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Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Power and Politics.

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Presentation on theme: "Gholipour A. 2006. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Power and Politics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Behavior: Power and Politics

2 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Meaning of Power Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others. –The potential to influence others –People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess –Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person.

3 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Power and Dependence PersonA Person B’s Goals PersonB Person B’s counterpower over Person A Person A’s power over Person B

4 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Influenceability of the Target of Power 1.Dependency 2.Uncertainty 3.Personality 4.Intelligence 5.Gender 6.Age 7.Culture

5 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sources of Power in OrganizationsPower over Others Sources Of Power Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Contingencies Of Power SubstitutabilitySubstitutability ScarcityScarcity CentralityCentrality ImportanceImportance VisibilityVisibility

6 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Five Bases of Power Reward power:Reward power: Promising or granting rewards. Coercive power:Coercive power: Threats or actual punishment. Legitimate power:Legitimate power: Based on position or formal authority. Expert power:Expert power: Sharing of knowledge or information. Referent power:Referent power: Power of one ’ s personality (charisma).

7 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Commitment Consequences of Power Reward Power Legitimate Power CoercivePower ExpertPower ReferentPower Resistance Compliance Sources of Power Consequences of Power

8 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Information and Power Control over information flow –Based on legitimate power –Relates to formal communication network –Common in centralized structures (wheel pattern) Coping with uncertainty –Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power Prevention Forecasting Absorption

9 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Sexual Harassment and Power Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerless Harasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate power Hostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behavior

10 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Nine Generic Influence Tactics  Rational persuasion  Rational persuasion. Trying to convince someone with reason, logic, or facts.  Inspirational appeals.  Inspirational appeals. Trying to build enthusiasm by appealing to others ’ emotions, ideals, or values.  Consultation.  Consultation. Getting others to participate in planning, making decisions, and changes.  Ingratiation  Ingratiation. Getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request; being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery.  Personal appeals  Personal appeals. Referring to friendship and loyalty when making a request. ‘ Exchange. ‘ Exchange. Making express or implied promises and trading favors. ’ Coalition tactics ’ Coalition tactics. Getting others to support your effort to persuade someone. “ Pressure “ Pressure. Demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats. ” Legitimating tactics. ” Legitimating tactics. Basing a request on one ’ s authority or right, organizational rules or polices, or express or implied support from superiors.

11 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Skills and Best Practices: How to Turn Your Coworkers into Strategic Allies  Mutual respect.  Openness.  Trust.  Mutual benefit.

12 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Evolution of Power in Organization Domination Consultation Delegation Participation

13 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Psychological Empowerment (Spreitzer and Mishra) 1.Meaningfullness 2.Competence or Self efficasy 3.Impact 4.Self determining 5.Trust.

14 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Politics Political Tactics:  Attacking or blaming others.  Using information as a political tool  Creating a favorable image.  Developing a base of support.  Praising others (ingratiation). ‘ Forming power coalitions with strong allies. ’ Associating with influential people. “ Creating obligations (reciprocity). Organizational politics: “ Involves intentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self- interest of individuals or groups. ”

15 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Manager’s Feelings About Workplace Politics Statement 1.The experience of workplace politics is common in most organizations. 2.Successful executives must be good politicians. 3.The higher you go in organizations, the more political the climate becomes. 4.Powerful executives don’t act politically. 5.You have to be political to get ahead in organizations. 6.Top management should try to get rid of politics in organizations. 7.Politics helps organizations function effectively. 8.Organizations free of politics are happier than those where there is a lot of politics. 9.Politics in organizations is detrimental to efficiency. % Agreeing

16 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Levels of Political Action in Organizations Distinguishing Characteristics Cooperative general Cooperative pursuit of general self-interests Cooperative group specific Cooperative pursuit of group interests in specific issues Individual general Individual pursuit of general self- interests Network Level Coalition Level Individual Level

17 Chapter 11Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Factors Contributing to Political Behavior Individual Factors Authoritarian (Machiavellianism) Self-Monitoring High-risk propensity Internal locus of control High need for power, status, security, or autonomy Organizational Factors Competition Level in Organization Low trust Role ambiguity and Counternorms Unclear evaluation systems Zero-sum allocations Democratic decision making High performance pressures Self-serving senior managers

18 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Controlling Political Behavior 1.Provide Sufficient Resources 2.Introduce Clear Rules 3.Free Flowing Information 4.Manage Change Effectively 5.Remove Political Norms 6.Hire Low-Politics Employees 7.Increase Opportunities for Dialogue 8.Peer Pressure Against Politics

19 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Practical Tips for Managing Organizational Politics 1.Don ’ t close your eyes to politics. 2.Reduce System Uncertainty and Ambiguity. 3.Reduce Competition 4.Break Existing Political Fiefdoms 5.Prevent Future Fiefdoms 6.Challenge political behaviors. 7.Walk the talk. 8.Recognize that others may interpret your behaviors as political, even if you really weren ’ t being political. 9.Reduce your own and others ’ vulnerability to political behaviors.

