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4/25/2015 1John 3:16 AP European History Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815-1850 Response to the defeat of Napoleon Response to the.

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Presentation on theme: "4/25/2015 1John 3:16 AP European History Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, 1815-1850 Response to the defeat of Napoleon Response to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/25/2015 1John 3:16 AP European History Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and Romanticism, Response to the defeat of Napoleon Response to the defeat of Napoleon Desire to contain revolution and revolutionary forces Desire to contain revolution and revolutionary forces How? Restore much of the old order How? Restore much of the old order 4/25/2015 1John 3:16

2 4/25/2015 2John 3:16 The Peace Settlement Four major enemies of Napoleon agree to remain united: to defeat Napoleon and keep the peace Four major enemies of Napoleon agree to remain united: to defeat Napoleon and keep the peace Great Britain Great Britain Austria Austria Prussia Prussia Russia Russia 4/25/2015 2John 3:16

3 4/25/2015 3John 3:16 The Peace Settlement The Alliance The Alliance Restored the Bourbon Dynasty to France Restored the Bourbon Dynasty to France Louis XVIII Louis XVIII Agreed to meet in Vienna in September, 1814 Agreed to meet in Vienna in September, 1814 Leader of the Congress of Vienna: Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich Leader of the Congress of Vienna: Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich 4/25/2015 3John 3:16

4 4/25/2015 4John 3:16 The Peace Settlement Klemens von Mitternich Klemens von Mitternich Experienced diplomat Experienced diplomat Conceited and self-assured Conceited and self-assured “I am always above and beyond the preoccupation of most public men; I cover ground much faster than they can they are” see…how right I am and how wrong “I am always above and beyond the preoccupation of most public men; I cover ground much faster than they can they are” see…how right I am and how wrong 4/25/2015 4John 3:16

5 4/25/2015 5John 3:16 The Principle of Legitimacy Mitternich guided by the principle of legitimacy at Vienna Mitternich guided by the principle of legitimacy at Vienna For peace and stability For peace and stability Restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutions Restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutions Bourbons of France and Spain Bourbons of France and Spain Italian states-several legitimate rulers returned Italian states-several legitimate rulers returned 4/25/2015 5John 3:16

6 4/25/2015 6John 3:16 The Principle of Legitimacy At other locations, however, practicality, not legitimacy, took precedence At other locations, however, practicality, not legitimacy, took precedence The Congress’s treatment of Poland The Congress’s treatment of Poland Russia, Prussia, and Austria all laid claim Russia, Prussia, and Austria all laid claim Prussia and Austria allowed to keep some Polish territory Prussia and Austria allowed to keep some Polish territory Nominally independent Polish kingdom established Nominally independent Polish kingdom established 4/25/2015 6John 3:16

7 4/25/2015 7John 3:16 The Principle of Legitimacy Poland is placed under Russian Romanov Dynasty Poland is placed under Russian Romanov Dynasty Poland’s guaranteed “independence” Poland’s guaranteed “independence” The Kingdom’s foreign policy and kingdom itself remained under Russian control The Kingdom’s foreign policy and kingdom itself remained under Russian control Prussia and Austria compensated for previous losses by receiving Saxony and Italian provinces, respectively Prussia and Austria compensated for previous losses by receiving Saxony and Italian provinces, respectively 4/25/2015 7John 3:16

8 4/25/2015 8John 3:16 A New Balance of Power Diplomats believed they were forming a new balance of power Diplomats believed they were forming a new balance of power Trying to prevent any power from controlling others Trying to prevent any power from controlling others Prussia and Austria were strengthened Prussia and Austria were strengthened But France still remained a strong power But France still remained a strong power 4/25/2015 8John 3:16

9 4/25/2015 9John 3:16 A New Balance of Power Concerns about France fostered barriers created by Congress of Vienna Concerns about France fostered barriers created by Congress of Vienna To the north, a new enlarged kingdom of the Netherlands To the north, a new enlarged kingdom of the Netherlands King William I of the House of Orange King William I of the House of Orange To the south, Piedmont was enlarged To the south, Piedmont was enlarged Prussia was strengthened…given territory along East bank of Rhine Prussia was strengthened…given territory along East bank of Rhine The Germanic Confederation replaced the Napoleonic Confederation The Germanic Confederation replaced the Napoleonic Confederation 4/25/2015 9John 3:16

10 4/25/ John 3:16 The Peace Settlement A New Balance of Power Napoleon returns form Elba to France for 100 days Napoleon returns form Elba to France for 100 days Didn’t disrupt the “Congress” Didn’t disrupt the “Congress” Congress punished French people for embracing Napoleon’s return—pushed borders back to 1790, forced to pay indemnity, and accept army occupation for 5 years Congress punished French people for embracing Napoleon’s return—pushed borders back to 1790, forced to pay indemnity, and accept army occupation for 5 years The Congress of Vienna’s orders resulted in no major conflict for almost a century The Congress of Vienna’s orders resulted in no major conflict for almost a century 4/25/ John 3:16

11 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideology of Conservatism The peace arrangements through the Congress of Vienna in 1815 The peace arrangements through the Congress of Vienna in 1815 Beginning of a conservation reaction Beginning of a conservation reaction Contain liberal and Nationalistic forces unleashed by French Revolution Contain liberal and Nationalistic forces unleashed by French Revolution Metternich represented the ideology known as conservatism Metternich represented the ideology known as conservatism 4/25/ John 3:16

12 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideology of Conservatism Conservatism dates from 1790, Edmund Burke Conservatism dates from 1790, Edmund Burke Wrote, Reflections on the Revolution in France Wrote, Reflections on the Revolution in France Reaction to French Revolution Reaction to French Revolution Against radical republican and democratic ideas Against radical republican and democratic ideas Burke maintained that society was a contract Burke maintained that society was a contract “The state ought not to be considered as nothing better than a partnership agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee…to be dissolved by the fancy of the parties” “The state ought not to be considered as nothing better than a partnership agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee…to be dissolved by the fancy of the parties” 4/25/ John 3:16

13 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideology of Conservatism Burke on conservatism… Burke on conservatism… State a partnership “between those who are living, those who are dead and those who are to be born” State a partnership “between those who are living, those who are dead and those who are to be born” No one generation has the right to destroy the partnership No one generation has the right to destroy the partnership Each generation has duty to preserve and transmit it to the next Each generation has duty to preserve and transmit it to the next Advised against overthrow of government Advised against overthrow of government Burke did not reject the possibility of change Burke did not reject the possibility of change Sudden change not good; gradual or revolutionary improvements good Sudden change not good; gradual or revolutionary improvements good 4/25/ John 3:16

14 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideology of Conservatism The Frenchman Joseph de Maistre had other form of conservatism The Frenchman Joseph de Maistre had other form of conservatism Authoritarian conservatism Authoritarian conservatism Espoused restoration of monarchy system Espoused restoration of monarchy system Best for guaranteeing order in society Best for guaranteeing order in society Most conservatives held a body of basic beliefs Most conservatives held a body of basic beliefs 4/25/ John 3:16

15 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideology of Conservatism Fundamental beliefs… Fundamental beliefs… Obedience to political authority Obedience to political authority Organized religion is crucial to society Organized religion is crucial to society Dislike of revolutionary upheavals Dislike of revolutionary upheavals Unwilling to accept either liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or nationalistic aspirations generated by the French revolution era Unwilling to accept either liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or nationalistic aspirations generated by the French revolution era 4/25/ John 3:16

