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Response to the defeat of Napoleon

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1 Response to the defeat of Napoleon
AP European History Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, Response to the defeat of Napoleon Desire to contain revolution and revolutionary forces How? Restore much of the old order 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 1

2 The Peace Settlement Four major enemies of Napoleon agree to remain united: to defeat Napoleon and keep the peace Great Britain Austria Prussia Russia 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 2

3 The Peace Settlement The Alliance
Restored the Bourbon Dynasty to France Louis XVIII Agreed to meet in Vienna in September, 1814 Leader of the Congress of Vienna: Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 3

4 The Peace Settlement Klemens von Mitternich Experienced diplomat
Conceited and self-assured “I am always above and beyond the preoccupation of most public men; I cover ground much faster than they can they are” see…how right I am and how wrong 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 4

5 The Principle of Legitimacy
Mitternich guided by the principle of legitimacy at Vienna For peace and stability Restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutions Bourbons of France and Spain Italian states-several legitimate rulers returned 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 5

6 The Principle of Legitimacy
At other locations, however, practicality, not legitimacy, took precedence The Congress’s treatment of Poland Russia, Prussia, and Austria all laid claim Prussia and Austria allowed to keep some Polish territory Nominally independent Polish kingdom established 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 6

7 The Principle of Legitimacy
Poland is placed under Russian Romanov Dynasty Poland’s guaranteed “independence” The Kingdom’s foreign policy and kingdom itself remained under Russian control Prussia and Austria compensated for previous losses by receiving Saxony and Italian provinces, respectively 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 7

8 A New Balance of Power Diplomats believed they were forming a new balance of power Trying to prevent any power from controlling others Prussia and Austria were strengthened But France still remained a strong power 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 8

9 A New Balance of Power Concerns about France fostered barriers created by Congress of Vienna To the north, a new enlarged kingdom of the Netherlands King William I of the House of Orange To the south, Piedmont was enlarged Prussia was strengthened…given territory along East bank of Rhine The Germanic Confederation replaced the Napoleonic Confederation 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 9

10 The Peace Settlement A New Balance of Power
Napoleon returns form Elba to France for 100 days Didn’t disrupt the “Congress” Congress punished French people for embracing Napoleon’s return—pushed borders back to 1790, forced to pay indemnity, and accept army occupation for 5 years The Congress of Vienna’s orders resulted in no major conflict for almost a century 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 10

11 The Ideology of Conservatism
The peace arrangements through the Congress of Vienna in 1815 Beginning of a conservation reaction Contain liberal and Nationalistic forces unleashed by French Revolution Metternich represented the ideology known as conservatism 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 11

12 The Ideology of Conservatism
Conservatism dates from 1790, Edmund Burke Wrote, Reflections on the Revolution in France Reaction to French Revolution Against radical republican and democratic ideas Burke maintained that society was a contract “The state ought not to be considered as nothing better than a partnership agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee…to be dissolved by the fancy of the parties” 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 12

13 The Ideology of Conservatism
Burke on conservatism… State a partnership “between those who are living, those who are dead and those who are to be born” No one generation has the right to destroy the partnership Each generation has duty to preserve and transmit it to the next Advised against overthrow of government Burke did not reject the possibility of change Sudden change not good; gradual or revolutionary improvements good 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 13

14 The Ideology of Conservatism
The Frenchman Joseph de Maistre had other form of conservatism Authoritarian conservatism Espoused restoration of monarchy system Best for guaranteeing order in society Most conservatives held a body of basic beliefs 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 14

15 The Ideology of Conservatism
Fundamental beliefs… Obedience to political authority Organized religion is crucial to society Dislike of revolutionary upheavals Unwilling to accept either liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or nationalistic aspirations generated by the French revolution era 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 15

16 The Ideology of Conservatism
Conservatism principles…more Community took precedence over individual rights Society must be organized and ordered Tradition remained best guide for order Conservatism supported by monarchs, government bureaucracies, landowning aristocracies, and revived churches Conservatism dominant after 1815 both domestically and internationally 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 16

17 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
European powers feared revolution and war leading to Concert of Europe An accord that grew out of Quadruple Alliance in November of 1815 Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed to meet to prevent return of Bonapartist power Four conferences held 1818 to 1822: agreed to withdraw troops from France and add to Concert of Europe 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 17

18 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
Congress met to address three upheavals Spain: against Ferdinand VII Italy: against Ferdinand I King of Naples and Sicily Metternich was particularly disturbed by the revolts in Italy—saw them as threat to Austrian’s domination of peninsula 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 18

