Presentation on theme: "Power and Politics Organizational Behavior:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Power and Politics Organizational Behavior: Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
2 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Meaning of PowerPower is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others.The potential to influence othersPeople have power they don’t use and may not know they possessPower requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
3 Power and Dependence Person A Person B Person B’s Goals Person B’s counterpower over Person APersonAPerson A’s power over Person BPersonBPersonB’s GoalsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
4 Influenceability of the Target of Power DependencyUncertaintyPersonalityIntelligenceGenderAgeCultureGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
5 Sources of Power in Organizations over OthersLegitimate PowerContingencies Of PowerReward PowerCoercive PowerSubstitutabilityScarcityCentralityImportanceVisibilityExpert PowerReferent PowerGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
6 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Five Bases of PowerReward power: Promising or granting rewards.Coercive power: Threats or actual punishment.Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority.Expert power: Sharing of knowledge or information.Referent power: Power of one’s personality (charisma).Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
7 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Consequences of PowerSources of PowerConsequences of PowerExpertPowerCommitmentReferentPowerLegitimate PowerComplianceReward PowerResistanceCoercivePowerGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
8 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Information and PowerControl over information flowBased on legitimate powerRelates to formal communication networkCommon in centralized structures (wheel pattern)Coping with uncertaintyThose who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain powerPreventionForecastingAbsorptionGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
9 Sexual Harassment and Power Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerlessHarasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate powerHostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behaviorGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
10 Nine Generic Influence Tactics Rational persuasion. Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts.Inspirational appeals. Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others’ emotions, ideals, or values.Consultation. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.Ingratiation. Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery.Personal appeals. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request.Exchange. Making express or implied promises and trading favors.Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone.Pressure. Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.Legitimating tactics. Basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
11 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Skills and Best Practices: How to Turn Your Coworkers into Strategic AlliesMutual respect.Openness.Trust.Mutual benefit.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
12 The Evolution of Power in Organization DelegationParticipationConsultationDominationGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
13 Psychological Empowerment (Spreitzer and Mishra) MeaningfullnessCompetence or Self efficasyImpactSelf determiningTrust.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
14 Organizational Politics Organizational politics: “Involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interest of individuals or groups.”Political Tactics:Attacking or blaming others.Using information as a political toolCreating a favorable image.Developing a base of support.Praising others (ingratiation).Forming power coalitions with strong allies.Associating with influential people.Creating obligations (reciprocity).Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
15 Manager’s Feelings About Workplace Politics StatementThe experience of workplace politics is common in most organizations.Successful executives must be good politicians.The higher you go in organizations, the more political the climate becomes.Powerful executives don’t act politically.You have to be political to get ahead in organizations.Top management should try to get rid of politics in organizations.Politics helps organizations function effectively.Organizations free of politics are happier than those where there is a lot of politics.Politics in organizations is detrimental to efficiency.% Agreeing93.289.076.215.769.848.6220.127.116.11Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
16 Levels of Political Action in Organizations Distinguishing CharacteristicsCooperative pursuit of general self-interestsNetworkLevelCoalitionLevelCooperative pursuit of group interests in specific issuesIndividualLevelIndividual pursuit of general self-interestsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
17 Factors Contributing to Political Behavior Individual FactorsAuthoritarian (Machiavellianism)Self-MonitoringHigh-risk propensityInternal locus of controlHigh need for power, status, security, or autonomyOrganizational FactorsCompetitionLevel in OrganizationLow trustRole ambiguity and CounternormsUnclear evaluation systemsZero-sum allocationsDemocratic decision makingHigh performance pressuresSelf-serving senior managersResearchers have identified certain personality characteristics, needs, and other individual factors that are related to political behavior. Those who are authoritarian, have a high risk-propensity, or possess an external locus of control act politically with less regard for the organizational consequences. A high need for power, autonomy, security, or status is also a major contributor to an employee’s tendency to engage in political behavior.Chapter 11Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
18 Controlling Political Behavior Provide Sufficient ResourcesIntroduce Clear RulesFree Flowing InformationManage Change EffectivelyRemove Political NormsHire Low-Politics EmployeesIncrease Opportunities for DialoguePeer Pressure Against PoliticsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