16 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideology of Conservatism Conservatism principles…more Conservatism principles…more Community took precedence over individual rights Community took precedence over individual rights Society must be organized and ordered Society must be organized and ordered Tradition remained best guide for order Tradition remained best guide for order Conservatism supported by monarchs, government bureaucracies, landowning aristocracies, and revived churches Conservatism supported by monarchs, government bureaucracies, landowning aristocracies, and revived churches Conservatism dominant after 1815 both domestically and internationally Conservatism dominant after 1815 both domestically and internationally 4/25/ John 3:16

17 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe European powers feared revolution and war leading to Concert of Europe European powers feared revolution and war leading to Concert of Europe An accord that grew out of Quadruple Alliance in November of 1815 An accord that grew out of Quadruple Alliance in November of 1815 Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed to meet to prevent return of Bonapartist power Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agreed to meet to prevent return of Bonapartist power Four conferences held 1818 to 1822: agreed to withdraw troops from France and add to Concert of Europe Four conferences held 1818 to 1822: agreed to withdraw troops from France and add to Concert of Europe 4/25/ John 3:16

18 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe Congress met to address three upheavals Congress met to address three upheavals Spain: against Ferdinand VII Spain: against Ferdinand VII Italy: against Ferdinand I Italy: against Ferdinand I King of Naples and Sicily King of Naples and Sicily Metternich was particularly disturbed by the revolts in Italy—saw them as threat to Austrian’s domination of peninsula Metternich was particularly disturbed by the revolts in Italy—saw them as threat to Austrian’s domination of peninsula 4/25/ John 3:16

19 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe: The Principle of Intervention At Troppau, he called for principle of intervention At Troppau, he called for principle of intervention The Alliance member states can take military to restore former monarchies to the throne The Alliance member states can take military to restore former monarchies to the throne Britain refused, saying they didn’t believe in interfering in the internal affairs of other nations, except in France Britain refused, saying they didn’t believe in interfering in the internal affairs of other nations, except in France Austria, Russia, and Prussia moved forces to restore both monarchs Austria, Russia, and Prussia moved forces to restore both monarchs The victories came with a price as Britain opted out of the Concert of Europe The victories came with a price as Britain opted out of the Concert of Europe Britain did keep the Continental powers from interfering with the revolutions in Latin America Britain did keep the Continental powers from interfering with the revolutions in Latin America 4/25/ John 3:16

20 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe: The Revolt in Latin America Napoleon’s wars impacted Latin America Napoleon’s wars impacted Latin America Spanish authority weakened in colonies Spanish authority weakened in colonies Argentina won independence Argentina won independence Simon Bolivar led independence of Venezuela and Columbia Simon Bolivar led independence of Venezuela and Columbia Jose de San Martin freed Chile, Argentina, and Peru Jose de San Martin freed Chile, Argentina, and Peru Mexico and Central Provinces followed Mexico and Central Provinces followed Portugal recognized Brazil’s independence by 1825 Portugal recognized Brazil’s independence by /25/ John 3:16

21 4/25/ John 3:16 The Concert in Europe: The Revolt in Latin America The Continental powers favored using troops to restore Spanish control The Continental powers favored using troops to restore Spanish control James Monroe, the President of the U.S., issued the Monroe Doctrine warning European powers not to intervene in New World affairs James Monroe, the President of the U.S., issued the Monroe Doctrine warning European powers not to intervene in New World affairs Although acting alone, the British navy was the more threatening deterrent. European powers were no match for British naval power Although acting alone, the British navy was the more threatening deterrent. European powers were no match for British naval power 4/25/ John 3:16

22 4/25/ John 3:16 The Concert In Europe: The Revolt in Latin America The Latin American countries were now dominated more by the British The Latin American countries were now dominated more by the British Raw materials and foodstuffs flowed out of Latin America and industrial goods flowed in Raw materials and foodstuffs flowed out of Latin America and industrial goods flowed in The outgoing and incoming flows insured the domination of Latin America by foreigners The outgoing and incoming flows insured the domination of Latin America by foreigners 4/25/ John 3:16

23 4/25/ John 3:16 The Concert of Europe: The Greek Revolt In 1821, the Greeks revolted against their Ottoman Turk masters In 1821, the Greeks revolted against their Ottoman Turk masters The Greeks had been dominated for 400 years The Greeks had been dominated for 400 years The Muslim Ottomans had permitted Greek religious orthodoxy The Muslim Ottomans had permitted Greek religious orthodoxy Revival of Greek nationalistic sentiment beginning 19 th century sparked desire for freedom from the “terrible yoke of Turkish oppression” Revival of Greek nationalistic sentiment beginning 19 th century sparked desire for freedom from the “terrible yoke of Turkish oppression” Continental powers come to the aid of the Greeks Continental powers come to the aid of the Greeks 4/25/ John 3:16

24 4/25/ John 3:16 The Concert of Europe: The Greek Revolt Continental powers help Greece Continental powers help Greece France and Britain send ships and defeat Turkish armada France and Britain send ships and defeat Turkish armada Russia declares war on Ottomans and secures two provinces Russia declares war on Ottomans and secures two provinces Treaty of Adrianople: Russia, France and Britain given authority to decide fate of Greece and declare Greece an independent kingdom Treaty of Adrianople: Russia, France and Britain given authority to decide fate of Greece and declare Greece an independent kingdom Greek revolt the only successful revolt until 1830; thus conservative domination still intact Greek revolt the only successful revolt until 1830; thus conservative domination still intact 4/25/ John 3:16

25 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: The European States: Great Britain: Rule of the Tories Between 1815 and 1830, domestic policies reflected conservative domination Between 1815 and 1830, domestic policies reflected conservative domination In Great Britain, Parliament was still controlled by landed gentry and the king could do little. In Great Britain, Parliament was still controlled by landed gentry and the king could do little. Tories were the ruling party made of landed gentry Tories were the ruling party made of landed gentry Whigs were beginning to gain through new industrial growth Whigs were beginning to gain through new industrial growth 4/25/ John 3:16

26 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Great Britain: Rule of the Tories Popular discontent grew in Britain due to economic problems Popular discontent grew in Britain due to economic problems Tory government responded to falling agricultural prices with the Corn Law of 1815 Tory government responded to falling agricultural prices with the Corn Law of 1815 Placed high tariffs on foreign grain Placed high tariffs on foreign grain This was good for landowners but terrible for working classes due to high prices of bread This was good for landowners but terrible for working classes due to high prices of bread Mass protests ensued. Eleven were killed by troops at the Peterloo Massacre Mass protests ensued. Eleven were killed by troops at the Peterloo Massacre Government invoked even tougher restrictions Government invoked even tougher restrictions Tories avoided demands for reforms Tories avoided demands for reforms 4/25/ John 3:16

27 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Restoration in France Bourbon Family restored to France under King Louis XVIII. Bourbon Family restored to France under King Louis XVIII. Louis recognized need for change brought by revolutionaries and Napoleonic era Louis recognized need for change brought by revolutionaries and Napoleonic era Accepted Napoleon’s Civil Code Accepted Napoleon’s Civil Code Property right preserved Property right preserved Bicameral legislature established Bicameral legislature established Chamber of Peers chosen by king Chamber of Peers chosen by king Chamber of Deputies chosen by 100,000 wealthy people Chamber of Deputies chosen by 100,000 wealthy people 4/25/ John 3:16