19 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe: The Principle of Intervention
At Troppau, he called for principle of intervention The Alliance member states can take military to restore former monarchies to the throne Britain refused, saying they didn’t believe in interfering in the internal affairs of other nations, except in France Austria, Russia, and Prussia moved forces to restore both monarchs The victories came with a price as Britain opted out of the Concert of Europe Britain did keep the Continental powers from interfering with the revolutions in Latin America 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 19

20 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe: The Revolt in Latin America
Napoleon’s wars impacted Latin America Spanish authority weakened in colonies Argentina won independence Simon Bolivar led independence of Venezuela and Columbia Jose de San Martin freed Chile, Argentina, and Peru Mexico and Central Provinces followed Portugal recognized Brazil’s independence by 1825 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 20

21 The Concert in Europe: The Revolt in Latin America
The Continental powers favored using troops to restore Spanish control James Monroe, the President of the U.S., issued the Monroe Doctrine warning European powers not to intervene in New World affairs Although acting alone, the British navy was the more threatening deterrent. European powers were no match for British naval power 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 21

22 The Concert In Europe: The Revolt in Latin America
The Latin American countries were now dominated more by the British Raw materials and foodstuffs flowed out of Latin America and industrial goods flowed in The outgoing and incoming flows insured the domination of Latin America by foreigners 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 22

23 The Concert of Europe: The Greek Revolt
In 1821, the Greeks revolted against their Ottoman Turk masters The Greeks had been dominated for 400 years The Muslim Ottomans had permitted Greek religious orthodoxy Revival of Greek nationalistic sentiment beginning 19th century sparked desire for freedom from the “terrible yoke of Turkish oppression” Continental powers come to the aid of the Greeks 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 23

24 The Concert of Europe: The Greek Revolt
Continental powers help Greece France and Britain send ships and defeat Turkish armada Russia declares war on Ottomans and secures two provinces Treaty of Adrianople: Russia, France and Britain given authority to decide fate of Greece and declare Greece an independent kingdom Greek revolt the only successful revolt until 1830; thus conservative domination still intact 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 24

25 Conservative Domination: The European States: Great Britain: Rule of the Tories
Between 1815 and 1830, domestic policies reflected conservative domination In Great Britain, Parliament was still controlled by landed gentry and the king could do little. Tories were the ruling party made of landed gentry Whigs were beginning to gain through new industrial growth 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 25

26 Conservative Domination: Great Britain: Rule of the Tories
Popular discontent grew in Britain due to economic problems Tory government responded to falling agricultural prices with the Corn Law of 1815 Placed high tariffs on foreign grain This was good for landowners but terrible for working classes due to high prices of bread Mass protests ensued. Eleven were killed by troops at the Peterloo Massacre Government invoked even tougher restrictions Tories avoided demands for reforms 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 26

27 Conservative Domination: Restoration in France
Bourbon Family restored to France under King Louis XVIII. Louis recognized need for change brought by revolutionaries and Napoleonic era Accepted Napoleon’s Civil Code Property right preserved Bicameral legislature established Chamber of Peers chosen by king Chamber of Deputies chosen by 100,000 wealthy people 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 27

28 Conservative Domination: Restoration in France
Louis’ moderation opposed by liberals eager to extend revolutionary reforms and by ultraroyalists Ultraroyalists criticized king for keeping so many of Napoleon’s policies “Ultras” hoped to return to monarchy with landed aristocracy and an influential Catholic Church 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 28

29 Conservative Domination Restoration in France
King Louis died and his brother Charles X took the position of the ultraroyalists Granted indemnity to aristocrats for losing land during revolution Passed laws encouraging Catholic Church to control education Public outrage called for “ministerial responsibility”—ministers of the king are responsible to the legislature 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 29

30 Conservative Domination: Restoration in France
Charles X violates his commitment to ministerial responsibility Deputies protest Charles dissolves the legislature France is on the brink of another revolution 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 30

31 Conservative Domination: Intervention in the Italian States and Spain
In Italy, the Congress of Vienna had establish nine states Much was under Austrian domination Governments extremely reactionary However, secret societies motivated by nationalistic dreams conspired Chief among the secret societies was the Carbonari (charcoal burners) 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 31

32 Conservative Domination: Intervention in the Italian States and Spain
In Spain, the Bourbon Dynasty had been restored in the person of Ferdinand VII in 1814 Initially agreed to allow a parliament known as the Cortes He reneged and dissolved the Cortes causing a revolt. The king promised to restore the Cortes Metternich’s policy came to the king’s rescue A French army moved into Spain, forcing the revolutionary government to flee The king was restored to the throne 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 32

