Key Players at Vienna The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.) Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.) Tsar Alexander I (Rus.) King Frederick William III (Prus.) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr.)
EEnsure France would not become an aggressor RRestore the “balance of power” TThe principle of compensation TThe principle of legitimacy VVictors expected to be rewarded
Metternich (1773-1859) Opposed democracy and nationalism Proposed principles of compensation and legitimacy
Key Principles Established at Vienna VBalance of Power VLegitimacy VCompensation VBalance of Power VLegitimacy VCompensation eCoalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. eFrance would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs. eCoalition forces would occupy France for 3-5 years. eFrance would have to pay an indemnity of 700,000,000 francs.
Fate of Nationalism People had no say over territorial changes Language, nationality, and religion weren’t taken into consideration Ideas of democracy and self-government were rejected by European leadership Soon enough, concessions were made
VFrance was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoléon. VRussia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). VPrussia was given half of Saxony, parts of Poland, and other German territories. VA Germanic Confederation of 30+ states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule. VAustria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy. VThe House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule. Changes Made at Vienna (1)
Quadruple and Holy Alliances Metternich desired to maintain the status quo and make the Vienna treaties permanent Quadruple Alliance of 1815 –Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia –France joined in 1818 –Pledged to put down democratic or nationalistic revolts Holy Alliance –Organized by Tsar Alexander I of Russia –Most European monarchs joined –Pledged to govern with charity, justice, and peace But none of them did so
Changes Made at Vienna (2) VNorway and Sweden were joined. VThe neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. VHanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom. VBritain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. VSardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa. VThe Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies. VThe Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise. VThe slave trade was condemned (at British urging). VFreedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers.
Review Questions What countries made up the “Big Four” at the Congress of Vienna? What were the principles of compensation and legitimacy? How did the Congress of Vienna redraw the map of Europe? What was the purpose of the Quadruple Alliance? What were the results of the Congress of Vienna?
Results of the Congress of Vienna Concert of Europe – group of leading nations which periodically met to discuss issues regarding stability Temporary suppression of democratic and nationalistic ideals International peace – no general war in Europe until World War I a hundred years later –Crimean War (1854-1856) –Austro-Prussian War (1866) –Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
Reactionaries Let’s go back to the way things used to be!