28 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Restoration in France Louis’ moderation opposed by liberals eager to extend revolutionary reforms and by ultraroyalists Louis’ moderation opposed by liberals eager to extend revolutionary reforms and by ultraroyalists Ultraroyalists criticized king for keeping so many of Napoleon’s policies Ultraroyalists criticized king for keeping so many of Napoleon’s policies “Ultras” hoped to return to monarchy with landed aristocracy and an influential Catholic Church “Ultras” hoped to return to monarchy with landed aristocracy and an influential Catholic Church 4/25/ John 3:16

29 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination Restoration in France King Louis died and his brother Charles X took the position of the ultraroyalists King Louis died and his brother Charles X took the position of the ultraroyalists Granted indemnity to aristocrats for losing land during revolution Granted indemnity to aristocrats for losing land during revolution Passed laws encouraging Catholic Church to control education Passed laws encouraging Catholic Church to control education Public outrage called for “ministerial responsibility”—ministers of the king are responsible to the legislature Public outrage called for “ministerial responsibility”—ministers of the king are responsible to the legislature 4/25/ John 3:16

30 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Restoration in France Charles X violates his commitment to ministerial responsibility Charles X violates his commitment to ministerial responsibility Deputies protest Deputies protest Charles dissolves the legislature Charles dissolves the legislature France is on the brink of another revolution France is on the brink of another revolution 4/25/ John 3:16

31 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Intervention in the Italian States and Spain In Italy, the Congress of Vienna had establish nine states In Italy, the Congress of Vienna had establish nine states Much was under Austrian domination Much was under Austrian domination Governments extremely reactionary Governments extremely reactionary However, secret societies motivated by nationalistic dreams conspired However, secret societies motivated by nationalistic dreams conspired Chief among the secret societies was the Carbonari (charcoal burners) Chief among the secret societies was the Carbonari (charcoal burners) 4/25/ John 3:16

32 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Intervention in the Italian States and Spain In Spain, the Bourbon Dynasty had been restored in the person of Ferdinand VII in 1814 In Spain, the Bourbon Dynasty had been restored in the person of Ferdinand VII in 1814 Initially agreed to allow a parliament known as the Cortes Initially agreed to allow a parliament known as the Cortes He reneged and dissolved the Cortes causing a revolt. The king promised to restore the Cortes He reneged and dissolved the Cortes causing a revolt. The king promised to restore the Cortes Metternich’s policy came to the king’s rescue Metternich’s policy came to the king’s rescue A French army moved into Spain, forcing the revolutionary government to flee A French army moved into Spain, forcing the revolutionary government to flee The king was restored to the throne The king was restored to the throne 4/25/ John 3:16

33 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe After 1815, reactionary forces were particularly successful After 1815, reactionary forces were particularly successful Metternich played important role Metternich played important role “I keep an eye on everything. My contacts are such that nothing escapes me.” “I keep an eye on everything. My contacts are such that nothing escapes me.” Liberalism and nationalism both emerged in German states and Austrian empire; but, they were initially weak throughout Central Europe Liberalism and nationalism both emerged in German states and Austrian empire; but, they were initially weak throughout Central Europe Central Europe tended to remain dominated by landed aristocracy and autocratic, centralized monarchies Central Europe tended to remain dominated by landed aristocracy and autocratic, centralized monarchies 4/25/ John 3:16

34 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe The Congress of Vienna recognized 38 separate states of once Holy Roman Empire The Congress of Vienna recognized 38 separate states of once Holy Roman Empire Austria and Prussia were largest Austria and Prussia were largest All states were in the Germanic Confederation All states were in the Germanic Confederation Had little power Had little power Had no executive Had no executive Used by Metternich to repress revolutionary movements within German states Used by Metternich to repress revolutionary movements within German states 4/25/ John 3:16

35 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe Initially, Germans favored liberal reforms and some were started in Prussia—seen as a leader for change Initially, Germans favored liberal reforms and some were started in Prussia—seen as a leader for change Some reforms were made under King Frederick William III, but they didn’t include a legislative assembly or representative government Some reforms were made under King Frederick William III, but they didn’t include a legislative assembly or representative government Frederick William grew more reactionary and fell in behind Metternich’s lead Frederick William grew more reactionary and fell in behind Metternich’s lead Prussia remained largely absolutist state with little interest in German unity Prussia remained largely absolutist state with little interest in German unity 4/25/ John 3:16

36 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central europe Professors and students create liberal and national movements in German states Professors and students create liberal and national movements in German states Students organized Burschenschaften—student societies for free/united Germany Students organized Burschenschaften—student societies for free/united Germany Their motto, “Honor, Liberty, Fatherland” Their motto, “Honor, Liberty, Fatherland” Views in part inspired by Friederich Ludwig Jahn Views in part inspired by Friederich Ludwig Jahn Jahn organized societies encouraging followers to disrupt lectures of college professors if they did not conform to nationalistic concepts Jahn organized societies encouraging followers to disrupt lectures of college professors if they did not conform to nationalistic concepts 4/25/ John 3:16

37 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe Burschenschaften pursues activities alarming German governments Burschenschaften pursues activities alarming German governments At Wartburg Castle, assembly honoring Luther, crowd burned conservative books At Wartburg Castle, assembly honoring Luther, crowd burned conservative books Deranged student assassinated reactionary playwright Deranged student assassinated reactionary playwright Metternich had Germanic Confederation draw up the Karlsbad Decrees Metternich had Germanic Confederation draw up the Karlsbad Decrees 4/25/ John 3:16

38 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination Repression in Central Europe Karlsbad Decrees Karlsbad Decrees Closed the Burschenschaften Closed the Burschenschaften Provided for press censorship Provided for press censorship Universities under supervision and control Universities under supervision and control Metternich, along with German rulers, had again maintained the conservative status quo Metternich, along with German rulers, had again maintained the conservative status quo 4/25/ John 3:16

39 4/25/ John 3:16 Conservative Domination: Repression in Central Europe Austrian Empire was multinational state Austrian Empire was multinational state Held together by Held together by The Dynasty The Dynasty The Imperial Civil Service The Imperial Civil Service The Imperial Army The Imperial Army The Catholic Church The Catholic Church National groups continued to attempt its breakup National groups continued to attempt its breakup 4/25/ John 3:16

40 4/25/ John 3:16 Repression in Central Europe Metternich continued to hold things together To him, the big concerns remained liberalism and nationalism These concepts could tear an empire apart A national group believing it had the right to its own government would be disastrous to an empire

41 4/25/ John 3:16 Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars Beginning of 19 th century, Russia was initially agrarian, rural, and autocratic The Tsar, Alexander I, still regarded as divine monarch But raised on enlightenment ideas Made some reforms Refused to grant a constitution or free serfs Defeat of Napoleon caused him to become a reactionary—return to central monarchy

42 4/25/ John 3:16 Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars Soon, groups apposed Alexander The Northern Union was aware of outside changes Alexander’s sudden death offered opportunity Northern Union revolted against the accession of Nicholas (son) to the throne but were defeated by loyalist troops The revolt changed Nicholas from conservative to reactionary, strengthening secret police and increasing bureaucracy

43 4/25/ John 3:16 Russia: Autocracy of the Tsars Nicholas affirmed there would be no revolutions in Europe under his watch Called the Policeman of Europe Willingly sent troops anywhere to crush rebellions

44 4/25/ John 3:16 The Ideologies of Change Conservative forces were in ascendancy 1815 to 1830 Also, new movements of political philosophies and came into their own the first half of 19 th century

45 4/25/ John 3:16 Liberalism Liberalism grew out of The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution Industrial Revolution

46 4/25/ John 3:16 Liberalism It added even more vigor from the Industrial Revolution which fostered the absolute belief in the freedom from restraint Industrial middle class largely adopted the policy as its own