33 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe
After 1815, reactionary forces were particularly successful Metternich played important role “I keep an eye on everything. My contacts are such that nothing escapes me.” Liberalism and nationalism both emerged in German states and Austrian empire; but, they were initially weak throughout Central Europe Central Europe tended to remain dominated by landed aristocracy and autocratic, centralized monarchies 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 33

34 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe
The Congress of Vienna recognized 38 separate states of once Holy Roman Empire Austria and Prussia were largest All states were in the Germanic Confederation Had little power Had no executive Used by Metternich to repress revolutionary movements within German states 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 34

35 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe
Initially, Germans favored liberal reforms and some were started in Prussia—seen as a leader for change Some reforms were made under King Frederick William III, but they didn’t include a legislative assembly or representative government Frederick William grew more reactionary and fell in behind Metternich’s lead Prussia remained largely absolutist state with little interest in German unity 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 35

36 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central europe
Professors and students create liberal and national movements in German states Students organized Burschenschaften—student societies for free/united Germany Their motto, “Honor, Liberty, Fatherland” Views in part inspired by Friederich Ludwig Jahn Jahn organized societies encouraging followers to disrupt lectures of college professors if they did not conform to nationalistic concepts 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 36

37 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe
Burschenschaften pursues activities alarming German governments At Wartburg Castle, assembly honoring Luther, crowd burned conservative books Deranged student assassinated reactionary playwright Metternich had Germanic Confederation draw up the Karlsbad Decrees 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 37

38 Conservative Domination Repression in Central Europe
Karlsbad Decrees Closed the Burschenschaften Provided for press censorship Universities under supervision and control Metternich, along with German rulers, had again maintained the conservative status quo 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 38

39 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe
Austrian Empire was multinational state Held together by The Dynasty The Imperial Civil Service The Imperial Army The Catholic Church National groups continued to attempt its breakup 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 John 3:16 John 3:16 39

40 Repression in Central Europe
Metternich continued to hold things together To him, the big concerns remained liberalism and nationalism These concepts could tear an empire apart A national group believing it had the right to its own government would be disastrous to an empire 4/12/2017 John 3:16

41 Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars
Beginning of 19th century, Russia was initially agrarian, rural, and autocratic The Tsar, Alexander I, still regarded as divine monarch But raised on enlightenment ideas Made some reforms Refused to grant a constitution or free serfs Defeat of Napoleon caused him to become a reactionary—return to central monarchy 4/12/2017 John 3:16

42 Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars
Soon, groups apposed Alexander The Northern Union was aware of outside changes Alexander’s sudden death offered opportunity Northern Union revolted against the accession of Nicholas (son) to the throne but were defeated by loyalist troops The revolt changed Nicholas from conservative to reactionary, strengthening secret police and increasing bureaucracy 4/12/2017 John 3:16

43 Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars
Nicholas affirmed there would be no revolutions in Europe under his watch Called the Policeman of Europe Willingly sent troops anywhere to crush rebellions 4/12/2017 John 3:16

44 The Ideologies of Change
Conservative forces were in ascendancy 1815 to 1830 Also, new movements of political philosophies and came into their own the first half of 19th century 4/12/2017 John 3:16

45 Liberalism Liberalism grew out of The Enlightenment
American Revolution French Revolution Industrial Revolution 4/12/2017 John 3:16

46 Liberalism It added even more vigor from the Industrial Revolution which fostered the absolute belief in the freedom from restraint Industrial middle class largely adopted the policy as its own 4/12/2017 John 3:16

47 Economic liberalism Also called classical economics
Primary tenet: laissez-faire, the state should not interrupt free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand 4/12/2017 John 3:16

48 Economic Liberalism Government has three functions only
Defense of the country Police protection of the individual Construction and maintenance of public works too expensive for individuals to undertake Maximum economic freedom brings about the greatest good to the greatest number of people 4/12/2017 John 3:16

49 Economic Liberalism The case against government interference enhanced by Thomas Malthus Wrote, “Essay on the Principles of Population” Unchecked population increases at fast rate while food supply increases at slow rate causing untold harm/starvation Nature imposes restraints to slow population, e.g. poverty, exposure to seasons, unwholesome occupations, epidemics, plagues, etc. No government should interfere with this natural process 4/12/2017 John 3:16

50 Economic Liberalism David Ricardo further developed Malthus ideas
Wrote, “Principles of Political Economy” Population increases More workers Wages fall Misery and starvation Population is reduced Wages climb, workers have more kids, the cycle repeats 4/12/2017 John 3:16