19 Practical Tips for Managing Organizational Politics Don’t close your eyes to politics.Reduce System Uncertainty and Ambiguity.Reduce CompetitionBreak Existing Political FiefdomsPrevent Future FiefdomsChallenge political behaviors.Walk the talk.Recognize that others may interpret your behaviors as political, even if you really weren’t being political.Reduce your own and others’ vulnerability to political behaviors.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
20 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Defensive BehaviorsDefensive Behaviors to Avoid Actionoverconformingpassing the buckplaying dumbstretching and smoothingstallingGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
21 Defensive Behaviors (Continued) Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Blamebuffingplaying safejustifyingscapegoatingmisrepresentingescalation of commitmentDefensive Behaviors to Avoid ChangePrevention (resisting change)protecting turfGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
22 Ethical Guidelines for Political Behavior UnethicalEthicalQuestion 1Is the actionmotivated byself-servinginterests whichexclude thegoals of theorganization?Question 3Is the politicalactivity fairand equitable?YesYesNoNoUnethicalThe first question that a manager must answer relates to self-interest versus organizational goals. Ethical actions are consistent with the organization’s goals.The second question regards the rights of others. The department head who goes to the mailroom during lunch and reads the mail directed to the purchasing manager has violated that person’s privacy rights.The final question pertains to standards of equity and justice. The manager who inflates the performance evaluation of a favored employee and deflates the evaluation of a disfavored employee has treated the latter unfairly.When faced with ethical dilemmas, answering these questions can help managers act ethically.YesQuestion 2Does the politicalaction respectindividual rights?NoUnethicalChapter 11Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
23 Impression Management Impression management: “The process by which people attempt to control or manipulate the reactions of others to images of themselves or their ideas.”Impression management is behavior that people direct toward others to create and maintain desired perceptions of themselves.The most prominent type of impression management behavior is self-presentation, which involves the manipulation of information about oneself.Self-presentation can be verbal or nonverbal or involve display of artifacts.There are at least eight types of verbal self-presentations.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
24 IM Techniques or Verbal Self-Presentational Behaviors DescriptionsAssociationOpinionConformityExcuseApologiesAcclaimingFlatteryFavorsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
25 Poor Impression Management Four Motive of Poor ImpressionAvoidanceObtainExitPowerUnfavorable Upward Impression Management TacticsDecreasing PerformanceNot Working to PotentialWithdrawingDisplaying a Bad AttitudeBroadcasting LimitationsGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
26 Organizational Determinants: Organizational Values Bottom-line mentality. Sees financial success as the only value to be considered; rules of morality are simply obstacles on the way to the bottom line.Exploitative mentality. A selfish perspective that encourages using people to benefit one’s own immediate interests.Madison Avenue mentality. Says, “It’s right if I can convince you that it’s right.” Focuses on making others believe our actions are moral.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
27 Organizational Determinants: Norms and Counternorms Secrecy and lying; “play your cards close to your chest”Break the rules to get the job done.“Spend it or burn it”Avoid responsibility; “pass the buck”Achieve your goals at the expense of othersMaintain high visibility; “grandstanding”“Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow”NormsOpenness, honesty, candorFollow the rulesBe cost-effectiveTake responsibility“All for one and one for all”Maintain an appearance of consensus; support the teamTake timely actionGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
28 Pfeffer’s Political Strategies MAKE POWERUNOBTRUSIVEBUILDLEGITIMACYEFFECTIVEPOLITICSBUILD A BASEOF SUPPORTGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
29 Pfeffer’s Political Tactics 1-Selectively use objective criteria2-Use outside expertsthey have expertisethey appear to be objectivethey are expensive3-Control the agendakeep items off the agenda that you don’t want discussedplace items on the agenda in ways to get desired amount of discussionplace a weak “dummy” proposal on the agenda before a key proposal you want to be approved4- Form coalitionsexternal coalitionsthese bring in new resourcesthey may cause resentmentinternal coalitionsthese may seem less overtly political than external coalitionsone form of internal coalition is coalition through promotions5-Coopt dissenters6-Use committeesGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
30 The Bottom Line: Managing Organizational Politics Effectively Learn theCulture and the“Rules of theGame” forSuccess in theOrganizationEstablish Cred-ibility and anOverall PositiveImpression inthe Eyes ofOthers in theOrganizationBuild a Base ofSupport byNetworking,FormingAlliances, etc.,with KeyPlayersCreate andImplementFormal andClear Policies,Procedures,etc., to ReduceAmbiguityUse DefensiveBehaviors asProtectionAgainst DirtyPoliticalPlayers in theOrganizationBe Open andVisible withEmployeesWhen Dealingwith KeyIssues thatAffect ThemAct in WaysConsistent withWhat isVerballyCommunicatedto Employees(Walk the Talk)Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
31 Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Political GamesHenry Mintzberg has suggested that organizational politics is a “collection of goings on, a set of ‘games’ taking place … a kind of three ring circus.”He identified four types of games:Authority GamesPower Base GamesRivalry GamesChange GamesGholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.
32 Potential Benefits of Political Activity Political activity may:act in a Darwinian way to ensure that the strongest members of an organization are brought into positions of leadership.ensure that all sides of an issue are fully debated.stimulate necessary change that is blocked by those currently in power.ease the path for the execution of decisions.Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.