47 4/25/ John 3:16 Economic liberalism Also called classical economics Primary tenet: laissez-faire, the state should not interrupt free play of natural economic forces, especially supply and demand

48 4/25/ John 3:16 Economic Liberalism Government has three functions only Defense of the country Police protection of the individual Construction and maintenance of public works too expensive for individuals to undertake Maximum economic freedom brings about the greatest good to the greatest number of people

49 4/25/ John 3:16 Economic Liberalism The case against government interference enhanced by Thomas Malthus Wrote, “Essay on the Principles of Population” Unchecked population increases at fast rate while food supply increases at slow rate causing untold harm/starvation Nature imposes restraints to slow population, e.g. poverty, exposure to seasons, unwholesome occupations, epidemics, plagues, etc. No government should interfere with this natural process

50 4/25/ John 3:16 Economic Liberalism David Ricardo further developed Malthus ideas Wrote, “Principles of Political Economy” Population increases More workers Wages fall Misery and starvation Population is reduced Wages climb, workers have more kids, the cycle repeats

51 4/25/ John 3:16 Political Liberalism Political liberals held common beliefs Protection of basic rights Equality before the law for all people Freedom of assembly, speech, and press Freedom from arbitrary arrest Freedom to be guaranteed by document Religious toleration, but separation of church and state (no state religion)

52 4/25/ John 3:16 Political Liberalism Political liberalism… Right of peaceful opposition to government Representative government Many believed in constitutional monarchy or constitutional state with limited government powers Kings ministers responsible to legislature rather than king—legislative check on the executive

53 4/25/ John 3:16 Political Liberalism Political Liberalism… Right to vote Right to hold office for men Voting and office holding tied to property qualifications Voting and office holding also tied to middle class industrial men

54 4/25/ John 3:16 Political Liberalism John Stuart Mill Advocate of political liberalism Wrote, “On Liberty”, classic statement on liberty of the individual “Absolute freedom of opinion and sentiment on all subjects” needed to be protected Need to be protected from government censorship and tyranny of the majority

55 4/25/ John 3:16 Political Liberalism Mill became enthusiastic supporter of women’s rights Wrote, “On the Subjection of Women” with his wife, Harriet Taylor Differences between men and women not due to natures but due to different social practices Women need equal education

56 4/25/ John 3:16 Nationalism Nationalism is being a part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs Constitutes a nation The nation, rather than dynasty, city-state, or political unit, becomes focus of individuals’ primary political loyalty

57 4/25/ John 3:16 Nationalism Didn’t become popular until French Revolution Each nationality should have own government Divided people such as Germans wanted their own nation Threatened to upset the political order United Germany or Italy would upset the peace set in 1815 Independent Hungarian state would end Austrian Empire

58 4/25/ John 3:16 Nationalism Because many European states were multinational, they tried to repress nationalism First half of 19 th century, nationalism and liberalism became allies Liberty could be realized only by people ruling themselves Nations could be linked together in broad community

59 4/25/ John 3:16 Early Socialism Early socialism was introduced by theorists and intellectuals Wanted to introduce equality into social conditions Believed human cooperation was superior to competition Pitiful slums, mines, factories gave rise to the thought process Later, Marxists would label such theorists as utopian socialists

60 4/25/ John 3:16 Early Socialists Utopian socialists were against private property and competitive spirit Elimination of these things would produce better environment They proposed a variety of ways to accomplish this task

61 4/25/ John 3:16 Fourier Charles Fourier proposed creation of small model communities Voluntary associations to demonstrate advantages of cooperative living Called Phalansteries Live and work together for mutual benefit

62 4/25/ John 3:16 Owen Robert Owen, manufacturer, also believed in communal living Believed humans would demonstrate true natural goodness in communal environment Community failed due to bickering Frances Wright, disciple of Owens, also started a “model” community

63 Blanc Frenchman Louis Blanc Frenchman Louis Blanc Wrote, “The Organization of Work” Wrote, “The Organization of Work” Social problems can be solved by government assistance Social problems can be solved by government assistance Denounced competition as main cause of problems Denounced competition as main cause of problems Called for workshops to manufacturer goods for public sale Called for workshops to manufacturer goods for public sale State financed workshops—owned by individuals State financed workshops—owned by individuals 4/25/ John 3:16

64 Female Supporters Women attracted to the idea of restructuring society for more equality between the sexes Women attracted to the idea of restructuring society for more equality between the sexes Zoe Gatti de Gamond established phalanstery— providing men and women with same education and job opportunities Zoe Gatti de Gamond established phalanstery— providing men and women with same education and job opportunities Called for men and women to share child care and house cleaning chores Called for men and women to share child care and house cleaning chores Combination of Christian values, scientific thought, and social utopianism Combination of Christian values, scientific thought, and social utopianism 4/25/ John 3:16

65 Tristan Flora Tristan attempted to foster “utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism” Flora Tristan attempted to foster “utopian synthesis of socialism and feminism” Preached the liberation of women Preached the liberation of women Her “Worker’s Union” advocated Fourier’s ideas to reconstruct both family and work Her “Worker’s Union” advocated Fourier’s ideas to reconstruct both family and work The only way to free society and change civilization The only way to free society and change civilization 4/25/ John 3:16

66 Tristan She and others established basis for attacking capitalism She and others established basis for attacking capitalism First half of 19 th century, socialism remained a fringe movement First half of 19 th century, socialism remained a fringe movement Overshadowed by liberalism and nationalism Overshadowed by liberalism and nationalism 4/25/ John 3:16

67 Revolution and Reform Forces of change begin in Conservatism of Europe begins to break. Liberals and Nationalists begin to see possibility of breakthrough 4/25/2015 John 3:16 67

68 Another French Revolution Elections of 1830 produced more success for liberals Elections of 1830 produced more success for liberals Charles X decided to seize the initiative before elections Charles X decided to seize the initiative before elections Issues edicts known as the July Ordinances Issues edicts known as the July Ordinances Imposed rigid censorship on press Imposed rigid censorship on press Dissolved legislative assembly Dissolved legislative assembly Reduced electorate preparation Reduced electorate preparation 4/25/ John 3:16

69 Another French Revolution Charles actions produced the July Revolution Charles actions produced the July Revolution Provisional government established Provisional government established Led by moderate, propertied liberals Led by moderate, propertied liberals Appealed to Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, cousin of Charles X, to become constitutional king of France Appealed to Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, cousin of Charles X, to become constitutional king of France Charles fled to Great Britain Charles fled to Great Britain 4/25/ John 3:16

70 Another French Revolution Louis-Philippe called the bourgeois monarch Louis-Philippe called the bourgeois monarch Support came from upper middle class Support came from upper middle class Dressed like them Dressed like them Industrial Revolution at this time fostered sporadic economic crises, unemployment, and poor working conditions Industrial Revolution at this time fostered sporadic economic crises, unemployment, and poor working conditions Worker unrest and outbursts of violence Worker unrest and outbursts of violence 4/25/ John 3:16

71 Another French Revolution Louis-Philippe and Francois Guizot of the Party of Resistance joined in agreement that the perfect government had been reached Louis-Philippe and Francois Guizot of the Party of Resistance joined in agreement that the perfect government had been reached Suppressed the concept of ministerial responsibility Suppressed the concept of ministerial responsibility 4/25/ John 3:16