51 Political Liberalism Political liberals held common beliefs
Protection of basic rights Equality before the law for all people Freedom of assembly, speech, and press Freedom from arbitrary arrest Freedom to be guaranteed by document Religious toleration, but separation of church and state (no state religion) 4/12/2017 John 3:16

52 Political Liberalism Political liberalism…
Right of peaceful opposition to government Representative government Many believed in constitutional monarchy or constitutional state with limited government powers Kings ministers responsible to legislature rather than king—legislative check on the executive 4/12/2017 John 3:16

53 Political Liberalism Political Liberalism… Right to vote
Right to hold office for men Voting and office holding tied to property qualifications Voting and office holding also tied to middle class industrial men 4/12/2017 John 3:16

54 Political Liberalism John Stuart Mill Advocate of political liberalism
Wrote, “On Liberty”, classic statement on liberty of the individual “Absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects” needed to be protected Need to be protected from government censorship and tyranny of the majority 4/12/2017 John 3:16

55 Political Liberalism Mill became enthusiastic supporter of women’s rights Wrote, “On the Subjection of Women” with his wife, Harriet Taylor Differences between men and women not due to natures but due to different social practices Women need equal education 4/12/2017 John 3:16

56 Nationalism Nationalism is being a part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs Constitutes a nation The nation, rather than dynasty, city-state, or political unit, becomes focus of individuals’ primary political loyalty 4/12/2017 John 3:16

57 Nationalism Didn’t become popular until French Revolution
Each nationality should have own government Divided people such as Germans wanted their own nation Threatened to upset the political order United Germany or Italy would upset the peace set in 1815 Independent Hungarian state would end Austrian Empire 4/12/2017 John 3:16

58 Nationalism Because many European states were multinational, they tried to repress nationalism First half of 19th century, nationalism and liberalism became allies Liberty could be realized only by people ruling themselves Nations could be linked together in broad community 4/12/2017 John 3:16

59 Early Socialism Early socialism was introduced by theorists and intellectuals Wanted to introduce equality into social conditions Believed human cooperation was superior to competition Pitiful slums, mines, factories gave rise to the thought process Later, Marxists would label such theorists as utopian socialists 4/12/2017 John 3:16

60 Early Socialists Utopian socialists were against private property and competitive spirit Elimination of these things would produce better environment They proposed a variety of ways to accomplish this task 4/12/2017 John 3:16

61 Fourier Charles Fourier proposed creation of small model communities
Voluntary associations to demonstrate advantages of cooperative living Called Phalansteries Live and work together for mutual benefit 4/12/2017 John 3:16

62 Owen Robert Owen, manufacturer, also believed in communal living
Believed humans would demonstrate true natural goodness in communal environment Community failed due to bickering Frances Wright, disciple of Owens, also started a “model” community 4/12/2017 John 3:16

63 Blanc Frenchman Louis Blanc Wrote, “The Organization of Work”
Social problems can be solved by government assistance Denounced competition as main cause of problems Called for workshops to manufacturer goods for public sale State financed workshops—owned by individuals 4/12/2017 John 3:16

64 Female Supporters Women attracted to the idea of restructuring society for more equality between the sexes Zoe Gatti de Gamond established phalanstery—providing men and women with same education and job opportunities Called for men and women to share child care and house cleaning chores Combination of Christian values, scientific thought, and social utopianism 4/12/2017 John 3:16

65 Tristan Flora Tristan attempted to foster “utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism” Preached the liberation of women Her “Worker’s Union” advocated Fourier’s ideas to reconstruct both family and work The only way to free society and change civilization 4/12/2017 John 3:16

66 Tristan She and others established basis for attacking capitalism
First half of 19th century, socialism remained a fringe movement Overshadowed by liberalism and nationalism 4/12/2017 John 3:16

67 Revolution and Reform 1830-1850
Forces of change begin in Conservatism of Europe begins to break. Liberals and Nationalists begin to see possibility of breakthrough 4/12/2017 John 3:16

68 Another French Revolution
Elections of 1830 produced more success for liberals Charles X decided to seize the initiative before elections Issues edicts known as the July Ordinances Imposed rigid censorship on press Dissolved legislative assembly Reduced electorate preparation 4/12/2017 John 3:16

69 Another French Revolution
Charles actions produced the July Revolution Provisional government established Led by moderate, propertied liberals Appealed to Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, cousin of Charles X, to become constitutional king of France Charles fled to Great Britain 4/12/2017 John 3:16

