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European Governance, Global Governance Introduction to International Political Economy Kalypso Nicolaidis Vincent Wright Chair, Sciences Po (2005) Oxford.

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Presentation on theme: "European Governance, Global Governance Introduction to International Political Economy Kalypso Nicolaidis Vincent Wright Chair, Sciences Po (2005) Oxford."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Governance, Global Governance Introduction to International Political Economy Kalypso Nicolaidis Vincent Wright Chair, Sciences Po (2005) Oxford University

2 European Governance => Global governance Our EU-topia?  The EU as an actor in its own right : economic giant? Political actor? What kind of power  The EU as a possible model of integration 1)between states in the rest of the world 2)At the global level  Discourse/reality  neo-colonial vs post-colonial?

3 International Political Economy Questions:  How to govern a world which is multipolar economically and unipolar militarily? (eg can we live with the US?)  Can an international system which is a product of US hegemony, and more broadly of western hegemony, be made to serve the interests of developing countries? (eg whose interests?!)  Are regionalism and multilateralism contradictory or complementary? (eg. Is the EU hypocritical?)

4 Questions (cd)…  Should trade be used as an instrument to change domestic governance arrangements, including for instance human and labor rights? (eg is this not economic imperialism?)  What is the score-sheet of global governance through public-private partnerships? (should we like Bill Gates Global fund?)  Has globalisation gone too far? (eg. A nos pavés!)

5 Questions (cd)  Check out the website: “making poverty history”!  In what ways is the year “the year of development”- likely to make a difference ?  How can trade be used to combat global poverty?

6 Questions (cd)…  Yahoo 1, 2, 3: Can state sovereignty survive the era of the internet?  Can the WTO, IMF and World Bank really be made more democratic? !  “alter-globalization” : good questions…good solutions?

7 International Political Economy Definitions: Yesterday: John Stuart Mill “Political Economy teaches a nation how to become rich” : The Wealth of Nations Today: David Lake: “IPE is the study of the interplay of economics and politics in the world arena” Economy: system of producing, distributing and using wealth Politics: set of institutions/rules governing social and economic interactions

8 IPE - definitions   Robert Gilpin: “IPE is the study of the Problems and Questions arising from the Parallel Existence and Dynamic Interaction of State and Market.”   Both: Separation politics (states) and economics (markets) and mutual influence -> IS THIS ASSUMPTION FRUITFUL?   The IPE as fundamental tension between state power, competing ideas and transnational economic exchange.

9 Liberalism : IPE cooperative Limits : markets as political institutions Marxism: IPE conflictual Limits: modes of accomodation Realism: IPE conflictual Limits: Prism of the state Institutionalism: IPE cooperative Limits: socio-economic order of the CW Liberalism : IPE cooperative Limits : markets as political institutions Marxism: IPE conflictual Limits: modes of accomodation Realism: IPE conflictual Limits: Prism of the state Institutionalism: IPE cooperative Limits: socio-economic order of the CW IPE theories and their limits

10 International Political Economy Some History: The legacy: Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx The Interwar divergence: Professionalisation; micro-economics vs politics of war and peace The Post-War II incipient debate: - Cold War: Security at the Core -- Economics at the margin; International Economic Rules as given -Understanding the collapse of interwar (ec) order - Politics of IOs: Analysis of the UN and desillusion - post WWII trend towards policy analysis and methodological emphasis; behavioralism

11 Some History (cd) The 1970s: The emergence of IPE as a distinct field of study The Study of the EC and other regions: Integration theory, ne- functionalism (Mitrany, Haas) -> how to account for such high levels of cooperation, voluntary agreements and role of non-state actors -> transnational communities, identity formation, communication (Deutsch) -> The fallacy of pessimistic induction 2) The end of US led global growth: economy is political -> collapse of BW; OPEC: the politics of economic choices -> The NIEO: the politics of the global economic order -> GATT, Japan and the new protectionism: the political economy of trade -> Détente and the political function of ‘low politics’

12 Some History The 1970s (cd) 3) Economic Interdependence and transnational relations : -Disaggregating “the state” (not a unified rational actors): -> Pluralism and bureaucratic politics (Dahl) -Ties across borders not controlled by the state -MNEs (Vernon; Cooper) -Cost and benefit of interdepence for state autonomy (Keohane and Nye) 4) Realists address the challenge -Defense of state-centred paradigm (Gilpin and Krasner) -Hegemonic Stability: Power and liberalism -English school of IPE (Susan Strange) -SUM: IPE through the lenses of liberalism vs realism

13 Some History (cd) Some History (cd) The 1980s: IPE takes central stage 1)-> The coming of age of Multinational Corporations –FDI- Enters globalisation -> Explosion of financial sphere; the rise of trade in services -> The Reagan revolution on the neo-liberal ideology -> The advent of structural conditionality; WTO round -> The deepening of economic integration: state policies and regulations in question 2) The new liberal challenge: Regime theory and neo-liberal institutionalism -> role of ideas and shared understandings, expectations - > analogies from economic theory (transaction costs; market failure); game theory as a euristic (Axelrod; Oye) -> Anarchy yes/absence of rules no: commitments and reciprocity -> Rationalist explanations of institutions (Keohane)

14 Some History (cd) Some History (cd) The 1990s: PCW meets WWW 1)The end of the CW: Economics trumps security; -change in the character of American leadership (contested); - the use of sanctions as a political tool; The rise of regionalism 2) Globalization and its critics - NGOs and two level games -Technological change and IPE (communication studies) - from state-dominated to market dominated world economy? -Growing linkages between issue areas (trade and aid; environment; trade and health; labor; human rights) -IPE and international law 3) IPE meets political theory -a) The Global Justice agenda -b) the Global democracy and legitimacy agenda -c) From politics of interests to the politics of identity

15 IPE themes  conflict/cooperation replaces war and peace  International institutions are norms not places  domestic politics/comparative politics matter

16 IPE: Framing horizontal questions WHY? What is the driving force in the global economy? In this case?  Market competition - Collective search for efficiency  national ambitions and interstate rivalries  technology …OR Ideas and values WHO? Who adjusts?  Importer/ exporters  My constituency / your constituency  Low skill labor in the North/in the South  EU / candidate countries FOR WHOM? In Whose Interest? Great power; Collective; those in need

17 International Political Economy Caveat emptor (Ce que je crois) -> An actor-centred “good story” -> liberal assumptions: opportunity to cut deals; positive sum game; shared stake in a stable international economic order; governance issues -> realist assumptions: state centric but not always relative gains -> outside liberal framework: issues of global justice, issues of identity and norms -> Structure and agency -> Role of narratives: “Europe as a model”


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