Small city with high population density Size: 29.9 km 2 in 2011 (11.6 km 2 in 1912) Population: 560 thousand (About 94% are ethnic Chinese) 60 Km far away from Hong Kong
A Special Administrative Region In the early 1550s the Portuguese reached Macao Ruled by Portuguese Administration before handover to China (Dec. 20 th, 1999) Like Hong Kong, benefits from the principle of "one country, two systems". Legal system: civil law system
A tourist city Visitors20102011 Total24 965 41128 002 279 From Malaysia 338 058 (1.4%) 324 509 (1.2%)
Macao WORLD HERITAGE The Historic Center of Macao the perfect crossroad for the meeting of East and West cultures
Brief Introduction of Macao’s Personal Data Protection Act
Passed: August 2005 Entry into force: February 2006 It covers both public and private sectors It covers automatic data processing, as well as systematic manual processing It relates to the EU Directive Supervising authority – GPDP
Definition of personal data any information of any type, irrespective of the type of medium involved, including sound and image, relating to an identified or identifiable natural person
Legitimacy of data processing the data subject has unambiguously given his consent, or processing is necessary for: (1) performance of contracts or to take steps prior to entering into a contract; (2) compliance with a legal obligation; (3) protecting the vital interests of the data subject who is incapable of giving his consent; (4) performance of a task in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority; (5) pursuing the legitimate interests of the controller not overridden by the interests for fundamental rights, freedoms and guarantees of the data subject.
Sensitive data personal data revealing philosophical or political beliefs, political society or trade union membership, religion, privacy and racial or ethnic origin, and the processing of data concerning health or sex life, including genetic data
Legitimacy of data processing: Additional Data processing is prohibited, except: (1) authorised by a legal provision; (2)on important public interest grounds, and authorised by the public authority; (3)the data subject’s explicit consent. (4)Some other derogations defined in the PDPA (Article 7)
Suspicion of illegal activities, criminal and administrative offences personal data relating to persons suspected of illegal activities, criminal and administrative offences and decisions applying penalties, security measures, fines and additional penalties
Legitimacy of data processing: Additional Defined in Article 8 of the PDPA
Data quality (1) lawfulness, principle of good faith; (2) for specified, explicit, legitimate purposes; not incompatible with those purposes; (3) adequate, relevant and not excessive; (4) accurate (5) kept for no longer than is necessary for the purposes
Rights of the data subject Rights to information Right of access, rights to rectify Right to object Right not to be subject to automatic individual decisions Rights to indemnification
Data security General security – technical and organizational measures (Article 15) Special security measures (Article 16) Processing by a processor (Article 17) Professional secrecy (Article 18)
Transfer of data outside Macao The destination shall have a adequate level of personal data protection Derogations: -with notification to GPDP -Authorized by GPDP
Sanctions Administrative offences (fine from MOP $4,000 to MOP $200,000) Crimes (maximum: 4 years imprisonment) Additional penalties (prohibition of processing, blocking, erasure or destruction of data, public warning)
The roles of GPDP Supervision and coordination Establishment of regimes (including issuing guidelines) Handling complaints and enquiries (Both data controllers and data subjects need that) Publicity & Education (Privacy awareness is always important) Analyses & research (There is always something new)
Work statistics (2007-2011) WorksNumber of cases Investigations253 Consultations2296 Notifications1129 Applications for Opinion154 Applications for Authorizations244
Principle Education first Considering: History Culture Readiness of data controllers Awareness of the general public
Promotion - Work on public education Targets : data controllers general public youth
Means 1 – Understanding the PDPA Briefing sessions Seminars Training courses Conferences
From 2007-2011 Sessions: more than 230 Attendees: more than 9000
Means 2 – Publications Annual Reports Newsletters Booklets and Pamphlets Column stories in newspaper - “Privacy & You”
Means 3 – Videos Video clips competition Advertising videos
Means 4 – Promotional items Distributed in different occasions Attract different target population An effective marketing approach
Means 5 – Website www.gpdp.gov.mo To provide basic knowledge and information To provide case summaries To provide our legal opinions To provide our guidelines To provide translation of international documents In different languages
Right to object: A bank continued to send SMS to a former client who had exercised his right to object and refuse to receive any marketing messages from the bank. The bank was sanctioned with MOP $4,000 fine.
Principle of proportionality: A self-employed decoration contractor X tried to collect unsettled payment from citizen Y in the decoration work of Y’s residence. X held a press conference and disclosed Y’s residential address in full.
(cont.) This Office held the opinion that X’s disclosure of Y’s residential address in full was a violation of the principle of proportionality, and imposed a MOP $4,000 fine on X. For Y’s complaint against two newspapers on their reports with his residential address in full, this Office held the opinion that the freedom of press was protected by Publication Law, Y could only lodge his compliant to court by civil litigation.
Supervision (registration) – Notification and authorization
Notification The controller must notify GPDP in written form within eight days after the initiation of carrying out any wholly or partly automatic processing operation or set of such operations intended to serve a single purpose or several related purposes.
Exemptions issued by GPDP The public authority may authorise the simplification of or exemption from notification for particular categories of processing which are unlikely, taking account of the data to be processed, to affect adversely the rights and freedoms of the data subjects and to take account of criteria of speed, economy and efficiency.
Current exemptions Remunerations, Payments and Welfare Benefits Administration of Employees and Service Providers Non-Profit Legal Person’s Collection of Membership Fees or Contact with Members Billing and Contact Information of Clients, Suppliers and Service Providers Relating to Students Relating to Users of Libraries and Archives Registration of Entries and Exits of Visitors Recruitment Admission of students
Major difficulties The existing data processing when the PDPA came into force Lack of a secondary legislation to define the detail procedures
Implementation of the registration scheme - notification First of all, “notification” requirements apply to all new data processing after the PDPA’s coming into force. Secondly, GPDP needs to deal with the existing processing. The first stage (completed): progressive implementation in the public sector, issuance of exemptions The second stage: progressive implementation in the private sector – now drafting a secondary legislation
Authorization The processing of sensitive data The processing of personal data relating to credit and the solvency of the data subjects. Combination / interconnection of data Change of purpose Extending the period of data retention Transferring personal data to destinations outside Macao without adequate level of personal data protection.
First of all, “authorization” requirements apply to all new data processing after the PDPA’s coming into force immediately. No new data processing requiring GPDP’s authorization should be started without it. Existing ones without authorization by legal provisions should be either stopped or authorized by GPDP. “combination” in public sector is a problem.
Combination/interconnection of data “combination of data” shall mean a form of processing which consists of the possibility of correlating data in a filing system with data in a filing system or systems kept by another or other controllers or kept by the same controller for other purposes
The coordination on interconnections within the public sector Requested all government departments to check whether they had interconnections before the PDPA came into force. If yes, check whether there is a legislation allowing it. If not, they must submit application. Some departments decided to stop the practice, some got our authorization.
Coordination – guidelines Protection of Personal Data in the Workplace: Guidelines for Employee Monitoring Processing clients’ data by the employment agencies Using attendance devices of biometric technologies Data retention in public agencies The right to information in indirect collection of personal data. Publication of personal data on the Internet.
Code of conduct A self-regulation model It shall be drawn by the professional associations and other bodies representing some categories of data controller, not GPDP GPDP did encourage some industries to do so, but no successful case yet