70 Another French Revolution
Louis-Philippe called the bourgeois monarch Support came from upper middle class Dressed like them Industrial Revolution at this time fostered sporadic economic crises, unemployment, and poor working conditions Worker unrest and outbursts of violence 4/12/2017 John 3:16

71 Another French Revolution
Louis-Philippe and Francois Guizot of the Party of Resistance joined in agreement that the perfect government had been reached Suppressed the concept of ministerial responsibility 4/12/2017 John 3:16

72 Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy
Nationalism was the force behind three outbursts in 1830 When Congress of Vienna tried to add Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) to the Dutch, the Belgiums rose up to fight the transfer and were supported A constitutional monarchy was established for the new independent state 4/12/2017 John 3:16

73 Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy
Both Poland and Italy tried to do what Belgium had done, but were defeated Metternich sent Austrian troops to crush revolts in three Italian states In Poland, the Russians crushed attempts at freedom 4/12/2017 John 3:16

74 Reform in Great Britain
New election brought Whigs to power July Revolution in France fresh in British minds Industrial Revolution produced new, and expanding group of industrial leaders Resented corrupt political system and lack of power Whigs realized concessions were better than the revolution and granted them The Reform Act of 1832 was passed 4/12/2017 John 3:16

75 The Reform Act of 1832 Gave recognition to the Industrial Revolution
Reapportionment of towns, buroughs, and cities resulted in urban communities having more voice in government The property qualification to vote still retained Number of voters roughly doubled Not a huge change in Parliament Benefit mostly to upper middle class 4/12/2017 John 3:16

76 The Reform Act of 1832 The lower middle class, artisans, and industrial workers still had no vote Significantly, however, the industrial middle class had been joined to the landed interests in ruling Britain 4/12/2017 John 3:16

77 New Reform Legislation
Much reform in 1830s and 1840s Many reforms focused on abuses of Industrial Revolution Aristocratic landowners usually pushed for reform in industry Industrialists and manufacturers favored economic liberalism—they pushed back 4/12/2017 John 3:16

78 New Reform Legislation
The Poor Law of 1834 Giving aid to poor and unemployed would encourage laziness and increase paupers Poor crowded into workhouses where living conditions were intentionally miserable so people could be encouraged to find employment 4/12/2017 John 3:16

79 New Reform Legislation
Repeal of the Corn Laws (high tariffs on foreign grain)…more liberal legislation Effort by industrialists Cobden and Bright Formed Anti-corn League in 1838 To help workers by lowering bread prices Real repeal came when Robert Peel, Torie Leader, convinced associates to support free trade and abandon Corn Laws 4/12/2017 John 3:16

80 New Reform Legislation
The Reform Act of 1832 and the repeal of the Corn Laws satisfied Britain at this time On the continent, however, revolutionary forces driven by liberalism and nationalism were looming 4/12/2017 John 3:16

81 The Revolutions of 1848 Liberalism and nationalism begin to make inroads to conservatism in Europe through the revolutions of 1848 Again, a revolution in France was a spark for more revolutions 4/12/2017 John 3:16

82 Yet Another French Revolution
Severe depression in France sparked revolutionary thoughts and actions Scandals, graft, and corruption angered citizens Louis-Philippe government refused changes Law forbade political rallies but political banquets were held instead Philippe abdicated and went to Britain 4/12/2017 John 3:16

83 Yet Another French Revolution
A provisional government was established Moderate and radical republicans Included socialist Louis Blanc The assembly was to be elected by universal manhood suffrage 4/12/2017 John 3:16

84 Yet Another French Revolution
Blanc established national workshops as cooperative factories run by workers Jobs were mostly leaf raking and ditch digging Became burdensome on government The number in the workshops grew from 10,000 to 120,000, empting the treasury and scaring the moderates 4/12/2017 John 3:16

85 Yet Another French Revolution
Moderates responded to the workshop “overload” by closing them Workers wouldn’t accept this decision and began working-class revolt Revolt was crushed Four days of fighting Thousands killed Four thousand prisoners deported to Algeria in North Africa 4/12/2017 John 3:16

86 Yet Another French Revolution
New constitution established a republic Unicameral legislature Elected by universal male suffrage The new president was Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Destined to become emperor Napoleon 4/12/2017 John 3:16

87 Revolution in the Germanic States
The Paris revolution caused many German rulers to propose changes In Prussia, concessions were made to appease revolutionaries King Frederick William IV agreed to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany The “united Germany” promise led to an all-German parliament to meet in Frankfurt 4/12/2017 John 3:16