72 Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy Nationalism was the force behind three outbursts in 1830 Nationalism was the force behind three outbursts in 1830 When Congress of Vienna tried to add Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) to the Dutch, the Belgiums rose up to fight the transfer and were supported When Congress of Vienna tried to add Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) to the Dutch, the Belgiums rose up to fight the transfer and were supported A constitutional monarchy was established for the new independent state A constitutional monarchy was established for the new independent state 4/25/ John 3:16

73 Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy Both Poland and Italy tried to do what Belgium had done, but were defeated Both Poland and Italy tried to do what Belgium had done, but were defeated Metternich sent Austrian troops to crush revolts in three Italian states Metternich sent Austrian troops to crush revolts in three Italian states In Poland, the Russians crushed attempts at freedom In Poland, the Russians crushed attempts at freedom 4/25/ John 3:16

74 Reform in Great Britain New election brought Whigs to power New election brought Whigs to power July Revolution in France fresh in British minds July Revolution in France fresh in British minds Industrial Revolution produced new, and expanding group of industrial leaders Industrial Revolution produced new, and expanding group of industrial leaders Resented corrupt political system and lack of power Resented corrupt political system and lack of power Whigs realized concessions were better than the revolution and granted them Whigs realized concessions were better than the revolution and granted them The Reform Act of 1832 was passed The Reform Act of 1832 was passed 4/25/ John 3:16

75 The Reform Act of 1832 Gave recognition to the Industrial Revolution Gave recognition to the Industrial Revolution Reapportionment of towns, buroughs, and cities resulted in urban communities having more voice in government Reapportionment of towns, buroughs, and cities resulted in urban communities having more voice in government The property qualification to vote still retained The property qualification to vote still retained Number of voters roughly doubled Number of voters roughly doubled Not a huge change in Parliament Not a huge change in Parliament Benefit mostly to upper middle class Benefit mostly to upper middle class 4/25/ John 3:16

76 The Reform Act of 1832 The lower middle class, artisans, and industrial workers still had no vote The lower middle class, artisans, and industrial workers still had no vote Significantly, however, the industrial middle class had been joined to the landed interests in ruling Britain Significantly, however, the industrial middle class had been joined to the landed interests in ruling Britain 4/25/ John 3:16

77 New Reform Legislation Much reform in 1830s and 1840s Much reform in 1830s and 1840s Many reforms focused on abuses of Industrial Revolution Many reforms focused on abuses of Industrial Revolution Aristocratic landowners usually pushed for reform in industry Aristocratic landowners usually pushed for reform in industry Industrialists and manufacturers favored economic liberalism—they pushed back Industrialists and manufacturers favored economic liberalism—they pushed back 4/25/ John 3:16

78 New Reform Legislation The Poor Law of 1834 The Poor Law of 1834 Giving aid to poor and unemployed would encourage laziness and increase paupers Giving aid to poor and unemployed would encourage laziness and increase paupers Poor crowded into workhouses where living conditions were intentionally miserable so people could be encouraged to find employment Poor crowded into workhouses where living conditions were intentionally miserable so people could be encouraged to find employment 4/25/ John 3:16

79 New Reform Legislation Repeal of the Corn Laws (high tariffs on foreign grain)…more liberal legislation Repeal of the Corn Laws (high tariffs on foreign grain)…more liberal legislation Effort by industrialists Cobden and Bright Effort by industrialists Cobden and Bright Formed Anti-corn League in 1838 Formed Anti-corn League in 1838 To help workers by lowering bread prices To help workers by lowering bread prices Real repeal came when Robert Peel, Torie Leader, convinced associates to support free trade and abandon Corn Laws Real repeal came when Robert Peel, Torie Leader, convinced associates to support free trade and abandon Corn Laws 4/25/ John 3:16

80 New Reform Legislation The Reform Act of 1832 and the repeal of the Corn Laws satisfied Britain at this time The Reform Act of 1832 and the repeal of the Corn Laws satisfied Britain at this time On the continent, however, revolutionary forces driven by liberalism and nationalism were looming On the continent, however, revolutionary forces driven by liberalism and nationalism were looming 4/25/ John 3:16

81 The Revolutions of 1848 Liberalism and nationalism begin to make inroads to conservatism in Europe through the revolutions of 1848 Liberalism and nationalism begin to make inroads to conservatism in Europe through the revolutions of 1848 Again, a revolution in France was a spark for more revolutions Again, a revolution in France was a spark for more revolutions 4/25/ John 3:16

82 Yet Another French Revolution Severe depression in France sparked revolutionary thoughts and actions Severe depression in France sparked revolutionary thoughts and actions Scandals, graft, and corruption angered citizens Scandals, graft, and corruption angered citizens Louis-Philippe government refused changes Louis-Philippe government refused changes Law forbade political rallies but political banquets were held instead Law forbade political rallies but political banquets were held instead Philippe abdicated and went to Britain Philippe abdicated and went to Britain 4/25/ John 3:16

83 Yet Another French Revolution A provisional government was established A provisional government was established Moderate and radical republicans Moderate and radical republicans Included socialist Louis Blanc Included socialist Louis Blanc The assembly was to be elected by universal manhood suffrage The assembly was to be elected by universal manhood suffrage 4/25/ John 3:16

84 Yet Another French Revolution Blanc established national workshops as cooperative factories run by workers Blanc established national workshops as cooperative factories run by workers Jobs were mostly leaf raking and ditch digging Jobs were mostly leaf raking and ditch digging Became burdensome on government Became burdensome on government The number in the workshops grew from 10,000 to 120,000, empting the treasury and scaring the moderates The number in the workshops grew from 10,000 to 120,000, empting the treasury and scaring the moderates 4/25/ John 3:16

85 Yet Another French Revolution Moderates responded to the workshop “overload” by closing them Moderates responded to the workshop “overload” by closing them Workers wouldn’t accept this decision and began working-class revolt Workers wouldn’t accept this decision and began working-class revolt Revolt was crushed Revolt was crushed Four days of fighting Four days of fighting Thousands killed Thousands killed Four thousand prisoners deported to Algeria in North Africa Four thousand prisoners deported to Algeria in North Africa 4/25/ John 3:16

86 Yet Another French Revolution New constitution established a republic New constitution established a republic Unicameral legislature Unicameral legislature Elected by universal male suffrage Elected by universal male suffrage The new president was Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte The new president was Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte Destined to become emperor Napoleon Destined to become emperor Napoleon 4/25/ John 3:16

87 Revolution in the Germanic States The Paris revolution caused many German rulers to propose changes The Paris revolution caused many German rulers to propose changes In Prussia, concessions were made to appease revolutionaries In Prussia, concessions were made to appease revolutionaries King Frederick William IV agreed to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany King Frederick William IV agreed to abolish censorship, establish a new constitution, and work for a united Germany The “united Germany” promise led to an all-German parliament to meet in Frankfurt The “united Germany” promise led to an all-German parliament to meet in Frankfurt 4/25/ John 3:16

88 Revolution in the Germanic States The Frankfurt Assembly was dominated by well- educated, highly articulate men The Frankfurt Assembly was dominated by well- educated, highly articulate men Nationalism was on their minds and they were ahead of the times when compared to their governments Nationalism was on their minds and they were ahead of the times when compared to their governments There ensued a debate about establishing a “Big Germany” or “Small Germany” There ensued a debate about establishing a “Big Germany” or “Small Germany” The assembly disbanded, unable to agree on a German state The assembly disbanded, unable to agree on a German state 4/25/ John 3:16

