on the basis of their public commitments—Encourage public commitments. 4.Colleagueship: People listen to and follow the lead of respected colleagues– Identify respected faculty members, solicit their advice, and win their support. 5.Optimism: Optimism enhances success—Look for opportunities in problems and focus on possibilities, not obstacles. 6.Fairness: People believe they are entitled to fair treatment—Treat others as you would be liked to be treated. 7.Expertise: People defer to those with demonstrated expertise—Do not assume your expertise is obvious; exhibit it. Principles of Influence
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, Violating the chain of command 2.Losing your temper in public 3.Saying no to superiors too often 4.Challenging cherished beliefs 5.Aligning with the wrong group 6.Violating the norms of honesty and fairness. Common Political Blunders
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Political Games Political games are played: To sustain power To maintain power To enhance power. Goals of Political Games: To resist authority To counter resistance to authority To build a power base To defeat opponents To change the organization
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Kinds of Political Games Insurgency game to resist formal authority Counter insurgency game to counter insurgency Sponsorship game to advance quickly Alliance-building game to build power Empire-building game to build power Expertise game to build power Lording-it-over game to justify power Line and staff game to defeat competitors Rival camps game to defeat competitors Strategic candidates game to promote change Whistling-blowing game to halt bad practices Young-Turks game to change the power structure
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Conflict Management There is no one best way to manage conflict; “ it depends ” on the situation. Match the appropriate “ conflict resolution style ” with the situation.
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Conflict Management Styles: A Contingency Approach (Thomas, 1976) Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating Assertive Unassertive Attempting to Satisfy Organizational Needs Attempting to Satisfy the Needs of Individual Uncooperative Cooperative
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011 Matching Conflict Management Style with the Situation Management Style Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating Situation When quick, decisive actions are necessary— e. g. emergencies When both sets of goal so important that compromise is inadequate-- “ Win, Win ” Both sides must Win. When the objectives are important but not worth the potential disruption. To let the situation cool down, when more information is essential, when the problem is merely a symptom. When you have made a mistake, to build good will, when harmony is important.
Practical Imperatives Stay calm in difficult situation: Don’t “blow up” in public. Demonstrate your authenticity and autonomy: Openness and independence heighten influence. Expand your power by cultivating informal relationships: The informal organization is an important source of power. Use coercive power only as a last resort: Coercive power alienates. Become politically savvy to the reality of organizational politics: Politics is a fact of organizational life. Understand that organizations are not always fair: Sometimes they are unfair. Exhaust the informal organization before resorting to the formal: The informal is often more powerful than the formal. In conflict—avoid, compete, collaborate, compromise, and accommodate: Resolution depends upon matching strategies with the situation. Use rationality, not rationalization, to make decisions: Rationalization often masquerades as rationality. Get noticed to gain power: Stand out in the crowd with good ideas. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011
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