88 Revolution in the Germanic States
The Frankfurt Assembly was dominated by well-educated, highly articulate men Nationalism was on their minds and they were ahead of the times when compared to their governments There ensued a debate about establishing a “Big Germany” or “Small Germany” The assembly disbanded, unable to agree on a German state 4/12/2017 John 3:16

89 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire
Paris revolution encouraged upheavals in Austria The Hungarian liberals were willing to keep the Hapsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature Demonstrations in Buda, Prague, and Vienna led to Metternich’s dismissal who fled abroad Hungary received its own legislature, separate national army, and control of its foreign policy and budget 4/12/2017 John 3:16

90 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire
For Hungary, allegiance to Habsburg dynasty was its only tie to the Austrian Empire In Bohemia, the Czechs began to demand their own government as well 4/12/2017 John 3:16

91 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire
Emperor Ferdinand I had made concessions but waited for chance to take back control Conservative were please with division, as in the German states, between moderates and radicals Conservative were heartened when a Czech revolt was put down in Prague Viennese rebels were later crushed as well 4/12/2017 John 3:16

92 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire
Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of Francis Joseph I, his nephew Worked to restore the imperial government in Hungary Only with the aid of the Russians and 140,000 men was Joseph able to defeat the Hungarian revolution Revolutions in Austria also failed—numerous nationalities were still subject to Austrian rule 4/12/2017 John 3:16

93 Revolts in the Italian States
Italy failures in encouraged unification in a new direction The leadership of Italy’s risorgimento (resurgence) was passed to Giuseppe Mazzini, a dedicated Italian nationalist Founded organization known as Young Italy 4/12/2017 John 3:16

94 Revolts in the Italian States
Young Italy’s goal was unified Italy Mazzini wrote, “The Duties of Man” Urged Italians to dedicate their lives to united Italy Women also took up Mazzini’s call Cristina Belgioioso started newspaper espousing the Italian cause 4/12/2017 John 3:16

95 Revolts in the Italian States
Mazzini’s and Belgioioso’s vision was almost fulfilled except Italian states rose in revolt Ruler after ruler granted constitution to its people Conterrevolutionary forces also prevalied throughout Italy French helped Pope Pius IX regain control of Rome Only Piedmont kept a liberal constitution 4/12/2017 John 3:16

96 The Failures of 1848 Throughout Europe in 1848, popular revolts led to liberal constitutions and liberal governments But early successes led to disasters later, why? #1: Divisions soon shattered the ranks of the revolutionaries Liberals and propertied classes failed to extend suffrage to the working class Liberals rallied to the ruling class fearing social revolution of the working classes—loss of property and security 4/12/2017 John 3:16

97 The Failures of 1848 #2: Second reason for failures was disagreement and infighting among nationalities Hungarian demanded autonomy from Austrians, but refused it for the Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs 4/12/2017 John 3:16

98 The Maturing of the United States
The U.S. Constitution committed the United States to liberalism and nationalism Initially, there were divisions over the federal government and states rights Bitter conflict between Federalists and the Republicans 4/12/2017 John 3:16

99 The Maturing of the United States
Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists Favored financial program that would establish a strong central government Pro British Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the Republicans Feared centralization and its consequences for popular liberties Pro French 4/12/2017 John 3:16

100 The Maturing of the United States
National unity also came form the Supreme Court led by John Marshall Made it into important national institution Curbed the actions of states courts and legislatures Andrew Jackson opened the era of mass democracy Property qualifications dropped Most males had suffrage 4/12/2017 John 3:16

101 The Maturing of the United States
The traditional belief in the improvement of human beings was also given expression Andrew Jackson 4/12/2017 John 3:16

102 The Emergence of an Ordered Society
Revolutionary upheavals made rulers nervous in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Crowding of more people into urban areas cause problems and concerns. Many feared urban poor posed threat to possessions and security. New police forces appeared to keep order. 4/12/2017 John 3:16

103 The Police Forces In 19th century, Europe developed systematic police force Well-trained law enforcement officers Maintain domestic order That the “force’ was there to protect people made them acceptable 4/12/2017 John 3:16

104 French Police In March 1829, the new police, known as the serjents, became visible in Paris streets Blue uniform Lightly armed with white cane (day) and saber (night) 4/12/2017 John 3:16

105 British Bobbies British, fearful of secret police, resisted police for a while Depended on unpaid constables for a while Didn’t worked Professional force needed Sir Robert Peel introduced “bobbies”, named after him 4/12/2017 John 3:16