89 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire Paris revolution encouraged upheavals in Austria Paris revolution encouraged upheavals in Austria The Hungarian liberals were willing to keep the Hapsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature The Hungarian liberals were willing to keep the Hapsburg monarch but wanted their own legislature Demonstrations in Buda, Prague, and Vienna led to Metternich’s dismissal who fled abroad Demonstrations in Buda, Prague, and Vienna led to Metternich’s dismissal who fled abroad Hungary received its own legislature, separate national army, and control of its foreign policy and budget Hungary received its own legislature, separate national army, and control of its foreign policy and budget 4/25/ John 3:16

90 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire For Hungary, allegiance to Habsburg dynasty was its only tie to the Austrian Empire For Hungary, allegiance to Habsburg dynasty was its only tie to the Austrian Empire In Bohemia, the Czechs began to demand their own government as well In Bohemia, the Czechs began to demand their own government as well 4/25/ John 3:16

91 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire Emperor Ferdinand I had made concessions but waited for chance to take back control Emperor Ferdinand I had made concessions but waited for chance to take back control Conservative were please with division, as in the German states, between moderates and radicals Conservative were please with division, as in the German states, between moderates and radicals Conservative were heartened when a Czech revolt was put down in Prague Conservative were heartened when a Czech revolt was put down in Prague Viennese rebels were later crushed as well Viennese rebels were later crushed as well 4/25/ John 3:16

92 Upheaval in the Austrian Empire Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of Francis Joseph I, his nephew Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of Francis Joseph I, his nephew Worked to restore the imperial government in Hungary Worked to restore the imperial government in Hungary Only with the aid of the Russians and 140,000 men was Joseph able to defeat the Hungarian revolution Only with the aid of the Russians and 140,000 men was Joseph able to defeat the Hungarian revolution Revolutions in Austria also failed—numerous nationalities were still subject to Austrian rule Revolutions in Austria also failed—numerous nationalities were still subject to Austrian rule 4/25/ John 3:16

93 Revolts in the Italian States Italy failures in encouraged unification in a new direction Italy failures in encouraged unification in a new direction The leadership of Italy’s risorgimento (resurgence) was passed to Giuseppe Mazzini, a dedicated Italian nationalist The leadership of Italy’s risorgimento (resurgence) was passed to Giuseppe Mazzini, a dedicated Italian nationalist Founded organization known as Young Italy Founded organization known as Young Italy 4/25/ John 3:16

94 Revolts in the Italian States Young Italy’s goal was unified Italy Young Italy’s goal was unified Italy Mazzini wrote, “The Duties of Man” Mazzini wrote, “The Duties of Man” Urged Italians to dedicate their lives to united Italy Urged Italians to dedicate their lives to united Italy Women also took up Mazzini’s call Women also took up Mazzini’s call Cristina Belgioioso started newspaper espousing the Italian cause Cristina Belgioioso started newspaper espousing the Italian cause 4/25/ John 3:16

95 Revolts in the Italian States Mazzini’s and Belgioioso’s vision was almost fulfilled except Mazzini’s and Belgioioso’s vision was almost fulfilled except Italian states rose in revolt Italian states rose in revolt Ruler after ruler granted constitution to its people Ruler after ruler granted constitution to its people Conterrevolutionary forces also prevalied throughout Italy Conterrevolutionary forces also prevalied throughout Italy French helped Pope Pius IX regain control of Rome French helped Pope Pius IX regain control of Rome Only Piedmont kept a liberal constitution Only Piedmont kept a liberal constitution 4/25/ John 3:16

96 The Failures of 1848 Throughout Europe in 1848, popular revolts led to liberal constitutions and liberal governments Throughout Europe in 1848, popular revolts led to liberal constitutions and liberal governments But early successes led to disasters later, why? But early successes led to disasters later, why? #1: Divisions soon shattered the ranks of the revolutionaries #1: Divisions soon shattered the ranks of the revolutionaries Liberals and propertied classes failed to extend suffrage to the working class Liberals and propertied classes failed to extend suffrage to the working class Liberals rallied to the ruling class fearing social revolution of the working classes—loss of property and security Liberals rallied to the ruling class fearing social revolution of the working classes—loss of property and security 4/25/ John 3:16

97 The Failures of 1848 #2: Second reason for failures was disagreement and infighting among nationalities #2: Second reason for failures was disagreement and infighting among nationalities Hungarian demanded autonomy from Austrians, but refused it for the Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs Hungarian demanded autonomy from Austrians, but refused it for the Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs 4/25/ John 3:16

98 The Maturing of the United States The U.S. Constitution committed the United States to liberalism and nationalism The U.S. Constitution committed the United States to liberalism and nationalism Initially, there were divisions over the federal government and states rights Initially, there were divisions over the federal government and states rights Bitter conflict between Federalists and the Republicans Bitter conflict between Federalists and the Republicans 4/25/ John 3:16

99 The Maturing of the United States Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists Favored financial program that would establish a strong central government Favored financial program that would establish a strong central government Pro British Pro British Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the Republicans Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the Republicans Feared centralization and its consequences for popular liberties Feared centralization and its consequences for popular liberties Pro French Pro French 4/25/ John 3:16

100 The Maturing of the United States National unity also came form the Supreme Court led by John Marshall National unity also came form the Supreme Court led by John Marshall Made it into important national institution Made it into important national institution Curbed the actions of states courts and legislatures Curbed the actions of states courts and legislatures Andrew Jackson opened the era of mass democracy Andrew Jackson opened the era of mass democracy Property qualifications dropped Property qualifications dropped Most males had suffrage Most males had suffrage 4/25/ John 3:16

101 The Maturing of the United States The traditional belief in the improvement of human beings was also given expression The traditional belief in the improvement of human beings was also given expression 4/25/ John 3:16 Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson

102 The Emergence of an Ordered Society Revolutionary upheavals made rulers nervous in the late 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Crowding of more people into urban areas cause problems and concerns. Many feared urban poor posed threat to possessions and security. New police forces appeared to keep order. 4/25/2015 John 3:16 102

103 The Police Forces In 19 th century, Europe developed systematic police force In 19 th century, Europe developed systematic police force Well-trained law enforcement officers Well-trained law enforcement officers Maintain domestic order Maintain domestic order That the “force’ was there to protect people made them acceptable That the “force’ was there to protect people made them acceptable 4/25/ John 3:16

104 French Police In March 1829, the new police, known as the serjents, became visible in Paris streets In March 1829, the new police, known as the serjents, became visible in Paris streets Blue uniform Blue uniform Lightly armed with white cane (day) and saber (night) Lightly armed with white cane (day) and saber (night) 4/25/ John 3:16

105 British Bobbies British, fearful of secret police, resisted police for a while British, fearful of secret police, resisted police for a while Depended on unpaid constables for a while Depended on unpaid constables for a while Didn’t worked Didn’t worked Professional force needed Professional force needed Sir Robert Peel introduced “bobbies”, named after him Sir Robert Peel introduced “bobbies”, named after him 4/25/ John 3:16

106 Spread of Police Systems German police force called the Schutzmannschaft, modeled after London police German police force called the Schutzmannschaft, modeled after London police More military in design More military in design “a German policeman on patrol is armed as if for war” “a German policeman on patrol is armed as if for war” 4/25/ John 3:16

107 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem Some people believed crime was directly related to unemployment Some people believed crime was directly related to unemployment Europeans created poor laws and workhouses for unemployed people who they thought were lazy. Workhouses were not places people wanted to be—designed purposely that way Europeans created poor laws and workhouses for unemployed people who they thought were lazy. Workhouses were not places people wanted to be—designed purposely that way 4/25/ John 3:16