20 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Defensive Behaviors Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Action overconforming passing the buck playing dumb stretching and smoothing stalling

21 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Defensive Behaviors (Continued) Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Blame buffing playing safe justifying scapegoating misrepresenting escalation of commitment Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Change Defensive Behaviors to Avoid Change Prevention (resisting change) protecting turf

22 Chapter 11Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Ethical Guidelines for Political Behavior Question 1 Is the action motivated by self-serving interests which exclude the goals of the organization? Question 2 Does the political action respect individual rights? Question 3 Is the political activity fair and equitable? Yes No Yes No Yes No Unethical Unethical Unethical Ethical

23 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Impression Management Impression management: Impression management: “ The process by which people attempt to control or manipulate the reactions of others to images of themselves or their ideas. ” Impression management is behavior that people direct toward others to create and maintain desired perceptions of themselves. The most prominent type of impression management behavior is self-presentation, which involves the manipulation of information about oneself. Self-presentation can be verbal or nonverbal or involve display of artifacts. There are at least eight types of verbal self- presentations.

24 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. IM Techniques or Verbal Self- Presentational Behaviors Verbal Self- Presentation Self- Descriptions Association Opinion Conformity ExcuseApologies Acclaiming Flattery Favors

25 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Poor Impression Management Four Motive of Poor Impression 1.Avoidance 2.Obtain 3.Exit 4.Power Unfavorable Upward Impression Management Tactics 1.Decreasing Performance 2.Not Working to Potential 3.Withdrawing 4.Displaying a Bad Attitude 5.Broadcasting Limitations

26 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Determinants: Organizational Values Bottom-line mentality. Sees financial success as the only value to be considered; rules of morality are simply obstacles on the way to the bottom line. Exploitative mentality. A selfish perspective that encourages using people to benefit one’s own immediate interests. Madison Avenue mentality. Says, “It’s right if I can convince you that it’s right.” Focuses on making others believe our actions are moral.

27 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Organizational Determinants: Norms and Counternorms Norms 1.Openness, honesty, candor 2.Follow the rules 3.Be cost-effective 4.Take responsibility 5.“All for one and one for all” 6.Maintain an appearance of consensus; support the team 7.Take timely action Counternorms 1.Secrecy and lying; “play your cards close to your chest” 2.Break the rules to get the job done. 3.“Spend it or burn it” 4.Avoid responsibility; “pass the buck” 5.Achieve your goals at the expense of others 6.Maintain high visibility; “grandstanding” 7.“Never do today what you can put off until tomorrow”

28 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Pfeffer’s Political Strategies EFFECTIVE POLITICS MAKE POWER UNOBTRUSIVE BUILD A BASE OF SUPPORT BUILD LEGITIMACY

29 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Pfeffer’s Political Tactics 1-Selectively use objective criteria 2-Use outside experts –they have expertise –they appear to be objective –they are expensive 3-Control the agenda –keep items off the agenda that you don’t want discussed –place items on the agenda in ways to get desired amount of discussion –place a weak “dummy” proposal on the agenda before a key proposal you want to be approved 4- Form coalitions –external coalitions these bring in new resources they may cause resentment –internal coalitions these may seem less overtly political than external coalitions one form of internal coalition is coalition through promotions 5-Coopt dissenters 6-Use committees

30 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. The Bottom Line: Managing Organizational Politics Effectively Learn the Culture and the “Rules of the Game” for Success in the Organization Learn the Culture and the “Rules of the Game” for Success in the Organization Establish Cred- ibility and an Overall Positive Impression in the Eyes of Others in the Organization Establish Cred- ibility and an Overall Positive Impression in the Eyes of Others in the Organization Build a Base of Support by Networking, Forming Alliances, etc., with Key Players Build a Base of Support by Networking, Forming Alliances, etc., with Key Players Create and Implement Formal and Clear Policies, Procedures, etc., to Reduce Ambiguity Create and Implement Formal and Clear Policies, Procedures, etc., to Reduce Ambiguity Be Open and Visible with Employees When Dealing with Key Issues that Affect Them Be Open and Visible with Employees When Dealing with Key Issues that Affect Them Act in Ways Consistent with What is Verbally Communicated to Employees (Walk the Talk) Act in Ways Consistent with What is Verbally Communicated to Employees (Walk the Talk) Use Defensive Behaviors as Protection Against Dirty Political Players in the Organization Use Defensive Behaviors as Protection Against Dirty Political Players in the Organization

31 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Political Games Henry Mintzberg has suggested that organizational politics is a “collection of goings on, a set of ‘games’ taking place … a kind of three ring circus.” He identified four types of games: –Authority Games –Power Base Games –Rivalry Games –Change Games

32 Gholipour A Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran. Potential Benefits of Political Activity Political activity may: act in a Darwinian way to ensure that the strongest members of an organization are brought into positions of leadership. ensure that all sides of an issue are fully debated. stimulate necessary change that is blocked by those currently in power. ease the path for the execution of decisions.


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