106 Spread of Police Systems
German police force called the Schutzmannschaft, modeled after London police More military in design “a German policeman on patrol is armed as if for war” 4/12/2017 John 3:16

107 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem
Some people believed crime was directly related to unemployment Europeans created poor laws and workhouses for unemployed people who they thought were lazy. Workhouses were not places people wanted to be—designed purposely that way 4/12/2017 John 3:16

108 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem
Many thought the crime problem was due to moral degeneracy of the lower classes Labeled “dangerous classes” Perceived threat to the middle class Group of secular reformers began to instruct lower classes in applied sciences to make them productive members of society 4/12/2017 John 3:16

109 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem
The London Mechanics Institute was one example of an organization that helped “dangerous classes” Organized religion took yet another approach Evangelicals set up Sunday schools to improve morals Protestants established nurseries for orphans and homeless children 4/12/2017 John 3:16

110 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem
The Catholic Church attempted good works through religious orders; dedicated priest and nuns used spiritual instruction and recreation to turn young male workers away from moral vices. Female workers instructed away from lives of prostitution 4/12/2017 John 3:16

111 Prison Reform Increase in crime led to more arrests
Too much use of capital punishment seen as ineffective Capital punishment replaced by imprisonment British sent serious offenders to colonial Australia Practiced slowed with complaints from colonists Reformers began to look for alternatives to humiliating work 4/12/2017 John 3:16

112 Prison Reform British and French sent missions to the United States to examine the U.S. prison system At Walnut Street Prison, prisoners were separated into individual cells Both French and British constructed prisons to the Walnut Street model Prisoners wore leather masks and sat in separate stalls in chapel 4/12/2017 John 3:16

113 Prison Reform Solitary confinement was seen as a means for prisoners to reflect on own conscience and become more accepting of chaplain counseling Prison reform and police forces were geared toward the creation of a more disciplined society Discontent had been fostered by the societal changes brought about through industrialization and urbanization 4/12/2017 John 3:16

114 Culture in the Age of Reaction and Revolution: The Mood of Romanticism
At the end of the 18th century, Romanticism challenges the Enlightenment’s preoccupation with discovering truth. Romantics tried to balance reason with intuition, feeling, emotion, and imagination 4/12/2017 John 3:16

115 The Characteristics of Romanticism
Romantic writers emphasized emotion, sentiment, and inner feelings The Sorrows of the Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, romantic model Werther sought freedom to fulfill himself Misunderstood and rejected by society, he still believed in his own worth through inner feelings Rejected by a girl he loved, he committed suicide 4/12/2017 John 3:16

116 The Characteristics of Romanticism
Important characteristic of Romanticism was individualism Interest in unique traits of each individual Following inner drives led romantics to rebel against middle-class conventions Long hair, beards, outrageous clothes reinforced individualism (“shades” of the 60s) 4/12/2017 John 3:16

117 The Characteristics of Romanticism
Sentiment and individualism came together as a stress for the heroic Solitary genius ready to defy the world Thomas Carlyle wrote of heroes who did not destroy themselves but transformed society for the better 4/12/2017 John 3:16

118 The Characteristics of Romanticism
Many Romantics had passionate interest in the past In Germany, the Grimm brothers collected and published fairy tales Hans Christian Anderson in Denmark (ditto) Literature reflected historic consciousness Novels of Walter Scott—Ivanhoe—clash between Saxon and Norman knights 4/12/2017 John 3:16

119 The Characteristics of Romanticism
Gothic literature can be added to the bizarre and unusual, including chilling short stories Edgar Allan Poe Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Romantics sought unusual experiences in their lives Pursuing states of experience in dreams, nightmares, frenzies, etc., and experimenting with cocaine, opium, and hashish to produce altered states of consciousness 4/12/2017 John 3:16

120 Romantic Poets Romantics ranked poetry highest literary form—saw it as expression of the soul Romantic poets viewed as seers who revealed invisible world to others Many living intense, but short lives Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote Prometheus Unbound –a revolt of against laws and customs Died by drowning in Mediterranean Sea 4/12/2017 John 3:16

121 Romantic Poets Lord Byron
Dramatized himself as the melancholy Romantic hero described in his work, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage Participated in the movement for Greek independence and died fighting the Ottomans 4/12/2017 John 3:16

122 Love of Nature Romantic poets gave full expression to love of nature
William Wordsworth Nature contained a mysterious face the poet could perceive and learn from Nature was alive and sacred Nature was a mirror in which humans could learn about themselves 4/12/2017 John 3:16