108 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem Many thought the crime problem was due to moral degeneracy of the lower classes Many thought the crime problem was due to moral degeneracy of the lower classes Labeled “dangerous classes” Labeled “dangerous classes” Perceived threat to the middle class Perceived threat to the middle class Group of secular reformers began to instruct lower classes in applied sciences to make them productive members of society Group of secular reformers began to instruct lower classes in applied sciences to make them productive members of society 4/25/ John 3:16

109 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem The London Mechanics Institute was one example of an organization that helped “dangerous classes” The London Mechanics Institute was one example of an organization that helped “dangerous classes” Organized religion took yet another approach Organized religion took yet another approach Evangelicals set up Sunday schools to improve morals Evangelicals set up Sunday schools to improve morals Protestants established nurseries for orphans and homeless children Protestants established nurseries for orphans and homeless children 4/25/ John 3:16

110 Other Approaches to the Crime Problem The Catholic Church attempted good works through religious orders; dedicated priest and nuns used spiritual instruction and recreation to turn young male workers away from moral vices. Female workers instructed away from lives of prostitution The Catholic Church attempted good works through religious orders; dedicated priest and nuns used spiritual instruction and recreation to turn young male workers away from moral vices. Female workers instructed away from lives of prostitution 4/25/ John 3:16

111 Prison Reform Increase in crime led to more arrests Increase in crime led to more arrests Too much use of capital punishment seen as ineffective Too much use of capital punishment seen as ineffective Capital punishment replaced by imprisonment Capital punishment replaced by imprisonment British sent serious offenders to colonial Australia British sent serious offenders to colonial Australia Practiced slowed with complaints from colonists Practiced slowed with complaints from colonists Reformers began to look for alternatives to humiliating work Reformers began to look for alternatives to humiliating work 4/25/ John 3:16

112 Prison Reform British and French sent missions to the United States to examine the U.S. prison system British and French sent missions to the United States to examine the U.S. prison system At Walnut Street Prison, prisoners were separated into individual cells At Walnut Street Prison, prisoners were separated into individual cells Both French and British constructed prisons to the Walnut Street model Both French and British constructed prisons to the Walnut Street model Prisoners wore leather masks and sat in separate stalls in chapel Prisoners wore leather masks and sat in separate stalls in chapel 4/25/ John 3:16

113 Prison Reform Solitary confinement was seen as a means for prisoners to reflect on own conscience and become more accepting of chaplain counseling Solitary confinement was seen as a means for prisoners to reflect on own conscience and become more accepting of chaplain counseling Prison reform and police forces were geared toward the creation of a more disciplined society Prison reform and police forces were geared toward the creation of a more disciplined society Discontent had been fostered by the societal changes brought about through industrialization and urbanization Discontent had been fostered by the societal changes brought about through industrialization and urbanization 4/25/ John 3:16

114 Culture in the Age of Reaction and Revolution: The Mood of Romanticism At the end of the 18 th century, Romanticism challenges the Enlightenment’s preoccupation with discovering truth. Romantics tried to balance reason with intuition, feeling, emotion, and imagination 4/25/2015 John 3:16 114

115 The Characteristics of Romanticism Romantic writers emphasized emotion, sentiment, and inner feelings Romantic writers emphasized emotion, sentiment, and inner feelings The Sorrows of the Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, romantic model The Sorrows of the Young Werther by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, romantic model Werther sought freedom to fulfill himself Werther sought freedom to fulfill himself Misunderstood and rejected by society, he still believed in his own worth through inner feelings Misunderstood and rejected by society, he still believed in his own worth through inner feelings Rejected by a girl he loved, he committed suicide Rejected by a girl he loved, he committed suicide 4/25/ John 3:16

116 The Characteristics of Romanticism Important characteristic of Romanticism was individualism Important characteristic of Romanticism was individualism Interest in unique traits of each individual Interest in unique traits of each individual Following inner drives led romantics to rebel against middle-class conventions Following inner drives led romantics to rebel against middle-class conventions Long hair, beards, outrageous clothes reinforced individualism (“shades” of the 60s) Long hair, beards, outrageous clothes reinforced individualism (“shades” of the 60s) 4/25/ John 3:16

117 The Characteristics of Romanticism Sentiment and individualism came together as a stress for the heroic Sentiment and individualism came together as a stress for the heroic Solitary genius ready to defy the world Solitary genius ready to defy the world Thomas Carlyle wrote of heroes who did not destroy themselves but transformed society for the better Thomas Carlyle wrote of heroes who did not destroy themselves but transformed society for the better 4/25/ John 3:16

118 The Characteristics of Romanticism Many Romantics had passionate interest in the past Many Romantics had passionate interest in the past In Germany, the Grimm brothers collected and published fairy tales In Germany, the Grimm brothers collected and published fairy tales Hans Christian Anderson in Denmark (ditto) Hans Christian Anderson in Denmark (ditto) Literature reflected historic consciousness Literature reflected historic consciousness Novels of Walter Scott—Ivanhoe—clash between Saxon and Norman knights Novels of Walter Scott—Ivanhoe—clash between Saxon and Norman knights 4/25/ John 3:16

119 The Characteristics of Romanticism Gothic literature can be added to the bizarre and unusual, including chilling short stories Gothic literature can be added to the bizarre and unusual, including chilling short stories Edgar Allan Poe Edgar Allan Poe Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Frankenstein by Mary Shelley Romantics sought unusual experiences in their lives Romantics sought unusual experiences in their lives Pursuing states of experience in dreams, nightmares, frenzies, etc., and experimenting with cocaine, opium, and hashish to produce altered states of consciousness Pursuing states of experience in dreams, nightmares, frenzies, etc., and experimenting with cocaine, opium, and hashish to produce altered states of consciousness 4/25/ John 3:16

120 Romantic Poets Romantics ranked poetry highest literary form— saw it as expression of the soul Romantics ranked poetry highest literary form— saw it as expression of the soul Romantic poets viewed as seers who revealed invisible world to others Romantic poets viewed as seers who revealed invisible world to others Many living intense, but short lives Many living intense, but short lives Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote Prometheus Unbound –a revolt of against laws and customs Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote Prometheus Unbound –a revolt of against laws and customs Died by drowning in Mediterranean Sea Died by drowning in Mediterranean Sea 4/25/ John 3:16

121 Romantic Poets Lord Byron Lord Byron Dramatized himself as the melancholy Romantic hero described in his work, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage Dramatized himself as the melancholy Romantic hero described in his work, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage Participated in the movement for Greek independence and died fighting the Ottomans Participated in the movement for Greek independence and died fighting the Ottomans 4/25/ John 3:16

122 Love of Nature Romantic poets gave full expression to love of nature Romantic poets gave full expression to love of nature William Wordsworth William Wordsworth Nature contained a mysterious face the poet could perceive and learn from Nature contained a mysterious face the poet could perceive and learn from Nature was alive and sacred Nature was alive and sacred Nature was a mirror in which humans could learn about themselves Nature was a mirror in which humans could learn about themselves 4/25/ John 3:16

123 Love of Nature Other Romantics carried this worship of nature further into pantheism by identifying the great force in nature with God Other Romantics carried this worship of nature further into pantheism by identifying the great force in nature with God Romantics would not recognize the deist God of the Enlightenment Romantics would not recognize the deist God of the Enlightenment German Romantic poet, Friedrich Novalis, wrote, “Anyone seeking God will find Him anywhere.” German Romantic poet, Friedrich Novalis, wrote, “Anyone seeking God will find Him anywhere.” 4/25/ John 3:16

124 Critique of Science The Romantics believed science reduced nature to a cold object of study The Romantics believed science reduced nature to a cold object of study To Wordsworth, the poet who left the world “one single moral precept, one single affecting sentiment,” did more for the world than scientists who were soon forgotten To Wordsworth, the poet who left the world “one single moral precept, one single affecting sentiment,” did more for the world than scientists who were soon forgotten The Frankenstein monster symbolized the danger of science trying to conquer nature The Frankenstein monster symbolized the danger of science trying to conquer nature 4/25/ John 3:16

125 Romanticism in Art Visual art were deeply affected by Romanticism Visual art were deeply affected by Romanticism Romantic artists shared two characteristics Romantic artists shared two characteristics Artistic expression (e.g. painting) was a reflection of the artist’s inner feelings--his own imagination Artistic expression (e.g. painting) was a reflection of the artist’s inner feelings--his own imagination The principles of Classicism were rejected The principles of Classicism were rejected Beauty not timeless—depended on one’s culture and age Beauty not timeless—depended on one’s culture and age Abandoned classical restraint for warmth, emotion, and movement Abandoned classical restraint for warmth, emotion, and movement 4/25/ John 3:16

126 Friedrich German painter Casper David Friedrich had life experiences that guided him to preoccupation with God and nature German painter Casper David Friedrich had life experiences that guided him to preoccupation with God and nature Mountains shrouded in mist, gnarled trees bathed in moonlight, etc., conveyed mystery and mysticism Mountains shrouded in mist, gnarled trees bathed in moonlight, etc., conveyed mystery and mysticism Nature was a manifestation of divine life Nature was a manifestation of divine life Look to your inner vision—”Shut your physical eye and look first at your picture with your spiritual eye…” Look to your inner vision—”Shut your physical eye and look first at your picture with your spiritual eye…” 4/25/ John 3:16

127 Turner Englishman Joseph Malford William Turner Englishman Joseph Malford William Turner Twenty thousand paintings, drawings, watercolors Twenty thousand paintings, drawings, watercolors Concern with nature—innumerable landscapes, seascapes, sunrises, and sunsets Concern with nature—innumerable landscapes, seascapes, sunrises, and sunsets Did not produce nature accurately—conveyed natures mood using skilled interplay of light and color to suggest natural effects Did not produce nature accurately—conveyed natures mood using skilled interplay of light and color to suggest natural effects Objects melt into surroundings Objects melt into surroundings 4/25/ John 3:16

128 Delacroix Eugene Delacroix was the most famous French romantic artist Eugene Delacroix was the most famous French romantic artist Largely self-taught Largely self-taught Fascinated with the exotic and had passion for color Fascinated with the exotic and had passion for color The Death of Sardanapalus—portrayal of last Assyrian king The Death of Sardanapalus—portrayal of last Assyrian king Theatrically and movement with daring use of color Theatrically and movement with daring use of color “a painting should be a feast to the eye” “a painting should be a feast to the eye” 4/25/ John 3:16

129 Romanticism in Music To many Romantics, music was the most Romantic of the arts because it enabled the composer to probe deeply into human emotions To many Romantics, music was the most Romantic of the arts because it enabled the composer to probe deeply into human emotions …’the awakening of emotion” …’the awakening of emotion” Eighteenth century: Classicism Eighteenth century: Classicism Nineteenth century: Romanticism Nineteenth century: Romanticism Ludwig van Beethoven served as bridge between both Classicism and Romanticism Ludwig van Beethoven served as bridge between both Classicism and Romanticism 4/25/ John 3:16

130 Beethoven One of few composers to singlehandedly transform the art of music ( ) One of few composers to singlehandedly transform the art of music ( ) Ablaze by events in France Ablaze by events in France Yearned to communicate his cherished beliefs Yearned to communicate his cherished beliefs “I must write, for what weighs on my heart, I must express” “I must write, for what weighs on my heart, I must express” Music had to express his deepest inner feelings Music had to express his deepest inner feelings 4/25/ John 3:16

131 Beethoven Born in Bonn, came from family of musicians Born in Bonn, came from family of musicians Reflected the influence of Haydn and Mozart Reflected the influence of Haydn and Mozart Wrote from largely Classical framework Wrote from largely Classical framework Wrote Eroica—originally intended for Napoleon Wrote Eroica—originally intended for Napoleon Broke through to elements of Romanticism Broke through to elements of Romanticism “opens flood gates of fear, of terror….” “opens flood gates of fear, of terror….” 4/25/ John 3:16

132 Beethoven Chorale finale of Ninth Symphony, most moving of pieces, composed when he was totally deaf Chorale finale of Ninth Symphony, most moving of pieces, composed when he was totally deaf 4/25/ John 3:16

133 Berlioz Frenchman Hector Berlioz composed in Romantic style Frenchman Hector Berlioz composed in Romantic style One of founders of program music—usiing the moods and sound effects of music to depict the actions and emotions in a story One of founders of program music—usiing the moods and sound effects of music to depict the actions and emotions in a story Symphonie Fantastique – complete program symphony— invoking passionate emotions of tortured love affair Symphonie Fantastique – complete program symphony— invoking passionate emotions of tortured love affair 4/25/ John 3:16

134 The Revival of Religion in the Age of Romanticism After 1815, Christianity experienced a revival After 1815, Christianity experienced a revival Catholicism had lost its attraction with educated elites as they flirted with the Enlightenment in 18 th century Catholicism had lost its attraction with educated elites as they flirted with the Enlightenment in 18 th century Restoration of nobility brought new appreciation for Catholic faith as force for order Restoration of nobility brought new appreciation for Catholic faith as force for order Force was greatly reinforced by Romantic movement Force was greatly reinforced by Romantic movement Attraction of Romantics to Middle Ages, emotion, etc. Attraction of Romantics to Middle Ages, emotion, etc. 4/25/ John 3:16

135 Catholicism Romantic period benefitted Catholicism Romantic period benefitted Catholicism Many conversions to Catholic faith Many conversions to Catholic faith Frenchman Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand wrote, Genius of Christianity Frenchman Francois-Rene de Chateaubriand wrote, Genius of Christianity Defense of Catholicism based on Romantic sentiment Defense of Catholicism based on Romantic sentiment “You could not enter a Gothic church without feeling a kind of awe and vague sentiment of the Divinity” “You could not enter a Gothic church without feeling a kind of awe and vague sentiment of the Divinity” 4/25/ John 3:16

136 Protestantism Protestantism experienced revival Protestantism experienced revival The “awakening” The “awakening” Evangelical preachers and messages Evangelical preachers and messages Sin and redemption central to message Sin and redemption central to message Hellfire and emotional conversion Hellfire and emotional conversion 4/25/ John 3:16

137 Conclusion In 1815, a conservative message spread throughout Europe In 1815, a conservative message spread throughout Europe Embodied in the Concert of Europe Embodied in the Concert of Europe Ideologies of nationalism and liberalism unleashed by the French Revolution and as spread through the Industrial Revolution were alive and active Ideologies of nationalism and liberalism unleashed by the French Revolution and as spread through the Industrial Revolution were alive and active 4/25/ John 3:16

138 Conclusion There were many failed revolutions There were many failed revolutions Poland, Russia, Italy, and Germany Poland, Russia, Italy, and Germany There were some successes There were some successes Reforms in Britain, and successful revolutions in Greece, France, and Belgium Reforms in Britain, and successful revolutions in Greece, France, and Belgium In 1848, revolutions again failed, but the idealistic liberals and nationalists knew their time was at hand In 1848, revolutions again failed, but the idealistic liberals and nationalists knew their time was at hand 4/25/ John 3:16


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