123 Love of Nature Other Romantics carried this worship of nature further into pantheism by identifying the great force in nature with God Romantics would not recognize the deist God of the Enlightenment German Romantic poet, Friedrich Novalis, wrote, “Anyone seeking God will find Him anywhere.” 4/12/2017 John 3:16

124 Critique of Science The Romantics believed science reduced nature to a cold object of study To Wordsworth, the poet who left the world “one single moral precept, one single affecting sentiment,” did more for the world than scientists who were soon forgotten The Frankenstein monster symbolized the danger of science trying to conquer nature 4/12/2017 John 3:16

125 Romanticism in Art Visual art were deeply affected by Romanticism
Romantic artists shared two characteristics Artistic expression (e.g. painting) was a reflection of the artist’s inner feelings--his own imagination The principles of Classicism were rejected Beauty not timeless—depended on one’s culture and age Abandoned classical restraint for warmth, emotion, and movement 4/12/2017 John 3:16

126 Friedrich German painter Casper David Friedrich had life experiences that guided him to preoccupation with God and nature Mountains shrouded in mist, gnarled trees bathed in moonlight, etc., conveyed mystery and mysticism Nature was a manifestation of divine life Look to your inner vision—”Shut your physical eye and look first at your picture with your spiritual eye…” 4/12/2017 John 3:16

127 Turner Englishman Joseph Malford William Turner
Twenty thousand paintings, drawings, watercolors Concern with nature—innumerable landscapes, seascapes, sunrises, and sunsets Did not produce nature accurately—conveyed natures mood using skilled interplay of light and color to suggest natural effects Objects melt into surroundings 4/12/2017 John 3:16

128 Delacroix Eugene Delacroix was the most famous French romantic artist
Largely self-taught Fascinated with the exotic and had passion for color The Death of Sardanapalus—portrayal of last Assyrian king Theatrically and movement with daring use of color “a painting should be a feast to the eye” 4/12/2017 John 3:16

129 Romanticism in Music To many Romantics, music was the most Romantic of the arts because it enabled the composer to probe deeply into human emotions …’the awakening of emotion” Eighteenth century: Classicism Nineteenth century: Romanticism Ludwig van Beethoven served as bridge between both Classicism and Romanticism 4/12/2017 John 3:16

130 Beethoven One of few composers to singlehandedly transform the art of music ( ) Ablaze by events in France Yearned to communicate his cherished beliefs “I must write, for what weighs on my heart, I must express” Music had to express his deepest inner feelings 4/12/2017 John 3:16

131 Beethoven Born in Bonn, came from family of musicians
Reflected the influence of Haydn and Mozart Wrote from largely Classical framework Wrote Eroica—originally intended for Napoleon Broke through to elements of Romanticism “opens flood gates of fear, of terror….” 4/12/2017 John 3:16

132 Beethoven Chorale finale of Ninth Symphony, most moving of pieces, composed when he was totally deaf 4/12/2017 John 3:16

133 Berlioz Frenchman Hector Berlioz composed in Romantic style
One of founders of program music—usiing the moods and sound effects of music to depict the actions and emotions in a story Symphonie Fantastique – complete program symphony—invoking passionate emotions of tortured love affair 4/12/2017 John 3:16

134 The Revival of Religion in the Age of Romanticism
After 1815, Christianity experienced a revival Catholicism had lost its attraction with educated elites as they flirted with the Enlightenment in 18th century Restoration of nobility brought new appreciation for Catholic faith as force for order Force was greatly reinforced by Romantic movement Attraction of Romantics to Middle Ages, emotion, etc. 4/12/2017 John 3:16

135 Catholicism Romantic period benefitted Catholicism
Many conversions to Catholic faith Frenchman Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand wrote, Genius of Christianity Defense of Catholicism based on Romantic sentiment “You could not enter a Gothic church without feeling a kind of awe and vague sentiment of the Divinity” 4/12/2017 John 3:16

136 Protestantism Protestantism experienced revival The “awakening”
Evangelical preachers and messages Sin and redemption central to message Hellfire and emotional conversion 4/12/2017 John 3:16

137 Conclusion In 1815, a conservative message spread throughout Europe
Embodied in the Concert of Europe Ideologies of nationalism and liberalism unleashed by the French Revolution and as spread through the Industrial Revolution were alive and active 4/12/2017 John 3:16

138 Conclusion There were many failed revolutions
Poland, Russia, Italy, and Germany There were some successes Reforms in Britain, and successful revolutions in Greece, France, and Belgium In 1848, revolutions again failed, but the idealistic liberals and nationalists knew their time was at hand 4/12/2017 John 3:16


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